Gilgamech Technologies

The past and future history of the modern world

-or- What, you spend all day watching Youtube & reading Wikipedia?

by one of the 21st century's greatest historians.

The Megale'st Megalest Megaleste Mega List aka the Edifying edifce
DayMonthYearEventReferenceNotes
-13.8 billionBig Bang and Universal Inflation(Reference Missing)
-4.68-4.63 billionSol star formsWiki: Geologic times
-4.6 billionEarly Bombardment Phase begins.Wiki: Geologic timesThis phase gets its name from the lunar geologic timescale when the Nectaris Basin and other greater lunar basins form by big impact events. (Hard to do when the Moon hasn't yet been created, from the Earth that hasn't yet been created...)
-4.57-4.56717 billionEarth forms, starting the Hadean eonWiki: Geologic times
-4.533 billionEnd of the Early Bombardment Phase.Wiki: Geologic timesAsteroids and comets bring water to Earth.
-4.533-4.527 billionMoon formsWiki: Geologic timesProbably from giant impact at the end of the Early Bombardment Phase
-4.404 billionZircon, the oldest known mineral, forms somewhere on EarthWiki: Geologic times
-4.28 billionPossible first appearance of plate tectonics.Wiki: Geologic timesEarliest evidence for life based on unusually high amounts of light isotopes of carbon, a common sign of life.
-4.13 billionIndirect photosynthetic evidence (e.g., kerogen) of primordial life.Wiki: Geologic timesThis era overlaps the beginning of the Late Heavy Bombardment of the Inner Solar System, produced possibly by the planetary migration of Neptune into the Kuiper belt as a result of orbital resonances between Jupiter and Saturn.
-4.031-3.58 billionOldest known Earth rocks formedWiki: Geologic times
-4 billionHadean eon ends and Eoarchean era begins the Archean eonWiki: Geologic timesSimple single-celled life (probably bacteria and archaea). Oldest probable microfossils. The first life forms and self-replicating RNA molecules evolve. Napier Orogeny in Antarctica.
-3.6 billionEoarchean era ends and Paleoarchean era begins.Wiki: Geologic timesFirst known oxygen-producing bacteria. Oldest definitive microfossils. Oldest cratons on Earth (such as the Canadian Shield and the Pilbara Craton) may have formed during this period. Rayner Orogeny in Antarctica.
-3.2 billionPaleoarchean era ends and Mesoarchean era begins.Wiki: Geologic timesFirst stromatolites (probably colonial cyanobacteria). Oldest macrofossils. Humboldt Orogeny in Antarctica. Blake River Megacaldera Complex begins to form in present-day Ontario and Quebec, ends by roughly 2,696 Ma.
-2.8 billionMesoarchean era ends and Neoarchean era begins.Wiki: Geologic timesStabilization of most modern cratons; possible mantle overturn event. Insell Orogeny, 2,650 ± 150 Ma. Abitibi greenstone belt in present-day Ontario and Quebec begins to form, stabilizes by 2,600 Ma.
-2.5 billionNeoarchean era ends the Archaen eon, and Siderian era begins the Protozoic eonWiki: Geologic timesOxygen catastrophe: banded iron formations forms. Sleaford Orogeny on Australian continent, Gawler Craton 2,440–2,420 Ma.
-2.4 billionGreat Oxidation Event - Earth's atmosphere and the shallow ocean first experienced a rise in oxygen.Wiki: Great Oxidation EventGeological, isotopic, and chemical evidence suggest that biologically produced molecular oxygen (dioxygen, O2, from cyanobacteria) started to accumulate in Earth's atmosphere and changed it from a weakly reducing atmosphere to an oxidizing atmosphere, causing many existing species on Earth to uninstall. (Also causing rust in all exposed iron. This is one reason why Earth is "werid" and so unique in the solar system.)
-2.3 billionSiderian period ends and Rhyacian period begins.Wiki: Geologic timesBushveld Igneous Complex forms. Huronian glaciation.
-2.05 billionRhyacian period ends and Orosirian period begins.Wiki: Geologic timesThe atmosphere becomes oxygenic. Vredefort and Sudbury Basin asteroid impacts. Much orogeny. Penokean and Trans-Hudsonian Orogenies in North America. Early Ruker Orogeny in Antarctica, 2–1.7 Bya. Glenburgh Orogeny, Glenburgh Terrane, Australian continent c. 2.005–1.920 Bya. Kimban Orogeny, Gawler craton in Australian continent begins.
-1.8 billionOrosirian period ends and Statherian period begins.Wiki: Geologic timesFirst complex single-celled life: protists with nuclei, Francevillian biota. Columbia is the primordial supercontinent. Kimban Orogeny in Australian continent ends. Yapungku Orogeny on Yilgarn craton, in Western Australia. Mangaroon Orogeny, 1,680–1,620 Ma, on the Gascoyne Complex in Western Australia. Kararan Orogeny (1,650 Ma), Gawler Craton, South Australia.
-1.6 billionVishnu Schist period in American Southwest.(2019) YT: SciShow - Missing 1.2by
-1.6 billionStatherian period ends and Calymmian period begins.Wiki: Geologic timesPlatform covers expand. Barramundi Orogeny, McArthur Basin, Northern Australia, and Isan Orogeny, Mount Isa Block, Queensland
-1.5 billionFungi diverged from other life on EarthWiki: Evolution of fungi
-1.4 billionCalymmian period ends and Ectasian period begins.Wiki: Geologic timesPlatform covers continue to expand. Green algae colonies in the seas. Grenville Orogeny in North America.
-1.2 billionEctasian period ends and Stenian period begins.Wiki: Geologic timesNarrow highly metamorphic belts due to orogeny as Rodinia forms. Sveconorwegian orogeny starts. Late Ruker / Nimrod Orogeny in Antarctica possibly begins. Musgrave Orogeny (c. 1,080 Ma), Musgrave Block, Central Australia.
-1 billionStenian period ends and Tonian period begins.Wiki: Geologic timesRodinia supercontinent persists. Sveconorwegian orogeny ends. Trace fossils of simple multi-celled eukaryotes. First radiation of dinoflagellate-like acritarchs. Grenville Orogeny tapers off in North America. Pan-African orogeny in Africa. Lake Ruker / Nimrod Orogeny in Antarctica, Edmundian Orogeny (c. 920 – 850 Ma), Gascoyne Complex, Western Australia. Deposition of Adelaide Superbasin and Centralian Superbasin begins on Australian continent.
-720 millionTonian period ends and Cryogenian period begins.Wiki: Geologic timesPossible Snowball Earth period. Fossils still rare. Rodinia landmass begins to break up. Late Ruker / Nimrod Orogeny in Antarctica tapers off.
-650 million"Snowball Earth" theory predicts entire planet covered in ice.(2019) YT: SciShow - Missing 1.2by
-635 millionCryogenian period ends and Ediacaran period begins.Wiki: Geologic timesGood fossils of the first multi-celled animals. Ediacaran biota flourish worldwide in seas. Simple trace fossils of possible worm-like Trichophycus, etc. First sponges and trilobitomorphs. Enigmatic forms include many soft-jellied creatures shaped like bags, disks, or quilts (like Dickinsonia). Taconic Orogeny in North America. Aravalli Range orogeny in Indian Subcontinent. Beginning of Petermann Orogeny on Australian continent. Beardmore Orogeny in Antarctica, 633–620 Ma.
-562 millionExplosion of shell-less undersea animal life.(2016) YT: Economist - CambrianEdiacran period.
-542 millionEarth's surface is still barren.(2016) YT: Economist - CambrianEverything changed when the Cambrian period attacked. Oxygen levels may have been too low to support large animals before this - scant evidence beyond "Snowball Earth" causing heavy erosion during melts. Visual optics, eyes, begin to evolve.
-541 millionEdiacaran period ends the Proterozoic eon and Cambrian period begins the Paleozoic era of the Phanerozoic eonWiki: Geologic timesMajor diversification of life in the Cambrian Explosion. Numerous fossils; most modern animal phyla appear. First chordates appear, along with a number of extinct, problematic phyla. Reef-building Archaeocyatha abundant; then vanish. Trilobites, priapulid worms, sponges, inarticulate brachiopods (unhinged lampshells), and numerous other animals. Anomalocarids are giant predators, while many Ediacaran fauna uninstall. Prokaryotes, protists (e.g., forams), fungi and algae continue to present day. Gondwana emerges. Petermann Orogeny on the Australian continent tapers off (550–535 Ma). Ross Orogeny in Antarctica. Delamerian Orogeny (c. 514–490 Ma) and Lachlan Orogeny (c. 540–440 Ma) on Australian continent. Atmospheric CO2 content roughly 15 times present-day (Holocene) levels (6000 ppmv compared to today's 400 ppmv)
-540 millionFirst echinoderms appear.(2016) YT: Economist - CambrianStarfish and sea urchins are their descendants.
-530 millionFirst brachiopods appear.(2016) YT: Economist - CambrianTrilobytes come soon after.
-525 millionCambrian Period in American Southwest.(2019) YT: SciShow - Missing 1.2byEnd of Cambrian period.
-485.4 millionCambrian period ends and Ordovician period begins.Wiki: Geologic timesInvertebrates diversify into many new types (e.g., long straight-shelled cephalopods). Early corals, articulate brachiopods (Orthida, Strophomenida, etc.), bivalves, nautiloids, trilobites, ostracods, bryozoa, many types of echinoderms (crinoids, cystoids, starfish, etc.), branched graptolites, and other taxa all common. Conodonts (early planktonic vertebrates) appear. First green plants and fungi on land. Ice age at end of period.
-443.4 millionOrdovician period ends and Silurian period begins.Wiki: Geologic times
-423 millionFirst vascular plants (the rhyniophytes and their relatives), first millipedes and arthropleurids on land.Wiki: Geologic timesFirst jawed fishes, as well as many armoured jawless fish, populate the seas. Sea-scorpions reach large size. Tabulate and rugose corals, brachiopods (Pentamerida, Rhynchonellida, etc.), and crinoids all abundant. Trilobites and mollusks diverse; graptolites not as varied. Beginning of Caledonian Orogeny for hills in England, Ireland, Wales, Scotland, and the Scandinavian Mountains. Also continued into Devonian period as the Acadian Orogeny, above. Taconic Orogeny tapers off. Lachlan Orogeny on Australian continent tapers off.
-419.2 millionSilurian period ends and Devonian period begins.Wiki: Geologic times
-372.2 millionFirst clubmosses, horsetails and ferns appear, as do the first seed-bearing plants (progymnosperms), first trees (the progymnosperm Archaeopteris), and first (wingless) insects.Wiki: Geologic timesStrophomenid and atrypid brachiopods, rugose and tabulate corals, and crinoids are all abundant in the oceans. Goniatite ammonoids are plentiful, while squid-like coleoids arise. Trilobites and armoured agnaths decline, while jawed fishes (placoderms, lobe-finned and ray-finned fish, and early sharks) rule the seas. First tetrapods still aquatic. Old Red Continent of Euramerica. Beginning of Acadian Orogeny for Anti-Atlas Mountains of North Africa, and Appalachian Mountains of North America, also the Antler, Variscan, and Tuhua Orogeny in New Zealand.
-358.9 millionDevonian period ends and Carboniferous period begins.Wiki: Geologic times
-330.9 millionLarge primitive trees, first land vertebrates, and amphibious sea-scorpions live amid coal-forming coastal swamps. Lobe-finned rhizodonts are dominant big fresh-water predators.Wiki: Geologic timesIn the oceans, early sharks are common and quite diverse; echinoderms (especially crinoids and blastoids) abundant. Corals, bryozoa, goniatites and brachiopods (Productida, Spiriferida, etc.) very common, but trilobites and nautiloids decline. Glaciation in East Gondwana. Tuhua Orogeny in New Zealand tapers off.
-303.7 millionWinged insects radiate suddenly; some (esp. Protodonata and Palaeodictyoptera) are quite large.Wiki: Geologic timesAmphibians common and diverse. First reptiles and coal forests (scale trees, ferns, club trees, giant horsetails, Cordaites, etc.). Highest-ever atmospheric oxygen levels. Goniatites, brachiopods, bryozoa, bivalves, and corals plentiful in the seas and oceans. Testate forams proliferate. Uralian orogeny in Europe and Asia. Variscan orogeny occurs towards middle and late Mississippian Periods.
-298.9 millionCarboniferous period ends and Permian period begins.Wiki: Geologic times
-251 millionFungi fossil record greatly increases, feeding on uninstalled dinosaurs.Wiki: Evolution of fungi
-252.17 millionPermian period ends.Wiki: Geologic timesLandmasses unite into supercontinent Pangaea, creating the Appalachians. End of Permo-Carboniferous glaciation. Synapsids including (pelycosaurs and therapsids) become plentiful, while parareptiles and temnospondyl amphibians remain common. In the mid-Permian, coal-age flora are replaced by cone-bearing gymnosperms (the first true seed plants) and by the first true mosses. Beetles and flies evolve. Marine life flourishes in warm shallow reefs; productid and spiriferid brachiopods, bivalves, forams, and ammonoids all abundant. Ouachita and Innuitian orogenies in North America. Uralian orogeny in Europe/Asia tapers off. Altaid orogeny in Asia. Hunter-Bowen Orogeny on Australian continent begins (c. 260–225 Ma), forming the MacDonnell Ranges.
-251 millionPermian-Triassic extinction event occurs.Wiki: Geologic times95% of life on Earth becomes extinct, including all trilobites, graptolites, and blastoids.
-225 millionIndia was a large island still situated off the Australian coast.USGS - HimalayasThe Tethys Sea separated India from the Asian continent.
-208.5 millionArchosaurs dominant on land as dinosaurs and in the air as pterosaurs.Wiki: Geologic timesIchthyosaurs and nothosaurs dominate large marine fauna. Cynodonts become smaller and more mammal-like, while first mammals and crocodilia appear. Dicroidiumflora common on land. Many large aquatic temnospondyl amphibians. Ceratitic ammonoids extremely common. Modern corals and teleost fish appear, as do many modern insect clades. Andean Orogeny in South America. Cimmerian Orogeny in Asia. Rangitata Orogeny begins in New Zealand. Hunter-Bowen Orogeny in Northern Australia, Queensland and New South Wales ends, (c. 260–225 Ma)
-201.3 millionTriassic period ends and Jurassic period begins.Wiki: Geologic times
-200 millionPangaea broke apart.USGS - HimalayasIndia began to lithotaxy northward.
-160 millionMarsupials diverge from Placentals.(2019) YT: AHH - Green Antarctica
-152.1 millionGymnosperms (especially conifers, Bennettitales and cycads) and ferns common.Wiki: Geologic timesMany types of dinosaurs, such as sauropods, carnosaurs, and stegosaurs. Mammals common but small. First birds and lizards. Ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs diverse. Bivalves, Ammonites and belemnites abundant. Sea urchins very common, along with crinoids, starfish, sponges, and terebratulid and rhynchonellid brachiopods. Breakup of Pangaea into Gondwana and Laurasia. Nevadan orogeny in North America. Rangitata and Cimmerian orogenies taper off. Atmospheric CO2 levels 3–4 times the present day levels (1200–1500 ppmv, compared to 400 ppmv of 2020).
-145.5 millionJurassic period ends and Cretaceous period begins.Wiki: Geologic times
-105 millionTibet was closer to the equator.USGS - HimalayasLayers of pink sandstone containing grains of magnetic minerals (magnetite) have been found 50 km (31 mi) north of Lhasa, Tibet. These sandstones contain plant and animal fossils that were deposited when the Tethys Sea periodically flooded the region, and also have recorded the pattern of the Earth's flip-flopping magnetic field.
-80 millionIndia was located roughly 6,400 km (3,977 mi) south of the Asian continent, moving northward at a rate of about 9m/100y (30ft/100y).USGS - HimalayasIndia's fossil record reflects the changing climate from when it was south of the Equator.
-72.1 millionFlowering plants proliferate, along with new types of insects.Wiki: Geologic timesMore modern teleost fish begin to appear. Ammonoidea, belemnites, rudist bivalves, echinoids and sponges all common. Many new types of dinosaurs (e.g. Tyrannosaurs, Titanosaurs, Hadrosaurs, and Ceratopsids) evolve on land, as do Eusuchia (modern crocodilians); and mosasaurs and modern sharks appear in the sea. Birds toothed and toothless coexist with pterosaurs. Monotremes, marsupials and placental mammals appear. Break up of Gondwana. Beginning of Laramide and Sevier Orogenies of the Rocky Mountains. Atmospheric CO2 close to present-day levels.
-66 millionCretaceous period ends and Paleogene period begins.Wiki: Geologic times
-65 millionComet hits Yucatan Peninsula and uninstalls dinosaurs.(Reference Missing)
-65 millionFungi fossil record massively increases, feeding on uninstalled dinosaurs.Wiki: Evolution of fungi
-59.2 millionStarts with Chicxulub impact and the K-Pg extinction event.Wiki: Geologic timesClimate tropical. Modern plants appear; Mammals diversify into a number of lineages following the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs. First large mammals (up to bear or small hippo size). Alpine orogeny in Europe and Asia begins.
-56 millionEocene epoch starts.(2019) YT: AHH - Green AntarcticaEarth was overall 9-14 degrees C (16-25 F) hotter than today. Palms and tropical plant fossils have been found in Antarctica, and it looked like Florida or California.
-56 millionTwo transient events of global warming (PETM and ETM-2) and warming climate until the Eocene Climatic Optimum.Wiki: Geologic timesThe Azolla event decreased CO2 levels from 3500 ppm to 650 ppm, setting the stage for a long period of cooling. Indian Subcontinent collides with Asia and starts Himalayan Orogeny.
-50 millionSouth America and Australia still have land bridges to Antarctica.(2019) YT: AHH - Green AntarcticaSome marsupials reach Australia, through connected Antarctica, from North America.
-50 millionDates originate in Iraq.(2018) YT: AP - Fruit Geography
-40-50 millionHimalayas mountain range began to form.USGS - HimalayasDriven by plate movement, India and Eurasia collided. Because both these continental landmasses have about the same rock density, one plate could not be subducted under the other.This cut India's northward speed in half to 4.5m/100y (15ft/100y).
-37.8 millionModerate, cooling climate.Wiki: Geologic timesArchaic mammals (e.g. Creodonts, Condylarths, Uintatheres, etc.) flourish and continue to develop during the epoch. Appearance of several modern mammal families. Primitive whales diversify. Reglaciation of Antarctica and formation of its ice cap; End of Laramide and Sevier Orogenies of the Rocky Mountains in North America. Orogeny of the Alps in Europe begins. Hellenic Orogeny begins in Greece and Aegean Sea.
-35 millionEarth's temperature plummeted, and Antarctica froze over.(2019) YT: AHH - Green AntarcticaIt was green and full of life before then.
-33 millionEocene epoch ends.(2019) YT: AHH - Green Antarctica
-28.1 millionGrande Coupure extinction.Wiki: Geologic timesStart of widespread Antarctic glaciation. Rapid evolution and diversification of fauna, especially mammals. Major evolution and dispersal of modern types of flowering plants
-25 millionThe Modoc Plateau formed as a southern extension of the Columbia Plateau flood basalts.Wiki: Modoc PlateauThis landform, in the northeast corner of California as well as parts of Oregon and Nevada, is 4k to 6k ft (1.2 to 1.8 km, 0.75 to 1.14 mi) above sea level. "Occasioned lakes, marshes, and sluggishly flowing streams meander across the plateau."
-23.03 millionPaleogene period ends and Neogene period begins.Wiki: Geologic times
-20.44 millionOrogeny in Northern Hemisphere.Wiki: Geologic timesStart of Kaikoura Orogeny forming Southern Alps in New Zealand. Widespread forests slowly draw in massive amounts of CO2, gradually lowering the level of atmospheric CO2 from 650 ppmv down to around 100 ppmv during the Miocene. Modern mammal and bird families become recognizable. Horses and mastodons diverse. Grasses become ubiquitous. Ancestor of apes, including humans.
-13.82 millionWarmer during middle Miocene climate optimum. Extinctions in middle Miocene disruption.Wiki: Geologic times
-7.246 millionMessinian Event with hypersaline lakes in empty Mediterranean Basin.Wiki: Geologic timesModerate Icehouse climate, punctuated by ice ages and re-establishment of East Antarctic Ice Sheet; Gradual separation of human and chimpanzee ancestors. Sahelanthropus tchadensis in Africa.
-6 millionFirst bipedal apes evolve.(2015) YT: LEMMiNO - Human Top10
-5.333 millionZanclean flooding of the Mediterranean Basin. Cooling climate. Ardipithecus in Africa.Wiki: Geologic times
-3.6 millionGreenland ice sheet develops. Australopithecus common in East Africa.Wiki: Geologic times
-Few MillionVolcanoes stop being active in Siberia.(2015) YT: LEMMiNO - Unsolved Top10
-3 million"Lucy" Australopithecus afarensis ancestor uninstalls in the current Danakil Depression of Ethiopia, near Addis Ababa, and becomes a fossil.(Reference missing)Back then, the Danakil Depression was a normal area, and not a valley.
-3 millionIce ages occur at 41k year intervals.NASA - Milankovich CyclesThis is due to Milankovitch cycles.
-2.8 millionLower Paleolithic period begins.Wiki: Prehistory
-2.8 millionGenus Homo appears.Wiki: Prehistory
-2.6 millionFirst evidence humans using sharp objects.(2020) YT: NM - Cutting ToolsHomo habilis used crude stone tools called 'choppers', formed by chipping flakes off a pebble with a larger stone. These enabled both cutting of meat, and woodworking.
-2.588 millionNeogene period ends and Quaternary period begins.Wiki: Geologic times
-2.58 millionStart of Quaternary glaciations. Rise of the Pleistocene megafauna and Homo habilis.Wiki: Geologic times
-2.5 millionEvidence of early human tools.Wiki: Prehistory
-2.5 millionFirst evidence of stone tools found.(2015) YT: LEMMiNO - Human Top10
-2.5 millionHuman claws develop into fingernails about the time we start using stone tools.LiveScience - Why Fingernails?Even today, our fingertips are more broad, to further improve our tool use.
-2 millionUnderground uranium ore in Oklo, Gabon, became flooded with groundwater.(2021) YT: Thoisoi2 - TechnetiumWater is a great neutron moderator, and slowed down the neutrons from the uranium enough to begin fission. This generated enough heat to boil away the water - these cycles would last for thousands of years. It produced a negligible amount of technetium, which can still be found today.
-1.8 millionFurther cooling of the climate.Wiki: Geologic timesSpread of Homo erectus. (aka when an attractive man walks into a gay man's room.)
-1 millionIce ages occur at slightly longer than 41k year intervals.NASA - Milankovich CyclesThey would eventually move to 112k interavals.
-800kIce ages occur at 100k year intervals.NASA - Milankovich CyclesThis is due to Milankovitch cycles, and matches Earth’s eccentricity cycle.
-780kEarth's magnetic field flips.(Reference Missing)
-772kRise of Homo sapiens.Wiki: Geologic timesHigh amplitude 100 ky glacial cycles.
-700kIce ages occur at 100k year intervals.NASA - Milankovich CyclesThis is due to Milankovitch cycles, and matches Earth’s eccentricity cycle.
-629kYellowstone Park's supervolcano erupted.BGR: Tallest geyser
-600kHunting-gatheringWiki: Prehistory
-600kIce ages occur at 100k year intervals.NASA - Milankovich CyclesThis is due to Milankovitch cycles, and matches Earth’s eccentricity cycle.
-500kIce ages occur at 100k year intervals.NASA - Milankovich CyclesThis is due to Milankovitch cycles, and matches Earth’s eccentricity cycle.
-400kLower Paleolithic period ended and Middle Paleolithic period begins.Wiki: Prehistory
-400kControl of fire by early humansWiki: Prehistory
-400kFirst evidence of controlled fire by humans.(2015) YT: LEMMiNO - Human Top10
-400kIce ages occur at 100k year intervals.NASA - Milankovich CyclesThis is due to Milankovitch cycles, and matches Earth’s eccentricity cycle.
-300kMousterian (Neanderthal) culture in Europe begins.Wiki: Prehistory
-300kIce ages occur at 100k year intervals.NASA - Milankovich CyclesThis is due to Milankovitch cycles, and matches Earth’s eccentricity cycle.
-255.7kPolaris again Earth's north star.NASA - Milankovich CyclesAxial precession causes this to gradually drift around every 25.7k years.
-229.9kPolaris again Earth's north star.NASA - Milankovich CyclesAxial precession causes this to gradually drift around every 25.7k years.
-213.6kEarth reaches its maximum tilt of about 24.5 degrees.NASA - Milankovich CyclesTilt wobble causes this to gradually drift back and forth every 41k years.
-204.1kPolaris again Earth's north star.NASA - Milankovich CyclesAxial precession causes this to gradually drift around every 25.7k years.
-200kModern HumansWiki: PrehistoryAnatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) appear in Africa, one of whose characteristics is a lack of significant body hair compared to other primates. See e.g. Omo remains.
-200kIce ages occur at 100k year intervals.NASA - Milankovich CyclesThis is due to Milankovitch cycles, and matches Earth’s eccentricity cycle.
-194k-177k"Miss Lia" uninstalled in the Misliya Cave on Israel's Mt Caramel.Times of Israel - 1st Humans
-193.1kEarth reaches its minimum tilt of about 22.1 degrees.NASA - Milankovich CyclesTilt wobble causes this to gradually drift back and forth every 41k years.
-178.4kPolaris again Earth's north star.NASA - Milankovich CyclesAxial precession causes this to gradually drift around every 25.7k years.
-172.6kEarth reaches its maximum tilt of about 24.5 degrees.NASA - Milankovich CyclesTilt wobble causes this to gradually drift back and forth every 41k years.
-170k-83kInvention of clothing.Wiki: PrehistoryDate uncertain but within range.
-152.6kPolaris again Earth's north star.NASA - Milankovich CyclesAxial precession causes this to gradually drift around every 25.7k years.
-152.1kEarth reaches its minimum tilt of about 22.1 degrees.NASA - Milankovich CyclesTilt wobble causes this to gradually drift back and forth every 41k years.
-150kVoles (Ellobius lutescens) lived during the Ice Age, but disappeared from the Levant as it got warmer.Times of Israel - 1st HumansIt was about 5C (41F) then and swampy - a slushy cold swamp. Even in the 21st century, voles still live in colder areas like the Zagros and Caucasus mountains.
-131.6kEarth reaches its maximum tilt of about 24.5 degrees.NASA - Milankovich CyclesTilt wobble causes this to gradually drift back and forth every 41k years.
-126.8kPolaris again Earth's north star.NASA - Milankovich CyclesAxial precession causes this to gradually drift around every 25.7k years.
-111.1kEarth reaches its minimum tilt of about 22.1 degrees.NASA - Milankovich CyclesTilt wobble causes this to gradually drift back and forth every 41k years.
-101.1kPolaris again Earth's north star.NASA - Milankovich CyclesAxial precession causes this to gradually drift around every 25.7k years.
-100kIce ages occur at 100k year intervals.NASA - Milankovich CyclesThis is due to Milankovitch cycles, and matches Earth’s eccentricity cycle.
-90.6kEarth reaches its maximum tilt of about 24.5 degrees.NASA - Milankovich CyclesTilt wobble causes this to gradually drift back and forth every 41k years.
-80k"Pando" Trembling Giant tree system installs.(2020) Imgur: Neat!
-80k-58kHumans migrate north from African plains.(2015) YT: LEMMiNO - ApocalypseDate uncertain but within range.
-80k-50kHomo sapiens exit Africa as a single population.Wiki: PrehistoryIn the next millennia, descendants from this population migrate to southern India, the Malay islands, Australia, Japan, China, Siberia, Alaska, and the northwestern coast of North America. Date uncertain but within range.
-80k-50k?Behavioral modernity, by this point including language and sophisticated cognitionWiki: PrehistoryDate uncertain but within range.
-75kToba Volcano supereruption.Wiki: Prehistory
-75.3kPolaris again Earth's north star.NASA - Milankovich CyclesAxial precession causes this to gradually drift around every 25.7k years.
-70.1kEarth reaches its minimum tilt of about 22.1 degrees.NASA - Milankovich CyclesTilt wobble causes this to gradually drift back and forth every 41k years.
-70kMycobacterium Tuberculosis evolves from a soil-based bacterium by gaining 2 lipid signal molecules on its exterior, allowing it to enter certain human immune cells.(2018) YT: TB Personality
-50kMiddle Paleolithic period ended and Upper Paleolithic period begins.Wiki: Prehistory
-49.6kEarth reaches its maximum tilt of about 24.5 degrees.NASA - Milankovich CyclesTilt wobble causes this to gradually drift back and forth every 41k years.
-49.5kPolaris again Earth's north star.NASA - Milankovich CyclesAxial precession causes this to gradually drift around every 25.7k years.
-45kBeginnings of Châtelperronian culture in France.Wiki: Prehistory
-40kFirst human settlement in the southern half of the Australian mainland, by indigenous Australians (including the future sites of Sydney, Perth, and Melbourne.)Wiki: Prehistory
-40kJapan exists - complete with land bridge so you can walk to it.(2016) YT: BW - history of japan
-32kBeginnings of Aurignacian culture, exemplified by the cave paintings (parietal art) of Chauvet Cave in France.Wiki: Prehistory
-30.5kNew Guinea is populated by colonists from Asia or Australia.Wiki: Prehistory
-30kMousterian (Neanderthal) culture in Europe ends.Wiki: Prehistory
-30kHumans uninstall reindeer in France for food.Wiki: PrehistoryThe remains of a herd of reindeer were found in the Vezere Valley of France.
-29.1kEarth reaches its minimum tilt of about 22.1 degrees.NASA - Milankovich CyclesTilt wobble causes this to gradually drift back and forth every 41k years.
-28kGravettian period in Europe starts.Wiki: PrehistoryHarpoons, needles, and saws invented.
-26.5kLast Glacial Maximum (LGM).Wiki: PrehistorySubsequently, the ice melts and the glaciers retreat again (Late Glacial Maximum). During this latter period human beings return to Western Europe (see Magdalenian culture) and enter North America from Eastern Siberia for the first time (see Paleo-Americans, pre-Clovis culture and Settlement of the Americas).
-26k-24kPeople around the world use fibers to make baby-carriers, clothes, bags, baskets, and nets.Wiki: PrehistoryDate uncertain but within range.
-25k-23kA settlement consisting of huts built of rocks and mammoth bones is founded near what is now Dolní Vestonice in Moravia in the Czech RepublicWiki: PrehistoryThis is the oldest human permanent settlement that has been found by archaeologists. Date uncertain but within range.
-23.8kPolaris again Earth's north star.NASA - Milankovich CyclesAxial precession causes this to gradually drift around every 25.7k years.
-23k-21kSmall-scale trial cultivation of plants in Ohalo2, a hunter-gatherers' sedentary camp on the shore of the Sea of Galilee, Israel.Wiki: PrehistoryDate uncertain but within range.
-20kGravettian period in Europe ends.Wiki: Prehistory
-20kArrows invented.(2019) Imgur: Arrow
-18kCrop cultivation at Ohalo2(2020) YT: TH - Birth of Civ
-16k-14kWisent sculpted in clay deep inside the cave now known as Le Tuc d'Audoubert in the French Pyrenees near what is now the border of Spain.Wiki: PrehistoryDate uncertain but within range.
-14.9kNafutian towns begin "exploiting" grasses in more and more creative ways.(2020) YT: TH - Birth of CivThey would soon invent processed foods, such as bread and beer. Burial rituals became more significant, and burial goods more varied.
-14.8k-12.8kThe Humid Period begins in North Africa. The region that would later become the Sahara is wet and fertile, and the Aquifers are full.Wiki: PrehistoryDate uncertain but within range.
-13.9kNafutian towns have depopulated due to cold weather, and Nafutians revert to mobile lifestyles.(2020) YT: TH - Birth of CivBurial rituals began to focus on skulls.
-13kHumans domesticate dogs.(Reference Missing)
-12.8kUpper Paleolithic period ended and Mesolithic/Epipaleolithic period begins.Wiki: Prehistory
-12.5k-9.5kNatufian culture: a culture of sedentary hunter-gatherers who may have cultivated rye in the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean)Wiki: PrehistoryDate uncertain but within range. Herding the rye instead of hunting it.
-12kIcebergs melt, causing Japan to become an island.(2016) YT: BW - history of japanMany trees grew, because it's warmer.
-12kThe earliest MexicansSFGate - Olmecs to ToltecsThey might have been descendants of Stone Age hunter-gatherers from the north that crossed the Bering Strait and reached North America.
-10kBiblical Abraham(Reference Missing)
-10kPottery in use in the Desert Sahara.(2018) YT: OSP - DionysusShards have been found from this time, and in China before this point.
-10kMexico was populated.SFGate - Olmecs to Toltecs
-9700Current interglacial begins.Wiki: Geologic timesSea level flooding of Doggerland and Sundaland. Desert Sahara forms. Neolithic agriculture.
-9500Mesolithic/Epipaleolithic period ended and Neolithic period begins.Wiki: Prehistory
-9500Height of Atlantis, according to Egyptian records that Plato says Solon translated.(2019) YT: OSP - AtlantisPlato's evidence is the only we've ever seen. It was supposed to be bigger than Texas or Spain.
-9500The Göbekli Tepe Tepe complex in southeastern Anatolia, Turkey, is constructed.CNN - Göbekli TepeOur findings suggest that major architectural transformations during this period, such as the transition to rectangular architecture, were knowledge-based, top-down processes carried out by specialists, said Gil Haklay (Israel Antiquities Authority).
-9400Figs domesticated in the ancient village of Gilgal, in the Jordan valley.(2018) YT: AP - Fruit GeographyPredating the cultivation of wheat or rye, this may have been the first example of humans practicing agriculture.
-9400-9200Figs of a parthenocarpic (and therefore sterile) type are cultivated in the early Neolithic village Gilgal1 (in the Jordan Valley, 13 km north of Jericho).Wiki: PrehistoryThe find predates the domestication of wheat, barley, and legumes, and may thus be the first known instance of agriculture. Date uncertain but within range.
-9000Circles of T-shaped stone pillars erected at Göbekli Tepe.Wiki: PrehistoryThis was in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey during (the earlier) pre-pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) period. As yet unexcavated structures at the site are thought to date back to the epipaleolithic.
-9000Copper discovered.Wiki: Copper
-9000Human settlements spread across the Mediterranean Sea's west coast, and northeast up the Trans-Jordanian Plateau, towards the Caucasus mountains.(2020) YT: TH - Birth of CivWarmer times meant towns become more popular than mobile living. A few hundred people lived at each of these towns, slowly moving from hunter-gatherer lifestyles to farming. These towns include Wadi Fyenan, Tell-es-Sultan, Nahal Oren, Eynan, Mureybet, Tell Qaramel, Jerf el Ahmar, Çayönü. There was an interest in large-scale building projects. Many ritual structures were built, leading to the invention of the religious temple - the first of which was Göbekli Tepe
-8680Earth reaches its maximum tilt of about 24.5 degrees.NASA - Milankovich CyclesTilt wobble causes this to gradually drift back and forth every 41k years.
-8500First recognizeably domesticated forms of many crops. Animal domestication also underway.(2020) YT: TH - Birth of CivEinkorn & Emmer wheats, barley, flax, chickpeas, lentils, and beans. Domestication for predecessors of sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs, possibly keeping them fenced areas by this point, which caused these animals to learn traits from their human captors and not from their wild peers. Hunting remains a culturally important part of rituals, despite no longer being a main food source.
-8500Hunter-gatherers turned into food-producing farmersCNN - Göbekli TepeArchitectural planning methods such as geometry and floor plans were known and moved to widespread use.
-8400Grapefruits naturally hybridize on Barbados island.(2018) YT: AP - Fruit GeographyOriginally called "shaddocks", these were the hybrid of a pomelo and a sweet orange.
-8000Early pre-pottery Neolithic (PPNA) period ends and Later PPNA period starts in the Middle East.(2020) YT: TH - Birth of Civ
  • New towns: Beidha, 'Ain Ghazal, Yiftahel, Tell Aswad, Tell Abu Hureyra, Tell Sabyi Abyad, Nevali Çori [Nevali Chorey], Cafer Hoyuk, and Aşıklı Höyük [ash'eekly hoy-ook] (in 2021's Turkey).
  • Expanded towns: Tell-es-Sultan, Nahal Oren, (Tim) Eynan, Mureybet, Göbekli Tepe [Go-bleck-y tepp-ee], Çayönü [Chai-oo-new].
  • Lost to time: Wadi Fyenan, Tell Qaramel, Jerf el Ahmar.

Towns were larger, and more populated. These had permanent dwellings replacing the big gaps for temporary dwellings that used to exist between the buildings. Rectangular mud-brick rooms became popular dwellings as they could be packed closer together, and sometimes even share walls to reduce building costs. They usually had a small antechamber before entering the room. These had no doors, instead being accessed either by climbing through windows, or out the ceiling (like Minecraft dirt huts). Buildings were painted with a burned-lime (calcium) substance.

Grains and other plants were slowly domesticated into human-preferred varieties - such as wheat that needs its seeds to be threshed off, instead of naturally blowing away and being lost in the field.

Skulls were extremely popular, and ceramic ones have been found all over the Trans-Jordanian Plains. Some have numerous coats of plaster, revealing use over a very long time.

-8000Wisconsin glaciation create Niagra Falls.Wiki: Niagara FallsThe falls were originally between Queenston, Ontario and Lewiston NY, but erosion pulled this back about 6.8 miles (10.9 km), at a rate of 3 feet (91 cm) per year, then 1 foot (30 cm) per year in the 20th century.
-8000Grapes cultivated, also yeast cultivated and wine made, in Georgia and Armenia.(2018) YT: AP - Fruit Geography
-8000Soap discovered.(Reference Missing)
-8000Ancestor of avocados eaten in Mexico.(2018) YT: AP - Fruit GeographySometimes called "alligator pears", these originated in the Tehuacan Valley.
-8000Bananas domesticated on the Island New Guinea.(2018) YT: AP - Fruit GeographyTechnically a berry.
-8000Stargate tablets created.(2017) YT: OH - StargateStargate - these have a new kind of hieroglyph not seen before.
-8000Ra (extraterrestrial) lands in Egypt and takes over the body of a young boy sleeping in the desert.(2017) YT: OH - StargateStargate - Ra would use this body to "rule the world and live forever". Or at least "rule Egypt and live a few thousand years."
-8000-7000In northern Mesopotamia, now northern Iraq, cultivation of barley and wheat begins.Wiki: PrehistoryAt first they are used for beer, gruel, and soup, eventually for bread. In early agriculture at this time the planting stick is used, but it is replaced by a primitive plow in subsequent centuries. Around this time, a round stone tower, now preserved at about 8.5 meters (28 ft) high and 8.5 meters (28 ft) in diameter is built in Jericho. Dates uncertain but within range.
-7500Herding overtakes hunting, and farming overtakes gathering.(2020) YT: TH - Birth of CivFlocks of sheep and goats were the backbone of many city economies, and cows & pigs were also common. The hunter-gatherer lifestyle went into severe decline and never really recovered. Hunting and gathering are both extremely energy intensive ways to merely maintain ayutarky, with no real benefit over herding and farming.
-7100Çatalhöyük established on Konya Lake's dry lakebed.(2020) YT: TH - Birth of Civ

This city-in-a-hill covers 13 hectares (32 acres). It was part of an extensive trade network, and imported obsidian from Cappadocia 170 km (105.6 mi) for processing into extremely sharp blades, and early polished mirrors.

Dwellings were a single room informally split in half. One side of the room was boring and full of grain in big stone or soft clay containers. The other side was alive with home life, rituals based around hunting wild animals, and food prep - with a clay furnace and hearth directly underneath a dual-use roof hatch entrance, for furnace ventilation and also the ceiling ladder. There was often two pair of bull horns set in plastered bunkers partitioning two sides of a ceremonial corner. Walls were painted with an alluvium plaster dug up from the lakebed, and many walls were painted with a humans-hunting-animals motif (possibly ritualistic) in red ochre. An especially iconic one has a bunch of people attacking a giant aurochs. (Proto-bull of heaven?) None of these motifs show any domesticated animals.

A dwelling would remain in use for decades, then be demolished through pulling out the roof supports, and a new dwelling bulit on the rubble. Archaeologogists have since found 18 layers of rebuilding. Remains of the uninstalled have been found entomed under floors in various dwellings, and a common belief is that the constant plastering was an attempt to cover up the decay.

While Çatalhöyük's population was increasing, Cafer Hoyuk & Aşıklı Höyük were seeing population declines, meaning people were probably moving from the lame old city to the cool new city.

The Konya plain receives little rainfall and the soil is poor quality. But the Carsamba river flows nearby, and would have flooded the city often with large amounts of nutrient-rich silt, which would have supported lots of Einkorn and Emmer wheat, grass for grazing animals, fish, nesting birds, and reeds for weaving. Also there are several forests nearby. (Why *on* the lakebed, and not *next to* the lakebed?)

-7000Lead discovered.Wiki: Lead
-7000First record of cultivation of dates.(2018) YT: AP - Fruit Geography
-7000First record of cultivation of figs.(2018) YT: AP - Fruit Geography
-7000Humans return to settlements across the Mediterranean Sea's west coast and the Trans-Jordanian Plateau.(2020) YT: TH - Birth of CivSeveral cities across the Trans-Jordanian Plain saw a rapid population increse after this point, with a corresponding population decline at 'Ain Ghazal and Çayönü.
-6600Wine discovered in the Zagros mountains.(2018) YT: OSP - DionysusA religious wine micropower soon followed, possibly turning into the religious micropower of Dionysus.
-6500Later pre-pottery Neolithic (PPNA) period ends in the Middle East, and the Pottery Neolithic period begins.(2020) YT: TH - Birth of Civ Fired clay pottery invented. Çatalhöyük reaches peak population of 8000 people, but most other cities are emptying out as people move from these large ritualistic cities and out to new farming towns. Animal parts slowly stop being installed as fixtures within houses, and the uninstalled are no longer being entomed in the floors.
-65008.2 kiloyear event begins.(2020) YT: TH - Birth of CivThis was a double-whammy of cooler temperatures and less rain across the Trans-Jordanian Plain. This may have led to people abandoning cities and returning to farming towns.
-62008.2 kiloyear event gets more severe.(2020) YT: TH - Birth of Civ
-62008.2 kiloyear eventWiki: Geologic timesHolocene climatic optimum. Bronze Age (where?).
-6000Neolithic age starts in Britain(20??) YT: A Great British Timeline (link 404s)
-6000Stone age ends and copper age starts.(2020) YT: NM - Cutting ToolsCopper's relative abundance (you could find it laying around as rocks on the ground) and low melting point made it perfect for early humans to form into bladed tools. Alloying of metals was developed after this.
-6000Gold discovered.Wiki: Gold
-5445The closest supernova to Earth explodes, but its light won't reach Earth until 1054.(2020) YT: LPA - Betelgeuse
-5200Early people on the Mexican plains were practicing agriculture and domesticating animals.SFGate - Olmecs to Toltecs
-5000Iron discovered.Wiki: Iron
-5000Silver discovered.Wiki: Silver
-5000Çatalhöyük relocates a little bit to the west.(2020) YT: TH - Birth of CivThe reason is unclear, and might be from a change in the river course. (Or maybe they got tired of living in a flooded city?)
-4200Humans move eastwards, out of the Caucasus moutains, and into Europe(2017) YT: PI - History of Poland
-4200Prometheus legend says he's permanently tied to the top of the Caucasus, where an eagle eats his stomach every day, as punishment for giving fire to humans(Reference Missing)
-4000An often-cited orbital model by Imbrie notes a cooling trend began here.Wiki: Milankovitch cycles
-4000Uruk develops into the largest city in the world.(2020) YT: TH - Birth of CivThey may have developed the first system of writing.
-3750Carbon discovered.Wiki: Carbon
-3700Neolithic period ended and Chalcolithic period begins.Wiki: Prehistory
-3700Cuneiform writing appears in Sumer, and records begin to be kept.Wiki: PrehistoryAccording to the majority of specialists, the first Mesopotamian writing was a tool that had little connection to the spoken language.
-3500Tin discovered.Wiki: Tin
-3500Pottery Neolithic period ends in the Middle East.(2020) YT: TH - Birth of Civ
-3300Approximate date of uninstall of Ötzi the Iceman.Wiki: PrehistoryHe had a copper-bladed axe on him, but so did everyone back then.
-3300Pharaoh Double Falcon - May also have ruled in Upper EgyptWiki: Pharohs
-3300Copper age ends and Bronze age starts.(2020) YT: NM - Cutting ToolsMetal tools became widespread, and metallurgy was invented.
-3250Pharaoh Hedju HorWiki: PharohsOnly known from two clay jugs from Tura
-3250-3200Pharaoh Ny-HorWiki: PharohsOnly known from clay and stone vessels found in tombs near Tarchan, Tura, Tarjan, and Nagada.
-3250Pharaoh GazelleWiki: PharohsMost likely never existed.
-3250-3220Pharaoh FishWiki: PharohsOnly known from artifacts that bear his mark. He most likely never existed.
-3240-3220Pharaoh ElephantWiki: Pharohs
-3250-3200Pharaoh Scorpion1Wiki: PharohsFirst ruler of Upper Egypt.
-3200Bronze age in Greece.SFGate - Olmecs to Toltecs
-3180Pharaoh WaznerWiki: PharohsOnly known from the Palermo stone.
-3180Pharaoh Hat-Hor.Wiki: Pharohs
-3170Pharaoh Scorpion2Wiki: PharohsPotentially read Serqet; possibly the same person as Narmer.
-3170Pharaoh KaWiki: PharohsMaybe read Sekhen rather than Ka. Correct chronological position unclear.
-3170Pharaoh Iry-HorWiki: PharohsCorrect chronological position unclear.
-3170Pharaoh CrocodileWiki: PharohsPotentially read Shendjw; identity and existence are disputed.
-3162Chinese Emperor 有巢 [Yǒucháo] reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsAlthough it is ingrained in Chinese mythology that the earliest mythological rulers of China included three huáng (皇, generally translated "sovereign" or "majestic one") and five dì (帝, generally translated "emperor"), both terms denoting demigod status, their identities have differed between different sources, with some individuals, such as the Yellow Emperor, being regarded as either sovereign or emperor, depending on the source.
-3150The Early Dynastic Period of Egypt begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-3150The First Egyptian Dynasty begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-3150Pharaoh WashWiki: PharohsOnly known from the Narmer Palette
-3150Pharaoh NarmerWiki: PharohsBelieved to be the same person as Menes and to have unified Upper and Lower Egypt.
-3140Beer factory in Abydos in operation.(2021) AP: Abydos beer factoryArchaeologists (from America and Egypt) found eight huge units — each is 20 meters (about 65 feet) long and 2.5 meters (about 8 feet) wide. Each unit includes some 40 pottery basins in two rows, which had been used to heat up a mixture of grains and water to produce beer.
-3125Pharaoh Hor-Aha - Greek form: Athot?s.Wiki: Pharohs
-3100Antimony discovered.Wiki: Antimony
-3000Stonehenge construction begins.Wiki: PrehistoryIn its first version, it consisted of a circular ditch and bank, with 56 wooden posts.
-3000Sumerian cities use silver as currency.(2020) YT: Thisol2 - Silver
-3000Written languages developed.(2015) YT: LEMMiNO - Human Top10
-3000Olives were being commercially grown on Greece's Crete island.(2018) YT: AP - Fruit Geography
-3000Watermelon cultivated in Upper (southern) Egypt.(2018) YT: AP - Fruit GeographyOriginating in East Africa, they originally had baseball sized seed-and-fruit packets set in a mass of white pulp, not unlike huge pomegranites. Cultivation increased the fruit and seed packets to combine and fill the fruit, and reduced the white pulp until it was just a rim.
-2900Pharaoh Sneferka - Very short reign, correct chronological position unknown.Wiki: Pharohs
-2900Pharaoh Horus Bird - Very short reign, correct chronological position unknown.Wiki: Pharohs
-2962Chinese Emperor 有巢 [Yǒucháo] reign ends and Emperor 燧人 [Suìrén] reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsConsidered to be legendary
-2890The First Egyptian Dynasty ends and The Second Egyptian Dynasty begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-2852Chinese Emperor 燧人 [Suìrén] reign ends and Emperor 燧人 [Suìrén] reign ends and Emperor 伏羲 [Fúxī] reign begins the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors (三皇五帝) eraWiki: Chinese monarchsConsidered to be legendary
-2740Pharaoh Weneg-Nebty - Greek form: Ougotlas/Tl?s. Could be an independent ruler or the same as Peribsen, Sekhemib-Perenmaat or Raneb.Wiki: Pharohs
-2737Chinese Emperor 伏羲 [Fúxī] reign ends and Emperor 炎帝 [Yándì] reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsYan Emperor and/or Shennong. Considered to be legendary
-2720Pharaoh Sekhemib-Perenmaat - Could be the same person as Seth-Peribsen.Wiki: Pharohs
-2698Chinese Emperor 炎帝 [Yándì] reign ends and Yellow Emperor 黃帝 [Huángdì] reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsConsidered to be legendary
-2686The Second Egyptian Dynasty ends and The Third Egyptian Dynasty begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-2686The Early Dynastic Period of Egypt ends and The Old Kingdom of Egypt begins.Wiki: PharohsThe point of Egypt which succeeded the Early Dynastic Egypt and precedes the troubled First Intermediate Period.
-2650Pharaoh SanakhtWiki: PharohsLikely to be identified with the throne name Nebka; Hellenized names Necher?chis and Necher?phes. May have reigned 6 years if identified with the penultimate king of the Dynasty on the Turin canon.
-2650Pharaoh DjoserWiki: PharohsHellenized names Sesorthos and Tos?rthros. Commissioned the first Pyramid in Egypt, created by chief architect and scribe Imhotep.
-2649Pharaoh Sekhemkhet reign begins.Wiki: PharohsGreek form: Tyr?is (after the ramesside cartouche name for Sekhemkhet, Teti). In the necropolis of his unfinished step pyramid, the remains of a 2-year old infant were found.
-2643Pharaoh Sekhemkhet reign ended and Khaba reign begins.Wiki: PharohsPossibly built an unfinished step pyramid, could be identical with Huni.
-2637Pharaoh Khaba reign ended and Huni reign begins.Wiki: PharohsGreek form: ?ches. Could be the same as Qahedjet or Khaba. Possibly built an unfinished step pyramid and several cultic pyramids throughout Egypt. Huni was for a long time credited with the building of the pyramid of Meidum. This, however, is disproved by New Kingdom graffiti that praise king Snofru, not Huni.
-2613The Third Egyptian Dynasty ends and The Fourth Egyptian Dynasty begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-2613Pharaoh Huni reign ended and Sneferu reign begins.Wiki: PharohsGreek form: S?ris. Reigned 48 years, giving him enough time to build the Meidum Pyramid, the Bent Pyramid and the Red Pyramid. Some scholars believe that he was buried in the Red Pyramid. For a long time it was thought that the Meidum Pyramid was not Sneferus work, but that of king Huni. Ancient Egyptian documents describe Sneferu as a pious, generous and even accostable ruler.
-2600First Egyptian pyramids at Saqqara built.Wiki: Halley's Comet
-2600First Egyptian pyramids at Saqqara built by aliens as a landing pad.(2017) YT: OH - StargateStargate - this was Dr Daniel Jackson's much derided theory.
-2600Libraries invented, beginning history.Imgur - Beginning of HistoryThe first libraries were cuneiform temple archives in Sumer, marking the end of prehistory and the beginnig of history.
-2589Pharaoh Sneferu reign ended and Khufu reign begins.Wiki: PharohsGreek form: Cheops and Suphis. Built the Great pyramid of Giza. Khufu is depicted as a cruel tyrant by ancient Greek authors, Ancient Egyptian sources however describe him as a generous and pious ruler. He is the main protagonist of the famous Westcar Papyrus. The first imprinted papyri originate from Khufus reign, which may have made ancient Greek authors believe that Khufu wrote books in attempt to praise the gods.
-2598Chinese 黃帝 [Huángdì] (Yellow Emperor) reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchsConsidered to be legendary
-2597Chinese Emperor 少昊 [Shǎohào] reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsConsidered to be legendary
-2570Pharaoh Baka/Bauefr?Wiki: PharohsGreek form: Bikheris. Could be the owner of the Unfinished Northern Pyramid of Zawyet el'Aryan.
-2566Pharaoh Khufu reign ended and Djedefre reign begins.Wiki: PharohsGreek form: R?toises. Some scholars believe he created the Great Sphinx of Giza as a monument for his deceased father. He also created a pyramid at Abu Rawash. However, this pyramid is no longer extant; it is believed the Romans re-purposed the materials from which it was made.
-2558Pharaoh Djedefre reign ended and Khafre reign begins.Wiki: PharohsGreek form: Ch(a)phren and Suphis2. His pyramid is the second largest in Giza. Some scholars prefer him as the creator of the Great Sphinx before Djedefra. Ancient Greek authors describe Khafra as likewise cruel as Khufu.
-2532Pharaoh Khafre reign ended and Menkaure reign begins.Wiki: PharohsGreek form: Mench?res. His pyramid is the third and smallest in Giza. A legend claims that his only daughter uninstalled due to an illness and Menkaura buried her in a golden coffin in shape of a cow.
-2514Chinese Emperor 少昊 [Shǎohào] reign ends and Emperor 顓頊 [Zhuānxū] reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsConsidered to be legendary
-2503Pharaoh Menkaure reign ended and Shepseskaf reign begins.Wiki: PharohsGreek form: Seberch?res. Owner of the Mastabat el-Faraun.
-2500Pharaoh ThamphthisWiki: PharohsAccording to Manetho the last king of the 4th dynasty. He is not archaeologically attested and thus possibly fictional.
-2498The Fourth Egyptian Dynasty ends and The Fifth Egyptian Dynasty begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-2498Pharaoh Shepseskaf reign ended and Userkaf reign begins.Wiki: PharohsBuried in a pyramid in Saqqara. Built the first solar temple at Abusir.
-2491Pharaoh Userkaf reign ended and Sahure reign begins.Wiki: PharohsMoved the royal necropolis to Abusir, where he built his pyramid.
-2477Pharaoh Sahure reign ended and Neferirkare reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Sahure, installs with the name Ranefer
-2467Pharaoh Neferirkare Kakai reign ended.Wiki: Pharohs
-2460Pharaoh Neferefre reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Neferirkare
-2458Pharaoh Neferefre reign ends.Wiki: Pharohs
-2445Pharaoh Nyuserre Ini reign begins.Wiki: PharohsBrother to Neferefre, built extensively in the Abusir necropolis.
-2436Chinese Emperor 顓頊 [Zhuānxū] reign ends and Emperor 帝嚳 [Dìkù] reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsConsidered to be legendary
-2422Pharaoh Nyuserre Ini reign ended and Menkauhor Kaiu reign begins.Wiki: PharohsLast pharaoh to build a sun temple
-2414Pharaoh Menkauhor Kaiu reign ended and Djedkare Isesi reign begins.Wiki: PharohsEffected comprehensive reforms of the Egyptian administration. Enjoyed the longest reign of his dynasty, with likely more than 35 years on the throne.
-2375Pharaoh Djedkare Isesi reign ended and Unas reign begins.Wiki: PharohsThe Pyramid of Unas is inscribed with the earliest instance of the pyramid texts
-2366Chinese Emperor 帝嚳 [Dìkù] reign ends and Emperor 帝摯 [Dìzhì] reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsConsidered to be legendary
-2358Chinese Emperor 帝摯 [Dìzhì] reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchsConsidered to be legendary
-2356Chinese Emperor 帝堯 / 唐堯 [Dìyáo or Táng Yáo] reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsConsidered to be legendary
-2345The Fifth Egyptian Dynasty ends and The Sixth Egyptian Dynasty begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-2345Pharaoh Unas reign ended and Teti reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-2333Pharaoh Teti reign ended and Userkare reign begins.Wiki: PharohsReigned 1 to 5 years, may have usurped the throne at the expense of Teti
-2332Pharaoh Userkare reign ended and Meryre Pepi1 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsFaced conspiracies and political troubles yet became the most prolific builder of his dynasty
-2283Pharaoh Meryre Pepi1 reign ended and Merenre Nemtyemsaf1 reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-2278Pharaoh Merenre Nemtyemsaf1 reign ended and Neferkare Pepi2 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsPossibly the longest reigning monarch of human history with 94 years on the throne. Alternatively, may have reigned for "only" 64 years.
-2255Chinese Emperor 帝堯 / 唐堯 [Dìyáo or Táng Yáo] reign ends and Emperor 帝舜 / 虞舜 [Dìshùn or Yú Shùn] reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsConsidered to be legendary
-2208Chinese Emperor 帝舜 / 虞舜 [Dìshùn or Yú Shùn] reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchsConsidered to be legendary
-2200Pharaoh Neferka reign begins.Wiki: PharohsReigned during Pepi2; was possibly his son or co-ruler.
-22004.2 kiloyear eventWiki: Geologic timesLittle Ice Age, increasing industrial CO2.
-2199Pharaoh Neferka reign ends.Wiki: Pharohs
-2184Pharaoh Merenre Nemtyemsaf2Wiki: PharohsShort lived pharaoh, possibly an aged son of Pepi2.
-2184Pharaoh Neferkare Pepi2 reign ended and Neitiqerty Siptah reign begins.Wiki: PharohsIdentical with Netjerkare. This male king gave rise to the legendary queen Nitocris of Herodotus and Manetho. Sometimes classified as the first king of the combined 7th/8th Dynasties.
-2181Pharaoh Neitiqerty Siptah reign ended.Wiki: Pharohs
-2181The Sixth Egyptian Dynasty ends.Wiki: Pharohs
-2181The Old Kingdom of Egypt ends and The First Intermediate Period begins.Wiki: PharohsThe Old Kingdom rapidly collapsed after the uninstall of Pepi2. The latter years of his reign were marked by inefficiency because of his advanced age. The union of the Two Kingdoms fell apart and regional leaders had to cope with the resulting famine. What followed was a period of disarray and chaos between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom.
-2181The Seventh and Eighth Egyptian Dynasties ruled for approximately 20 (or 45?) years.Wiki: PharohsThey comprise numerous ephemeral kings reigning from Memphis over a possibly divided Egypt and, in any case, holding only limited power owing to the effectively feudal system into which the administration had evolved.
-2181Pharaoh MenkareWiki: PharohsLikely attested by a relief fragment from the tomb of queen Neit.
-2171Pharaoh Neferkare (VI) Pepiseneb uninstalls.Wiki: Pharohs
-2170Pharaoh Neferkamin Anu.Wiki: Pharohs
-2169Pharaoh Qakare Ibi reign begins.Wiki: PharohsBuilt a pyramid at Saqqara inscribed with the last known instance of the Pyramid Texts
-2167Pharaoh Qakare Ibi reign ended and Neferkaure reign begins.Wiki: PharohsAttested by one to three decrees from the temple of Min at Coptos.
-2163Pharaoh Neferkaure reign ended and Neferkauhor Khuwihapi reign begins.Wiki: PharohsAttested by eight decrees from the temple of Min and an inscription in the tomb of Shemay.
-2161Pharaoh Neferkauhor Khuwihapi reign ended and Neferirkare reign begins.Wiki: PharohsPossibly to be identified with horus Demedjibtawy, in which case he is attested by a decree from the temple of Min.
-2160The Seventh and Eighth Egyptian Dynasties ended and The Ninth Egyptian Dynasty begins.Wiki: PharohsThe Turin King List has 18 kings reigning in the Ninth and Tenth Dynasties. Of these, twelve names are missing and four are partial.
-2160Pharaoh Neferirkare reign ended and Meryibre Khety1 (Acthoes1) reign begins.Wiki: PharohsManetho states that Achthoes founded this dynasty.
-2150Emperor 禹 [Yǔ] the Great of Xia reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsConsidered to be legendary
-2134Pharaoh Meryibre Khety1 (Acthoes1) reign ended and Sehertawy Intef1 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsFirst member of the dynasty to claim a Horus name.
-2134Pharaoh Mentuhotep1 Tepy-a uninstallsWiki: PharohsNominally a Thebannomarch but may have ruled independently.
-2130The Ninth Egyptian Dynasty ends and The Tenth Egyptian Dynasty begins.Wiki: PharohsA local group that held sway over Lower Egypt.
-2130Pharaoh Neferkare8 reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-2130Pharaoh Meryhathor reign begins.Wiki: PharohsReign ending unknown.
-2117Pharaoh Sehertawy Intef1 reign ended and Wahankh Intef2 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsConquered Abydos and itsnome.
-2106Emperor 禹 [Yǔ] the Great of Xia reign ends and 啟 [Qǐ] of Xia reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsConsidered to be legendary
-2100Xia [`Sha] dynasty formed(2019) YT: OS - 3 Kingdoms
-2077Emperor 啟 [Qǐ] of Xia reign ends and 太康 [Tài Kāng] reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsConsidered to be legendary
-2070Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors (三皇五帝) ends and Xia dynasty (夏朝) begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-2069Pharaoh Wahankh Intef2 reign ended and Nakhtnebtepnefer Intef3 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsConquered Asyut and possibly moved further North up to the 17thnome.
-2060Pharaoh Nakhtnebtepnefer Intef3 reign ended and Nebhepetre Mentuhotep2 reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-2055Mentuhotep2, the son and successor of pharaoh Intef3 defeated the Herakleopolitan pharaohs and reunited the Two Lands, thereby starting the Middle Kingdom.Wiki: PharohsThe kings of the 7th and 8th Dynasties, who represented the successors of the 6th Dynasty, tried to hold onto some power in Memphis but owed much of it to powerfulnomarchs. After 20 to 45 years, they were overthrown by a new line of pharaohs based in Herakleopolis Magna. Some time after these events, a rival line based at Thebes revolted against their nominal Northern overlords and united Upper Egypt.
-2060The First Intermediate Period ends and The Middle Kingdom begins.Wiki: PharohsThe period from the end of the First Intermediate Period to the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period. The Middle Kingdom can be noted for the expansion of trade outside of the kingdom that occurred during this time.
-2048Chinese 太康 [Tài Kāng] reign ends and 仲康 [Zhòng Kāng] reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-2040Pharaoh Merykare uninstalls.Wiki: Pharohs
-2040Pharaoh Neferkare8 reign ends.Wiki: Pharohs
-2040The Tenth Egyptian Dynasty ends and The Eleventh Egyptian Dynasty begins.Wiki: PharohsThis was a local group with roots in Upper Egypt. They originated from a Dynasty of Thebannomarchs serving kings of the 8th, 9th or 10th Egyptian Dynasty.
-2036Chinese 仲康 [Zhòng Kāng] reign ends and 相 [Xiāng] of Xia reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-2015Middle Kingdom begins.Wiki: PharohsNebhepetre Mentuhotep2 gained all of Egypt, becoming the first pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom.
-2010Pharaoh Nebhepetre Mentuhotep2 reign ended and Sankhkare Mentuhotep3 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsCommanded the first expedition to Punt of the Middle Kingdom
-2008Emperor 相 [Xiāng] of Xia reign ends and Xia Interregnum reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-2000Sumerians and Babylonians invent the sexagesimal (base-60) numeral system.Antiquitatem.com: Hour's dividersThey also had base-10 and base-12, which is probably where we get 12 hours of daytime (and 12 more of night, since they were near Earth's equator).
-2000Egyptian stories of Isis, Osiris, Set created.(Reference Missing)
-2000Babylonian stories of Ishtar, Tammuz, and Gilgamesh created.(2016) YT: OSP - Underworld
-2000Sulfur discovered.Wiki: Sulfur
-1900sSailors begin traveling around Sumatra/Java, using the trade winds to navigate.(2019) YT: EH - Majapahit
-1998Pharaoh Sankhkare Mentuhotep3 reign ended.Wiki: Pharohs
-1997Pharaoh Nebtawyre Mentuhotep4 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsObscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. May have been overthrown by his vizier and successor Amenemhat1.
-1991The Eleventh Egyptian Dynasty ends and The Twelfth Egyptian Dynasty begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-1991Pharaoh Nebtawyre Mentuhotep4 reign ended and Sehetepibre Amenemhat1 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsPossibly overthrew Mentuhotep4. uninstalled by his own guards.
-1971Pharaoh Kheperkare Senusret1 (Sesostris1) reign begins.Wiki: PharohsBuilt the White Chapel
-1968Xia Interregnum reign ends and 少康 [Shào Kāng] of Xia reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1962Pharaoh Sehetepibre Amenemhat1 reign ended.Wiki: Pharohs
-1946Emperor 少康 [Shào Kāng] of Xia reign ends and 杼 [Zhù] of Xia reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1929Emperor 杼 [Zhù] of Xia reign ends and 槐 [Huái] of Xia reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1926Pharaoh Kheperkare Senusret1 (Sesostris1) reign ended and Nubkaure Amenemhat2 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsAmenemhat2 ruled for at least 35 years.
-1897Pharaoh Khakheperre Senusret2 (Sesostris2) reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-1895Pharaoh Nubkaure Amenemhat2 reign ended.Wiki: Pharohs
-1878Pharaoh Khakheperre Senusret2 (Sesostris2) reign ended and Khakaure Senusret3 (Sesostris3) reign begins.Wiki: PharohsMost powerful of the Middle Kingdom pharaohs.
-1885Emperor 槐 [Huái] of Xia reign ends and 芒 [Máng] of Xia reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1867Emperor 芒 [Máng] of Xia reign ends and 泄 [Xiè] of Xia reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1860Pharaoh Khakaure Senusret3 (Sesostris3) reign ended and Nimaatre Amenemhat3 reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-1851Emperor 泄 [Xiè] of Xia reign ends and Bu 降 [Jiàng] of Xia reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1815Pharaoh Nimaatre Amenemhat3 reign ended and Maakherure Amenemhat4 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsHad a co-regency lasting at least 1 year based on an inscription at Knossos.
-1807Pharaoh Maakherure Amenemhat4 reign ended and Sobekkare Sobekneferu reign begins.Wiki: PharohsThe first known archeologically attested female Pharaoh.
-1805Pharaoh Yakbim Sekhaenre reign begins.Wiki: PharohsChronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt
-1802Pharaoh Nubkaure Sobekkare Sobekneferu reign ended.Wiki: Pharohs
-1802The Twelfth Egyptian Dynasty ends and The Thirteenth Egyptian Dynasty (following the Turin King List) begins.Wiki: PharohsThis was much weaker than the Twelfth Egyptian Dynasty, and was unable to hold onto the two lands of Egypt. The provincial ruling family in Xois, located in the marshes of the eastern Delta, broke away from the central authority to form the Canaanite Fourteenth Dynasty.
-1802The Middle Kingdom ends and The Second Intermediate Period begins.Wiki: PharohsA period of disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. It is best known as when the Hyksos, whose reign comprised the Fifteenth Egyptian Dynasty, made their appearance in Egypt. This may include an independent Egyptian Dynasty reigning over Abydos. Four attested kings may be tentatively attributed to the Abydos Egyptian Dynasty between -1650-1600.
-1802Pharaoh Sobekkare Sobekneferu reign ended and Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep1 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsFounded the 13th Dynasty. His reign is well attested. Referred to as Sobekhotep1 in dominant hypothesis, known as Sobekhotep2 in older studies
-1800Pharaoh Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep1 reign ended and Sonbef reign begins.Wiki: PharohsPerhaps a brother of Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep and son of Amenemhat4
-1800The earliest known production of steel is seen in pieces of ironware excavated from an archaeological site in Anatolia.Wiki: Steel
-1800Older version of the Gilgamesh epic createdEng. the Bible - Moses Mystery
-1792Emperor Bu 降 [Jiàng] of Xia reign ends and 扃 [Jiōng] of Xia reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs胤甲 [Yìn Jiǎ]
-1796Pharaoh Sonbef reign ended and Sekhemkare Amenemhat5 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsRuled for 3 to 4 years
-1796Pharaoh Nerikare - Attested on a Nile record from Semna.Wiki: Pharohs
-1795Pharaoh Ameny Qemau reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-1793Pharaoh Sekhemkare Amenemhat5 reign ended.Wiki: Pharohs
-1792Pharaoh Ameny Qemau reign ended and Hotepibre Qemau Siharnedjheritef (Sehotepibre) reign begins.Wiki: PharohsAmeny Qemau was buried in his pyramid in south Dashur
-1790Pharaoh Hotepibre Qemau Siharnedjheritef reign ended and Iufni reign begins.Wiki: PharohsOnly attested on the Turin canon
-1788Pharaoh Iufni reign ended and Seankhibre Amenemhet6 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsAttested on the Turin Canon.
-1785Pharaoh Seankhibre Amenemhet6 reign ended and Semenkare Nebnuni reign begins.Wiki: PharohsAttested on the Turin Canon
-1783Pharaoh Semenkare Nebnuni reign ended and Sehetepibre Sewesekhtawy reign begins.Wiki: PharohsAttested on the Turin Canon
-1781Pharaoh Sewadjkare - Known only from the Turin canonWiki: Pharohs
-1781Pharaoh Sehetepibre Sewesekhtawy reign ended and Khaankhre Sobekhotep reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-1780Pharaoh NedjemibreWiki: Pharohs7 months. Known only from the Turin canon
-1780Pharaoh Yakbim Sekhaenre reign ends and Yaammu Nubwoserre reign begins.Wiki: PharohsYaammu Nubwoserre's chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt
-1777Pharaoh Renseneb - 4 monthsWiki: Pharohs
-1777Pharaoh Khaankhre Sobekhotep reign ended and Awybre Hor1 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsFamous for his intact tomb treasure and Ka statue
-1775Pharaoh Awybre Hor1 reign ended and Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw reign begins.Wiki: PharohsPossibly a son of Hor Awibre
-1772Pharaoh Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw reign ended and Djedkheperew reign begins.Wiki: PharohsPossibly a son of Hor Awibre and brother of Khabaw, previously identified with Khendjer
-1771Emperor 扃 [Jiōng] of Xia reign ends and 廑 [Jǐn] of Xia reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1770Pharaoh Djedkheperew reign ended and Qareh Khawoserre reign begins.Wiki: PharohsChronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt
-1770Pharaoh Yaammu Nubwoserre reign ends.Wiki: Pharohs
-1769Pharaoh Sedjefakare reign begins.Wiki: PharohsA well known king attested on numerous stelas and other documents.
-1766Pharaoh Sedjefakare reign ends.Wiki: Pharohs
-1767Pharaoh Khutawyre Wegaf - Founder of the dynasty in old studiesWiki: Pharohs
-1765Pharaoh KhendjerWiki: PharohsPossibly the first semitic pharaoh, built a pyramid at Saqqara. Minimum 4 years and 3 months rule.
-1760Pharaoh Qareh Khawoserre reign ended and Ammu Ahotepre reign begins.Wiki: PharohsChronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt
-1755Pharaoh Ammu Ahotepre reign ended and Sekhemresewadjtawy Sobekhotep3 reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs4 years and 2 months
-1751Pharaoh Sekhemresewadjtawy Sobekhotep3 reign ended and Khasekhemre Neferhotep1 reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-1750Emperor 廑 [Jǐn] of Xia reign ends and 孔甲 [Kǒng Jiǎ] of Xia reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1749Pharaoh Seth Meribre reign ends.Wiki: Pharohs
-1745Pharaoh Sheshi reign begins.Wiki: PharohsChronological position, duration of reign and extend of rule uncertain, here given as per Ryholt. Alternatively, he could be an early Hyksos king, a Hyksos ruler of the second part of the 15th Dynasty or a vassal of the Hyksos.
-1740Pharaoh Khasekhemre Neferhotep1 reign ends and Seth Meribre reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-1739Pharaoh Menwadjre Sihathor - Ephemeral coregent with his brother Neferhotep1, may not have reigned independently.Wiki: Pharohs
-1730Pharaoh Merhotepre Sobekhotep5.Wiki: Pharohs
-1725Pharaoh Khahotepre Sobekhotep6 - 4 years 8 months and 29 daysWiki: Pharohs
-1722Pharaoh Imyremeshaw reign begins.Wiki: PharohsAttested by two colossal statues, reigned less than 10 years.
-1720The Hyksos made their first appearance during the reign of Sobekhotep4.Wiki: PharohsThey took control of the town of Avaris (the modern Tell el-Dab'a/Khata'na), conquering the kingdom of the 14th dynasty.
-1719Emperor 孔甲 [Kǒng Jiǎ] of Xia reign ends and 阜 [Gāo] of Xia reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1712Pharaoh Imyremeshaw reign ended and Wahibre Ibiau reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs10 years and 8 months
-1710The Fourteenth Egyptian Dynasty begins.Wiki: PharohsThey were a local group from the eastern Delta - based at Avaris - comprised many rulers with West Semitic names and is thus believed to have been Canaanite in origin.
-1708Emperor 阜 [Gāo] of Xia reign ends and 發 [Fā] of Xia reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs后敬 [Hou Jin]
-1705Pharaoh Nehe'sy - Short reign, perhaps a son of She'shiWiki: Pharohs
-1705Pharaoh Sheshi reign ends.Wiki: Pharohs
-1704Pharaoh Nebefawre.Wiki: Pharohs
-1704Pharaoh Sehebre reign begins.Wiki: PharohsPossibly identifiable with Wazad or Sheneh
-1701Pharaoh Wahibre Ibiau reign ended and Merneferre Ay1 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsLongest reigning king of the dynasty
-1700The Rigveda written about this time(2019) YT: OSP - Hermesincludes Pushan, an offshoot of deity Pan.
-1700Pharaoh Yaqub-Har reign begins.Wiki: PharohsMay belong to the 14th dynasty, the 15th dynasty or be a vassal of the Hyksos. Possibly the Pharaoh that was mentioned in Genesis 41.
-1699Pharaoh Sehebre reign ends.Wiki: Pharohs
-1699Pharaoh Merdjefare - Possibly identifiable with Wazad or ShenehWiki: Pharohs
-1694Pharaoh Nebdjefare.Wiki: Pharohs
-1690Pharaoh Webenre.Wiki: Pharohs
-1689Emperor 發 [Fā] of Xia reign ends and 桀 [Jié] of Xia reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs履癸 [Lǚ Guǐ]
-1677Pharaoh Merneferre Ay1 reign ends and Merhotepre Ini reign begins.Wiki: PharohsPossibly a son of his predecessor.
-1675Pharaoh Merhotepre Ini reign ended.Wiki: Pharohs
-1675Pharaoh Sankhenre Sewadjtu reign begins.Wiki: PharohsAttested only on the Turin canon
-1674The Fifteenth Egyptian Dynasty begins.Wiki: PharohsArose from among the Hyksos micropower who emerged from the Fertile Crescent to establish a short-lived governance over much of the Nile region.
-1672Pharaoh Sankhenre Sewadjtu reign ended and Mersekhemre Ined reign begins.Wiki: PharohsMay be the same person as Neferhotep2
-1669Pharaoh Mersekhemre Ined reign ended.Wiki: Pharohs
-1664Pharaoh Merkawre Sobekhotep7 reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-1663Pharaoh Merkawre Sobekhotep7 reign ended and Seheqenre Sankhptahi & Merkheperre & Merkare reigns begin.Wiki: PharohsSankhptahi may be the son of his predecessor
-1663Seven Kings of Egypt begin - Names lost in a lacuna of the Turin canonWiki: Pharohs
-1655Pharaoh Sewadjare Mentuhotep5.Wiki: Pharohs
-1654Pharaoh Dedumose1 - Possibly a king of the 16th dynastyWiki: Pharohs
-1658Emperor 桀 [Jié] of Xia reign ends and Tang of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs天乙 [Tiān Yǐ] of Shang
-1650Pharaoh Woseribre Senebkay - Tomb discovered in 2014. Perhaps identifiable with a Woser[...]re of the Turin canon.Wiki: Pharohs
-1650Pharaoh ApepiWiki: PharohsPossibly attested as a king's son by 5 scarabs-seals
-1650The Hyksos, perhaps led by Salitis the founder of the Fifteenth Dynasty, conquered Memphis, thereby terminating the 13th dynasty.Wiki: PharohsThe power vacuum in Upper Egypt resulting from the collapse of the 13th dynasty allowed the 16th dynasty to declare its independence in Thebes, only to be overrun by the Hyksos kings shortly thereafter.
-1650The Sixteenth Egyptian Dynasty begins.Wiki: PharohsA native Theban Egyptian Dynasty emerging from the collapse of the Memphis-based 13th Egyptian Dynasty and finally conquered by the Hyksos 15th Egyptian Dynasty. The 16th Egyptian Dynasty held sway over Upper Egypt only.
-1650The Fourteenth Egyptian Dynasty ends.Wiki: Pharohs
-1649The Thirteenth Egyptian Dynasty ends.Wiki: Pharohs
-1649Pharaoh Se...enre - uninstalls.Wiki: Pharohs
-1649Pharaoh Seheqenre Sankhptahi & Merkheperre reign ended.Wiki: Pharohs
-1649The Thirteenth Egyptian Dynasty ends.Wiki: Pharohs
-1649Pharaoh Se...enre - uninstalls.Wiki: Pharohs
-1629Emperor Tang of Shang reign ends and 外丙 [Wài Bǐng] of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1627Emperor 外丙 [Wài Bǐng] of Shang reign ends and 中壬 [Zhōng Rén] of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1623Emperor 中壬 [Zhōng Rén] of Shang reign ends and 太甲 [Tài Jiǎ] of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1620Pharaoh Sekhemrewahkhaw Rahotep.Wiki: Pharohs
-1611Emperor 太甲 [Tài Jiǎ] of Shang reign ends and 沃丁 [Wò Dīng] of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1600Pharaoh SemenreWiki: Pharohs
-1600Pharaoh Neferkare(?) Nebiryraw2Wiki: Pharohs
-1600Mycenaean Greece starts(2019) YT: OSP - HermesDeity Pan predates this.
-1600Minoan eruption devastates island of Santorini, and might have shown up in Chinese records as a volcanic winter that caused crop failure and unseasonably cold weather.(2019) YT: OSP - Atlantis
-1600Xia dynasty (夏朝) reign ends and Shang dynasty (商朝) reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsChinese convention: use "Shang" + posthumous name
-1600Xia [`Sha] dynasty becomes corrupt, Shang dynasty replaces them(2019) YT: OS - 3 Kingdoms
-1600King of Sparta Lelegid Lelex reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Spartason of Poseidon or Helios, or he was said to be autochthonous
-1592Emperor 沃丁 [Wò Dīng] of Shang reign ends and 太庚 [Tài Gēng] of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1590Pharaoh Djedankhre MontemsafWiki: Pharohs
-1585Pharaoh Merankhre Mentuhotep6.Wiki: Pharohs
-1588Pharaoh Djedhotepre Dedumose1 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsMay be a king of the 13th Dynasty
-1585Pharaoh Djedhotepre Dedumose1 reign ended and Djedneferre Dedumose2 reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-1582Pharaoh Djedneferre Dedumose2 reign ended.Wiki: Pharohs
-1580The Sixteenth Egyptian Dynasty ends and The Seventeenth Egyptian Dynasty begins.Wiki: PharohsBased in Upper Egypt. Subsequently, as the Hyksos withdrew from Upper Egypt, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes set itself up as the Seventeenth Dynasty. This dynasty eventually drove the Hyksos back into Asia under Seqenenre Tao, Kamose and finally Ahmose, first pharaoh of the New Kingdom.
-1575King of Sparta Lelegid Myles reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Spartason of Lelex
-1573Pharaoh Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekemsaf2 uninstalls - His tomb was robbed and burned during the reign of Ramesses9.Wiki: Pharohs
-1573Pharaoh Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef5 reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-1571Pharaoh Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef5 reign ended and Nubkheperre Intef6 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsReigned more than 3 years
-1567Emperor 太庚 [Tài Gēng] of Shang reign ends and 小甲 [Xiǎo Jiǎ] of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1565Pharaoh Nubkheperre Intef6 reign ended.Wiki: Pharohs
-1560sPharaoh Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef7.Wiki: Pharohs
-1558Pharaoh Senakhtenre Ahmose.Wiki: Pharohs
-1558Pharaoh Seqenenre Tao reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-1556King of Athens Cecrops1 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of AthensBorn from the Earth, he married Actaeus' daughter Agraulus and succeeded him to the throne
-1555Pharaoh Seqenenre Khamudi reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-1554Pharaoh Seqenenre Tao reign ended and Wadjkheperre Kamose reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSeqenenre Tao uninstalled in battle against the Hyksos.
-1550Emperor 小甲 [Xiǎo Jiǎ] of Shang reign ends and 雍己 [Yōng Jǐ] of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1550The Seventeenth Egyptian Dynasty ends and The Eighteenth Egyptian Dynasty begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-1550The Second Intermediate Period ends and The New Kingdom begins.Wiki: PharohsThe period covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Egyptian Dynasty of Egypt, from the 16th to the 1It h century, between the Second Intermediate Period, and the Third Intermediate Period. Three of the best known pharaohs of the New Kingdom are Akhenaten, also known as Amenhotep4, whose exclusive worship of the Aten is often interpreted as the first instance of monotheism, Tutankhamun known for the discovery of his nearly intact tomb, and Ramesses2 who attempted to recover the territories in modern Israel/Palestine, Lebanon and Syria that had been held in the Eighteenth Dynasty.
-1550Egyptians and (Some unnamed people?) recognize a disease which causes humans to urnite frequently.(2017) YT: NR - First diabetes testIt's apparently recorded on the Ebers Papyrus. Indians also recognize the same disease from the same symptoms, at about the same time. This disease later became known as diabetes.
-1550Pharaoh Nebpehtire Ahmose1, Ahmosis1 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsBrother and successor-Kamose, conquered north of Egypt from the Hyksos. Radiocarbon date range for the start of his reign is 1570-1544, the mean point of which is 1557
-1550King of Sparta Lelegid Eurotas reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Spartason of Myles, father of Sparta
-1549Pharaoh Wadjkheperre Kamose reign ended.Wiki: Pharohs
-1544Pharaoh Khamudi reign ends.Wiki: Pharohs
-1541Pharaoh Djeserkare Amenhotep1 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Ahmose1.
-1538Emperor 雍己 [Yōng Jǐ] of Shang reign ends and 太戊 [Tài Wù] of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1535The Fifteenth Egyptian Dynasty ends.Wiki: Pharohs
-1525Pharaoh Nebpehtire Ahmose1, Ahmosis1 reign ends.Wiki: Pharohs
-1520Pharaoh Djeserkare Amenhotep1 reign ended and Aakheperkare Thutmose1 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsFather unknown, though possibly Amenhotep1. His mother is known to be Senseneb. Expanded Egypt's territorial extent during his reign.
-1501Pharaoh Yaqub-Har reign ends.Wiki: Pharohs
-1500Hittites of Mesopotamia start smelting iron from sand.(2019) YT: MT - Iron from SandBefore this, only meteoric iron existed. An iron dagger was found alongside a solid gold dagger in King Tut's tomb, and it's believed they were of equal value, due to the rarity of iron. This date is somewhat debated, and might have been 1000 years later.
-1500Mercury discovered.Wiki: Mercury
-1506King of Athens Cecrops1 reign ends and Cranaus reign begins.Wiki: Kings of AthensEarth-born, deposed by Amphictyon son of Deucalion
-1497King of Athens Cranaus reign ends and Amphictyon reign begins.Wiki: Kings of AthensEither son of Deucalion or Earth-born, he deposed Cranaus and was in turn deposed by Erichthonius
-1492Pharaoh Aakheperkare Thutmose1 reign ended and Aakheperenre Thutmose2 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Thutmose1. Grandson of Amenhotep1 through his mother, Mutnofret.
-1487King of Athens Amphictyon reign ends and Erichthonius reign begins.Wiki: Kings of AthensEarth-born son of Hephaestus and either Gaia, Athena or Atthis
-1479Pharaoh Aakheperenre Thutmose2 reign ended and Maatkare Hatshepsut reign begins.Wiki: PharohsThe second known female ruler of Egypt. May have ruled jointly with her nephew Thutmose3 during the early part of her reign. Famous for her expedition to Punt documented on her famous Mortuary Temple at Deir el-Bahari. Built many temples and monuments. Ruled during the height of Egypt's power. Was the daughter of Thutmose1 and the Great Wife of her brother Thutmose2.
-1463Emperor 太戊 [Tài Wù] of Shang reign ends and 仲丁 [Zhòng Dīng] of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1458Pharaoh Maatkare Hatshepsut reign ended and Menkheperre Thutmose3 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsThutmose2. May have ruled jointly with Hatshepsut, his aunt and step-mother, during the early part of her reign. Famous for his territorial expansion into the Levant and Nubia. Under his reign, the Ancient Egyptian Empire was at its greatest extent. Ruled during the height of Egypt's Power. Before the end of his reign, he obliterated Hatshepsuts name and image from temples and monuments.
-1452Emperor 仲丁 [Zhòng Dīng] of Shang reign ends and 外壬 [Wài Rén] of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1437Emperor 外壬 [Wài Rén] of Shang reign ends and 河亶甲 [Hé Dān Jiǎ] of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1437King of Athens Erichthonius reign ends and Pandion1 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of AthensSon of Erichthonius
-1428Emperor 河亶甲 [Hé Dān Jiǎ] of Shang reign ends and 祖己 [Zǔ Jǐ] of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1425Pharaoh Menkheperre Thutmose3 reign ended and Aakheperrure Amenhotep2 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Thutmose3. Ruled during the height of Egypt's Power.
-1409Emperor 祖己 [Zǔ Jǐ] of Shang reign ends and 祖辛 [Zǔ Xīn] of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1400Pharaoh Aakheperrure Amenhotep2 reign ended and Menkheperure Thutmose4 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsFamous for his Dream Stele. Son of Amenhotep2. Ruled during the height of Egypt's Power.
-1400Bibilcal MosesEng. the Bible - Moses Mystery
-1393Emperor 祖辛 [Zǔ Xīn] of Shang reign ends and 沃甲 [Wò Jiǎ] of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1397King of Athens Pandion1 reign ends and Erechtheus reign begins.Wiki: Kings of AthensSon of Pandion1
-1390Pharaoh Menkheperure Thutmose4 reign ended and Nebmaatre Amenhotep3 The Magnificent King reign begins.Wiki: PharohsFather of Akhenaten and grandfather of Tutankhamun. Ruled Egypt at the height of its power. Built many temples and monuments, including his enormous Mortuary Temple. Was the son of Thutmose4.
-1352Pharaoh Nebmaatre Amenhotep3 The Magnificent King reign ended and Neferkheperure-waenre Amenhotep4/Akhenaten reign begins.Wiki: PharohsFounder of the Amarna Period in which he changed the state religion from the polytheistic Ancient Egyptian religion to the Monotheistic Atenism, centered around the worship of the Aten, an image of the sun disc. He moved the capital to Akhetaten. Was the second son of Amenhotep3. He changed his name from Amenhotep (Amun is pleased) to Akhenaten (Effective for the Aten) to reflect his religion change.
-1368Emperor 沃甲 [Wò Jiǎ] of Shang reign ends and 祖丁 [Zǔ Dīng] of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1350Mixtecs have agricultural villages.SFGate - Olmecs to Toltecs
-1347King of Athens Erechtheus reign ends and Cecrops2 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of AthensSon of Erechtheus; omitted in Heraclides' epitome of Aristotle's Constitution of the Athenians
-1336Emperor 祖丁 [Zǔ Dīng] of Shang reign ends and 南庚 [Nán Gēng] of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1335Pharaoh Previous Neferkheperure-waenre Amenhotep4/Akhenaten ended and Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare reign begins.Wiki: PharohsRuled jointly with Akhenaten during the later years of his reign. Unknown if Smenkhare ever ruled in his own right.1dentity and even the gender of Smenkhare is uncertain. Some suggest he may have been the son of Akhenaten, possibly the same person as Tutankhamun; others speculate Smenkhare may have been Nefertiti or Meritaten. May have been succeeded by or identical with a female Pharaoh named Neferneferuaten.
-1334Pharaoh Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare reign ended and Ankhkheperure-mery-Neferkheperure/Neferneferuaten reign begins.Wiki: PharohsA female Pharaoh, possibly the same ruler as Smenkhkare. Archaeological evidence relates to a woman who reigned as pharaoh toward the end of the Amarna Period.It is likely she was Nefertiti.
-1332Pharaoh Ankhkheperure-mery-Neferkheperure/Neferneferuaten reign ended and Nebkheperure Tutankhaten/Tutankhamun reign begins.Wiki: PharohsCommonly believed to be the son of Akhenaten, most likely reinstated the polytheistic Ancient Egyptian religion. His name change from Tutankhaten to Tutankhamun reflects the change in religion from the monolatristic Atenism to the classic religion, of which Amun is a major deity. He is thought to have taken the throne at around age eight or nine and to have uninstalled around age eighteen or nineteen, giving him the nickname The Boy King. Tutankhamun was a weak ruler suffering from multiple health issues. However
-1324Pharaoh Nebkheperure Tutankhaten/Tutankhamun reign ended and Pharaoh Kheperkheperure Ay2 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsWas Grand Vizier to Tutankhamun and an important official during the reigns of Akhenaten and Smenkhkare. Possibly the brother of Tiye, Great Wife of Amenhotep3, and also possibly father of Nefertiti, Great Wife of Akhenaten. Believed to have been installed into nobility, but not royalty. Succeeded Tutankhamun due to his lack of an heir.
-1320Pharaoh Kheperkheperure Ay2reign ended and Djeserkheperure-setpenre Horemheb reign begins.Wiki: PharohsBorn a Commoner. Was a General during the Amarna Period. Obliterated1mages of the Amarna Pharaohs and destroyed and5andalized buildings and monuments associated with them. Succeeded Ay despite Nakhtmin being the intended heir.
-1307Emperor 南庚 [Nán Gēng] of Shang reign ends and 陽甲 [Yáng Jiǎ] of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1307King of Athens Cecrops2 reign ends and Pandion2 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of AthensSon of Cecrops2
-1300The Epic of Gilgamesh is recorded on twelve stone tabletsEng. the Bible - Moses Mystery
-1300The Olmec civilization begins Mexico's Preclassic period.SFGate - Olmecs to ToltecsThe mother culture: Preclassic, or Formative, period generally coincides with the height of the Olmec civilization.
-1292The Eighteenth Egyptian Dynasty ends and The Nineteenth Egyptian Dynasty begins.Wiki: PharohsIncludes one of the greatest pharaohs: Rameses2 the Great.
-1292Pharaoh Djeserkheperure-setpenre Horemheb reign ended and Menpehtire Ramesses1 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsOf non-royal birth. Succeeded Horemheb due to his lack of an heir.
-1290Pharaoh Menpehtire Ramesses1 reign ended and Menmaatre Seti1 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsRegained much of the territory that was lost under the reign of Akhenaten.
-1290Emperor 陽甲 [Yáng Jiǎ] of Shang reign ends and 盤庚 [Pán Gēng] of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1282King of Athens Pandion2 reign ends and Aegeus reign begins.Wiki: Kings of AthensSon of Pandion2; construction of Trojan Walls by Poseidon, Apollo and the mortal Aeacus
-1279Pharaoh Menmaatre Seti1 reign ended and Usermaatre-setpenre Ramesses2 the Great reign begins.Wiki: PharohsContinued expanding Egypt's territory until he reached a stalemate with the Hittite Empire at the Battle of Kadesh in 1275, after which the famous Egyptian-Hittite peace treaty was signed in 1258. Had one of the longest Egyptian reigns.
-1262Emperor 盤庚 [Pán Gēng] of Shang reign ends and 小辛 [Xiǎo Xīn] of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1259Emperor 小辛 [Xiǎo Xīn] of Shang reign ends and 小乙 [Xiǎo Yǐ] of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1250Emperor 小乙 [Xiǎo Yǐ] of Shang reign ends and 武丁 [Wǔ Dīng] of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1250King of Sparta Atreid Menelaus reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Spartason of Atreus and husband of Helen
-1234King of Athens Aegeus reign ends and Theseus reign begins.Wiki: Kings of AthensSon of Aegeus
-1213Pharaoh Usermaatre-setpenre Ramesses2 the Great reign ended and Banenre Merenptah reign begins.Wiki: PharohsThirteenth son of Ramesses2.
-1205King of Athens Theseus reign ends and Menestheus reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Athens
-1203Pharaoh Menmire-setpenre Amenmesse reign begins.Wiki: PharohsMost likely an usurper to the throne. Possibly ruled in opposition to Seti2. Suggested son of Merneptah.
-1203Pharaoh Banenre Merenptah reign ended and Userkheperure Seti2 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Merneptah. May have had to overcome a contest by Amenmesse before he could solidify his claim to the throne.
-1200Pharaoh Menmire-setpenre Amenmesse reign ends.Wiki: Pharohs
-1200Egypt was powerful because the fertile and predictable Nile gave them tons of food.(2017) YT: EH - Bronze Age 1Egyptians and Hittites agree to peace treaty, due to Assyrian pressure.
-1200Tin and copper are not found in the same geographic regions, necessitating trade(2017) YT: EH - Bronze Age 2All economies were completely top-down, highly communistic.
-1200Chariots used because horses hadn't been bred large enough to carry warriors(2017) YT: EH - Bronze Age 2
-1200Egypt colonizes around the Mediterranean(2017) YT: EH - Bronze Age 1
-1200Bronze age ends and iron age begins.(2020) YT: NM - Cutting ToolsSmelters had become large enough and hot enough - bloomers - that they could melt iron. Although iron is the most abundant metal on the Earth's surface, the reduction of iron from oxides to elemental crystals takes much, much more energy than bronze or copper. Iron with 2.5% - 4.5% carbon is pig iron, and the high carbon content increases brittleness.
-1200Bronze Age begins.(2017) YT: EH - Bronze Age 1Egypt gets copper from Cyprus, and tin from Kestel near Turkey/Greece
-1183King of Athens Menestheus reign ends with the Trojan War and the Sack of Troy, and Demophon reign begins.Wiki: Kings of AthensSon of Theseus
-1197Pharaoh Userkheperure Seti2 reign ended and Sekhaenre/Akhenre Merenptah Siptah reign begins.Wiki: PharohsPossibly son of Seti2 or Amenmesse, ascended to throne at a young age.
-1192Emperor 武丁 [Wǔ Dīng] of Shang reign ends and 祖庚 [Zǔ Gēng] of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1191Pharaoh Sekhaenre/Akhenre Merenptah Siptah reign ended and Satre-merenamun Tausret reign begins.Wiki: Pharohsrobably the wife of Seti2. Also known as Twosret or Tawosret.
-1190Pharaoh Satre-merenamun Tausret reign ended and Userkhaure Setnakhte reign begins.Wiki: PharohsNot related to Seti2, Siptah, or Tausret. May have usurped the throne from Tausret. Did not recognize Siptah or Tausret as legitimate rulers. Possibly a member of a minor line of the Ramesside royal family. Also called Setnakt.
-1186The Nineteenth Egyptian Dynasty ends and The Twentieth Egyptian Dynasty begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-1186Pharaoh Userkhaure Setnakhte reign ended and Usermaatre-meryamun Ramesses3 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Setnakhte. Fought the Sea Peoples in 1175. Possibly uninstalled (Harem conspiracy).
-1175Pharaoh Ramesses3 fought the Sea Peoples.Wiki: Pharohs
-1185Emperor 祖庚 [Zǔ Gēng] of Shang reign ends and 祖甲 [Zǔ Jiǎ] of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1158Emperor 祖甲 [Zǔ Jiǎ] of Shang reign ends廩辛 and [Lǐn Xīn] of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1155Pharaoh Usermaatre-meryamun Ramesses3 reign ended and Usermaatre/Heqamaatre-setpenamun Ramesses4 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Ramesses3. During his reign, Egyptian power started to decline.
-1152Emperor 廩辛 [Lǐn Xīn] of Shang reign ends and 庚丁 [Gēng Dīng] of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1150King of Athens Demophon reign ends and Oxyntes reign begins, and Atreid of Sparta Orestes reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaOxyntes was son of Demophon. Orestes was son of Agamemnon and nephew of Menelaus
-1149Pharaoh Usermaatre/Heqamaatre-setpenamun Ramesses4 reign ended and Usermaatre-sekheperenre Ramesses5 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Ramesses4
-1147Emperor 庚丁 [Gēng Dīng] of Shang reign ends and 武乙 [Wǔ Yǐ] of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1145Pharaoh Usermaatre-sekheperenre Ramesses5 reign ended and Nebmaatre-meryamun Ramesses6 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Ramesses3. Brother of Ramesses4. Uncle of Ramesses5.
-1140King of Sparta Atreid Tisamenos reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Spartason of Orestes
-1137Pharaoh Nebmaatre-meryamun Ramesses6 reign ended and Usermaatre-setpenre-meryamun Ramesses7 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Ramesses6.
-1136King of Athens Oxyntes reign ends and Apheidas reign begins.Wiki: Kings of AthensSon of Oxyntes
-1135King of Athens Apheidas reign ends and Thymoetes reign begins.Wiki: Kings of AthensSon of Oxyntes and brother of Apheidas
-1130Pharaoh Usermaatre-setpenre-meryamun Ramesses7 reign ended and Usermaatre-akhenamun Ramesses8 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsAn obscure Pharaoh, who reigned only around a year.1dentifiable with Prince Sethiherkhepeshef2. Son of Ramesses3. Brother of Ramesses4 and Ramesses6. Uncle of Ramesses5 and Ramesses7. He is the sole Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty whose tomb has not been found.
-1129Pharaoh Previous Usermaatre-akhenamun Ramesses8 ended and Neferkare-setpenre Ramesses9 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsProbably grandson of Ramesses3 through his father, Montuherkhopshef. First cousin of Ramesses5 and Ramesses7.
-1127King of Athens Thymoetes reign ends.Wiki: Kings of Athens
-1126King of Athens Melanthus reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Athens
-1120Acastus (Ἄκαστος) destroyed Troy7b2Wiki: Kings of Athens.
-1112Emperor 武乙 [Wǔ Yǐ] of Shang reign ends and 文武丁 [Wénwǔ Dīng] / 文丁 [Wén Dīng] of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1111Pharaoh Neferkare-setpenre Ramesses9 reign ended and Khepermaatre-setpenptah Ramesses10 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsA poorly documented Pharaoh, his reign was between 3 and 10 years long. His origins are completely uncertain.
-1107Pharaoh Khepermaatre-setpenptah Ramesses10 reign ended and Menmaatre-setpenptah Ramesses11 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsPossibly the son of Ramesses10. During the second half of his reign, High Priest of Amun Herihor ruled over the south from Thebes, limiting his power to Lower (Northern) Egypt. He was succeeded in the north by Smendes.
-1102Emperor 文武丁 [Wénwǔ Dīng] / 文丁 [Wén Dīng] of Shang reign ends and 帝乙 [Dì Yǐ] of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1100文王 [King Wén] of Zhou reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1100King of Sparta Atreid Dion reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Spartahusband of Iphitea, the daughter of Prognaus
-1089King of Athens Melanthus reign ends and Codrus reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Athens
-1080Pharaoh Herihor reign begins.Wiki: PharohsFirst High Priest of Amun to claim to be pharaoh. He ruled in the south in Thebes, while Ramesses11 ruled from the north in Pi-Ramesses. Some sources suggest he may have reigned after Piankh.
-1076Emperor 帝乙 [Dì Yǐ] of Shang reign ends and King Zhou of Shang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs辛(紂) [Xīn (Zhou)] of Shang
-1077Pharaoh Menmaatre-setpenptah Ramesses11 reign ended the Twentieth Egyptian Dynasty and New Kingdom, and Hedjkheperre-setpenre Nesbanebdjed1 (Smendes1) reign the Third Intermediate Period.Wiki: Pharohs Nesbanebdjed1 was married to Tentamun, probable daughter of Ramesses11. The Third Intermediate Period marked the end of the New Kingdom after the collapse of the Egyptian empire. A number of dynasties of Libyan origin ruled, giving this period its alternative name of the Libyan Period.
-1074Pharaoh Herihor reign ended and Piankh reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSome sources suggest he may have reigned before Herihor.
-1070Pharaoh Piankh reign ended and Pinedjem1 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Piankh. Father of Psusennes1.
-1069The Twenty-First Egyptian Dynasty begins.Wiki: PharohsTheoretically, they were rulers of all Egypt. But they were based at Tanis and were a relatively weak group, and in practice their influence was limited to Lower Egypt. Though not officially pharaohs, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes were the de facto rulers of Upper Egypt during the Twenty-first dynasty, writing their names in cartouches and being buried in royal tombs.
-1068King of Athens Codrus reign ends and Medon (Μέδων) reign begins.Wiki: Kings of AthensFirst ruler of Attica after the Greek Dark Ages.
-1051Pharaoh Hedjkheperre-setpenre Nesbanebdjed1 (Smendes1) reign ended and Neferkare Heqawaset Amenemnisu reign begins.Wiki: PharohsObscure four-year reign.
-1050文王 [King Wén] of Zhou reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1048Life archon of Athens Medon (Μέδων) reign ends and Acastus (Ἄκαστος) reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Athens
-1047Pharaoh Neferkare Heqawaset Amenemnisu reign ended and Aakheperre Pasebakhenniut1 (Psusennes1) reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Pinedjem1, a High Priest of Amun. Ruled for 40 to 51 years.
-1046King Zhou of Shang ends the 商朝 (Shang dynasty), and [King Wǔ] of Zhou begins the 西周 (Western Zhou) period of the 周朝 (Zhou dynasty)Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1046Shang dynasty becomes corrupt, Zhou [`Joe] dynasty replaces them(2019) YT: OS - 3 Kingdoms
-1045Pharaoh Masaharta reign ended and Djedkhonsuefankh reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Pinedjem1.
-1045Pharaoh Djedkhonsuefankh reign ended and Menkheperre reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Pinedjem1.
-1043武王 [King Wǔ] of Zhou reign ends and 成王 [King Chéng] of Zhou reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1032Pharaoh Pinedjem1 reign ended and Masaharta reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Pinedjem1.
-1021成王 [King Chéng] of Zhou reign ends and 康王 [King Kāng] of Zhou reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1012Life archon of Athens Acastus (Ἄκαστος) reign ends and Archippus[13] reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Athens
-1001Pharaoh Aakheperre Pasebakhenniut1 (Psusennes1) reign ended and Usermaatre Amenemope reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Psusennes1.Aakheperre Pasebakhenniut1 was famous for his intact tomb at Tanis. Known as The Silver Pharaoh" due to the magnificent silver coffin he was buried in. One of the most powerful rulers of the Dynasty.
-1000Zinc discovered.Wiki: Zinc
-1000Egyptians invent using grease in chariot wheels.(2020) YT: PF - Cheap Grease
-1000Earth's north stars were Kochab and Pherkad.NASA - Milankovich Cycles
-996康王 [King Kāng] of Zhou reign ends and 昭王 [King Zhāo] of Zhou reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-993Life archon of Athens Archippus reign ends and Thersippus[14] reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Athens
-992Pharaoh Usermaatre Amenemope reign ended and Aakheperre Setepenre Osorkon (Osorkon the Elder) reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Shoshenq A, Great Chief of the Meshwesh (Libya). Also known as Osochor.
-992Pharaoh Menkheperre reign ended and Nesbanebdjed2 (Smendes2) reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Menkheperre.
-990Pharaoh Nesbanebdjed2 (Smendes2) reign ended and Pinedjem2 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Menkheperre, Father of Psusennes2.
-986Pharaoh Aakheperre Setepenre Osorkon (Osorkon the Elder) reign ended and Netjerikheperre-setpenamun Siamun-meryamun reign begins.Wiki: PharohsUnknown Origins. Built extensively for a third intermediate period Pharaoh. One of the most powerful rulers of the dynasty.
-977昭王 [King Zhāo] of Zhou reign ends and 穆王 [King Mù] of Zhou reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-967Pharaoh Netjerikheperre-setpenamun Siamun-meryamun reign ended and Titkheperure Pasebakhenniut2 (Psusennes2) reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Pinedjem2, a High Priest of Amun.
-976Pharaoh Pinedjem2 reign ended and Pasebakhaennuit3 (Psusennes3) reign begins.Wiki: PharohsPossibly the same person as Psusennes2. Either he or Pinedjem2 is generally considered to be the last High Priest of Amun to consider himself as a pharaoh-like figure.
-952Life archon of Athens Thersippus reign ends and Phorbas (Φόρβας) reign begins.Wiki: Kings of AthensPhorbas - Troy7b3: deserted (950 BC)
-943Pharaoh Pasebakhaennuit3 (Psusennes3) & Titkheperure Pasebakhenniut2 (Psusennes2) reigns ended and Hedjkheperre-setepenre Shoshenq1 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Nimlot A, a brother of Osorkon the Elder and a Great Chief of the Meshwesh (Libya). Possibly the biblical Shishaq.
-943The Twenty-First Egyptian Dynasty ends and The Twenty-Second Egyptian Dynasty begins.Wiki: PharohsThese pharaohs were also Libyans
-930King of Sparta Agiad Agis1 reign begins and Agiad Eurysthenes reign begins and Eurypontid Procles reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaThe dynasty was named after its second king, Agis, who subjugated the Helots. Eurysthenes & Eurypontid were a return of the Heracleidae
-922Pharaoh Hedjkheperre-setepenre Shoshenq1 reign ended and Sekhemkheperre Osorkon1 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Shoshenq1.
-922Life archon of Athens Phorbas (Φόρβας) reign ends and Megacles (Μεγακλῆς) reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Athens
-922共王 [King Gōng] of Zhou reign begins and 穆王 [King Mù] of Zhou reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-900懿王 [King Yì] of Zhou reign begins and 共王 [King Gōng] of Zhou reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-900The State of Qin was founded as a vassal of the Zhou dynastyWiki: Chinese monarchs
-900King of Sparta Agiad Agis1 reign ends and Agiad Echestratus reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaExpelled the Cynurensians that were in power.
-800sHomer writes The Illiad.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman Republics
-800sHomer writes The Illiad.(2019) YT: OSP - HermesDeity Pan is strongly established by now, but thoroughly reduced to just a forest deity.
-892孝王 [King Xiào] of Zhou reign begins and 懿王 [King Yì] of Zhou reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-892Life archon of Athens Megacles (Μεγακλῆς) reign ends and Diognetus reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Athens
-890King of Sparta Eurypontid Eurypon reign begins and Eurypontid Soos reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaThe dynasty is named after its third king Eurypon. Eurypontid Soos was son of Procles and father of Eurypon.
-880sPharaoh Tutkheperre Shoshenq2bWiki: PharohsObscure pharaoh, placement uncertain.
-880Pharaoh Hedjkheperre Harsiese reign begins.Wiki: PharohsAn obscure rebel, at Thebes.
-887Pharaoh Sekhemkheperre Osorkon1 reign ended and Heqakheperre Shoshenq2 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsObscure pharaoh, possibly an usurper.
-886夷王 [King Yí] of Zhou reign begins and 孝王 [King Xiào] of Zhou reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-885Pharaoh Heqakheperre Shoshenq2 reign ended and Takelot1 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Osorkon1.
-878厲王 [King Lì] of Zhou reign begins and 夷王 [King Yí] of Zhou reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-872Pharaoh Takelot1 reign ended and Usermaatre-setepenamun Osorkon2 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Takelot1.
-870King of Sparta Agiad Echestratus reign ends and Agiad Labotas reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaLycurgus the lawgiver may have been regent for Labotas the Agiad.
-864Life archon of Athens Diognetus reign ends and Pherecles reign begins.Wiki: Kings of AthensHomer composes the Iliad
-860Pharaoh Hedjkheperre Harsiese reign ends.Wiki: Pharohs
-860King of Sparta Eurypontid Eurypon reign ends and Eurypontid Prytanis reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-850Homer composes the Odyssey.Wiki: Kings of Athens
-845Life archon of Athens Pherecles[15] reign ends and Ariphron reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Athens
-841厲王 [King Lì] of Zhou reign ends and the 共和 (Republic) [Gonghe] Regency begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsThis is the first generally accepted date in Chinese history. Events before this may be legendary or mythological.
-840King of Sparta Agiad Labotas reign ends and Agiad Doryssus reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-837Pharaoh Usermaatre-setepenamun Osorkon2 reign ended and Usermaatre-setepenre Shoshenq3 reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-837Pharaoh Hedjkheperre-setpenre Takelot2 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsPreviously thought to be a 22nd Dynasty pharaoh, he is now known to be the founder of the 23rd.
-830King of Sparta Eurypontid Prytanis reign ends and Eurypontid Polydectes reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-828The Twenty-Second Egyptian Dynasty ends and The Twenty-Third Egyptian Dynasty begins.Wiki: PharohsThis was a local group, again of Libyan origin, based at Herakleopolis and Thebes.
-827共和 (Republic) [Gonghe] Regency ends and 宣王 [King Xuān] of Zhou reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-826Pharaoh Usermaatre-setepenamun Pedubast reign begins.Wiki: PharohsA rebel?seized Thebes from Takelot2.
-825King of Sparta Life archon of Athens Ariphron reign ends.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-824Life archon of Athens ΘεσπIεύς (Thespieus) reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Athens
-820King of Sparta Agiad Doryssus reign ends and Agiad Agesilaus1 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-813Pharaoh Hedjkheperre-setpenre Takelot2 reign ended and Usermaatre-setepenamun Iuput1 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsCo-regent with Pedubast.
-811Pharaoh Usermaatre-setepenamun Iuput1 reign ended.Wiki: Pharohs
-801Pharaoh Usermaatre-setepenamun Pedubast reign ended and Usermaatre Shoshenq6 reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-800Bronze age ends, iron age begins, in Britain(20??) YT: A Great British Timeline (link 404s)
-800Iron age begins in BritainWiki: Iron & Steel (link 404s)
-800King of Sparta Eurypontid Polydectes reign ends and Eurypontid Eunomus reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-798Pharaoh Usermaatre-setepenre Shoshenq3 reign ended and Shoshenq4 reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-797King of Sparta ΘεσπIεύς (Thespieus) reign ends.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-796Life archon of Athens Agamestor reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Athens
-795Pharaoh Usermaatre Shoshenq6 reign ended and Usermaatre-setepenamun Osorkon3 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Takelot2; recovered Thebes, then proclaimed himself king.
-790King of Sparta Agiad Agesilaus1 reign ends and Agiad Archelaus reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-785Pharaoh Shoshenq4 reign ended and Usermaatre-setepenre Pami reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-782幽王 [King Yōu] of Zhou reign begins and 宣王 [King Xuān] of Zhou reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-780King of Sparta Eurypontid Eunomus reign ends and Eurypontid Charilaus reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaCharilaus was an infant, so his uncle Lycurgus the lawgiver may have been regent.War with the Argives; destroyed the border-town of Aegys; Battle of Tegea.
-778Pharaoh Usermaatre-setepenre Pami reign ended and Aakheperre Shoshenq5 reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-778Life archon of Athens Agamestor reign ends and Aeschylus (Αἰσχύλος) reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Athens
-776First OlympiadWiki: Kings of Athens
-773Pharaoh Usermaatre-setpenamun Takelot3 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsCo-reign with his father Osorkon3 for the first five years of his reign.
-771幽王 [King Yōu] of Zhou reign ends the Chinese Western Zhou (西周), and 平王 [King Ping] of Zhou reign begins the Eastern Zhou (東周) & Chinese Spring and Autumn periods (春秋時代).Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-767Pharaoh Previous Usermaatre-setepenamun Osorkon3 ended.Wiki: Pharohs
-765Pharaoh Usermaatre-setpenamun Takelot3 reign ended and Usermaatre-setpenamun Rudamun reign begins.Wiki: PharohsYounger son of Osorkon3 and brother of Takelot3.
-762Pharaoh Usermaatre-setpenamun Rudamun reign ended and Menkheperre Ini reign begins.Wiki: PharohsReigned at Thebes only.
-760King of Sparta Agiad Archelaus reign ends and Agiad Teleclus reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaUninstalled by the Messenians
-755Life archon of Athens Aeschylus (Αἰσχύλος) reign ends and Alcmaeon (Ἀλκμαίων) reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Athens
Apr-753Rome founded.(2019) YT: FOL - Latin
Apr-753Rome founded.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsAeneas fled here from burning Troy at the end of The Illiad to have pizza, then found a village. Centuries later, while building the walls around their village, Romulus and Remus (raised by wolves) got into a fight and Romulus won. (That's why it's named Rome and not Reme.) Rome would be mostly a backwater for the next 250 years (across 7 kings) while all the action happened in Mesopotamia.
-753Life archon of Athens Alcmaeon (Ἀλκμαίων) reign ends.Wiki: Kings of Athens
-750King of Sparta Eurypontid Charilaus reign ends and Eurypontid Nicander reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-744Pharaoh Usermaatre Piye reign begins.Wiki: PharohsUpper (southern) Egypt. King of Nubia; conquered Egypt in his 20th year; full reign at least 24 years, possibly 30+ years
-744Nubians invaded Lower Egypt and took the throne of Egypt under Piye although they already controlled Thebes and Upper Egypt in the early years of Piyes reign.Wiki: PharohsPiyes conquest of Lower Egypt established the Twenty-fifth Dynasty.
-740Pharaoh Aakheperre Shoshenq5 reign ended and Usermaatre Osorkon4 reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-740King of Sparta Agiad Teleclus reign ends and Agiad Alcamenes reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaFirst Messenian War begins.
-732The Twenty-Third Egyptian Dynasty ends and The Twenty-fourth Egyptian Dynasty begins.Wiki: PharohsIt was a short-lived rival Egyptian Dynasty located in the western Delta (Sais), with only two pharaohs.
-732Pharaoh Menkheperre Ini reign ended and Shepsesre Tefnakhte reign begins.Wiki: PharohsUpper (southern) Egypt.
-720Pharaoh Usermaatre Osorkon4 reign ended.Wiki: Pharohs
-725Pharaoh Shepsesre Tefnakhte reign ended and Wahkare Bakenrenef (Bocchoris) reign begins.Wiki: PharohsUpper (southern) Egypt.
-725King of Sparta Eurypontid Nicander reign ends and Eurypontid Theopompus reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaFirst Messenian War
-720Pharaoh Wahkare Bakenrenef (Bocchoris) reign ended.Wiki: PharohsUpper (southern) Egypt.
-720The Twenty-fourth Egyptian Dynasty ends.Wiki: Pharohs
-720桓王 [King Huan] of Zhou reign begins and 平王 [King Ping] of Zhou reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-714Pharaoh Usermaatre Piye reign ended and Djedkaure Shebitku reign begins.Wiki: PharohsUpper (southern) Egypt. Believed to be Shabakas successor until the 2010s
-705Pharaoh Djedkaure Shebitku reign ended and Neferkare Shabaka reign begins.Wiki: PharohsUpper (southern) Egypt. Believed to be Shebitkus predecessor until the 2010s
-700King of Sparta Agiad Alcamenes reign ends and Agiad Polydorus reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaFirst Messenian War ends; killed by the Spartan nobleman Polemarchus
-700Teotihuacan began to rise in popularitySFGate - Olmecs to ToltecsThe next 1000 years were its peak.
-600sWootz high carbon steel is produced in South India and exported globally.Wiki: SteelSpecifically in Kodumanal in Tamil Nadu, the Golconda area in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, and in the Samanalawewa areas of Sri Lanka. The manufacture of what came to be called Wootz, or Damascus steel, famous for its durability and ability to hold an edge, may have been taken by the Arabs from Persia, who took it from India.
-600sKhilon of Sparta installsHellenic Faith - Delphic MaximsA Spartan politician to whom the militarization of Spartan society was attributed.
-600sBias of Priene installsHellenic Faith - Delphic MaximsA politician and legislator known for being an advocate.
-600sKleoboulos of Lindos installsHellenic Faith - Delphic MaximsTyrant of Lindos, in the Greek island of Rhodes.
-697莊王 [King Zhuang] of Zhou reign begins and 桓王 [King Huan] of Zhou reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-690Pharaoh Neferkare Shabaka reign ended and Khuinefertemre Taharqa reign begins.Wiki: PharohsUpper (southern) Egypt.
-685Pharaoh Tefnakht2 Manethos Stephinates reign begins.Wiki: PharohsMay have been a descendant of the Twenty-fourth Dynasty. The father of Necho1.
-682釐王 [King Xi] of Zhou reign begins and 莊王 [King Zhuang] of Zhou reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-678Pharaoh Tefnakht2 reign ended and Nekauba Manethos Nechepsos reign begins.Wiki: PharohsHis existence has been questioned.
-677惠王 [King Hui] of Zhou reign begins and 釐王 [King Xi] of Zhou reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-675King of Sparta Eurypontid Theopompus reign ends and Eurypontid Anaxandridas1 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-672Pharaoh Nekauba Manethos Nechepsos reign ended and Menkheperre Nekau1 (Necho1) reign begins.Wiki: PharohsWas uninstalled by an invading Kushite force in -664 under Tantamani. Father of Psamtik1.
-665King of Sparta Agiad Polydorus reign ends and Agiad Eurycrates reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-664The Twenty-sixth Egyptian Dynasty begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-664The Third Intermediate Period ends and The Late Period begins.Wiki: PharohsIncludes periods of rule by native Egyptians and Persians.
-664Pharaoh Menkheperre Nekau1 (Necho1) reign ended and Wahibre Psamtik1 (Psammetichus1) reign begins.Wiki: PharohsReunified Egypt. Son of Necho1 and father of Necho2.
-664Pharaoh Khuinefertemre Taharqa reign ended and Bakare Tantamani reign begins.Wiki: PharohsUpper (southern) Egypt.
-660Japanese 神武天皇 [Emperor Jimmu] (Kamu-yamato Iware-biko no Mikoto) reign begins the era of Legendary emperors.Wiki: List of emperors of JapanClaimed descent from the sun goddess, Amaterasu;
-660Amaterasu has a grandson, Ninigi [nin-ee-jie] no Mikoto who she sends to rule Japan.(2016) YT: OSP - Grass cutterAmaterasu sends these 3 artifacts with Ninigi:
  • Mirror for purity
  • Jewel for benevolence
  • Ame no Murakumo no Tsurugi for courage
They've been passed down from emperor to emperor. Susanoo no Mikoto (no Mikoto = of honor/respect) was banished from heaven for trolling his sister Amaterasu too hard. While wandering Earth, he finds a grieving couple who say 7 of their 8 of their daughters were eaten by Orochi. Susanoo sets up a bunch of rice wine and waits for the snake to get drunk, then uninstalls it and finds the Ame no Murakumo no Tsurugi (Sword of the Gathering Clouds of Heaven) within it.
-656Nubians were ultimately driven back into Nubia, where they established a kingdom at Napata.Wiki: Pharohs
-656Pharaoh Bakare Tantamani reign ended.Wiki: PharohsLost control of Upper (southern) Egypt when Psamtik1 extended his authority into Thebes in that year.
-652襄王 [King Xiang] of Zhou reign begins and 惠王 [King Hui] of Zhou reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-645King of Sparta Eurypontid Anaxandridas1 reign ends and Eurypontid Zeuxidamus reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-640Pittacus of Mitylene installsHellenic Faith - Delphic MaximsGoverned Mytilene on the island of Lesbos. He tried to reduce the power of the nobility and was able to govern with the support of the popular classes, whom he favored.
-640King of Sparta Agiad Eurycrates reign ends and Agiad Anaxander reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-638Solon of Athens installsHellenic Faith - Delphic MaximsA famous legislator and reformer from Athens, framing the laws that shaped Athenian democracy.
-627Periander of Korinthos installsHellenic Faith - Delphic MaximsTyrant of Corinth in the 7th and 6th centuries BCE. Corinth saw a golden age of unprecedented stability during his rule.
-625King of Sparta Eurypontid Zeuxidamus reign ends and Eurypontid Anaxidamus reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-624Thales of Miletos installsHellenic Faith - Delphic MaximsThe first well-known philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer. His maxim, "Know thyself," was engraved on the front facade of the Oracle of Apollo in Delphi.
-619頃王 [King Qing] of Zhou reign begins and 襄王 [King Xiang] of Zhou reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-615King of Sparta Agiad Anaxander reign ends and Agiad Eurycratides reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-613匡王 [King Kuang] of Zhou reign begins and 頃王 [King Qing] of Zhou reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-610Pharaoh Wahibre Psamtik1 (Psammetichus1) reign ended and Wehemibre Necho2 (Necho2) reign begins.Wiki: PharohsMost likely the pharaoh mentioned in several books of the Bible and the uninstall of Josiah. Son of Psamtik1 and father of Psamtik2.
-610Sappho installs.History.com: RomanticsGreek lyric poet, she was called "The 10th Muse" by Plato. She gave educational and religious instruction as marriage preparation, and focused on female relationships to the point where some believe she was lesbian, in a time when same-sex relationships were common. She was also supposedly married to a rich man named Cercylas.
-607定王 [King Ding] of Zhou reign begins and 匡王 [King Kuang] of Zhou reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-600Copper smelted from malachite ore in Cyprus.(Reference Missing)
-600Aesop says "A bird in the hand is worth 2 in the bush"(2019) YT: TFR 600 B.C. equationWarren Buffet in 1985(?) says that if he had said the time for the 2 in the bush, and the interest rate, Aesop would have defined investment for 2600 years - If interest rates were 5%, and you get the 2 from the bush in 5 years vs the 1 now, then 2 birds in the bush are much better than the 1 in the hand, because that's 14% interest vs the 5% for the 1 bird.
-600Large-scale Wootz steel production in India using crucibles and carbon sources such as the plant Avaram occurred, the pioneering precursor to modern steel production and metallurgy.Wiki: SteelMetal production sites in Sri Lanka employed wind furnaces driven by the monsoon winds, capable of producing high-carbon steel. This considerably grew the reputation of Seric iron of South India (wootz steel) in the rest of the world.
-600King of Sparta Eurypontid Anaxidamus reign ends and Eurypontid Archidamus1 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-595Pharaoh Wehemibre Necho2 (Necho2) reign ended and Neferibre Psamtik2 (Psammetichus2) reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Necho2 and father of Apries.
-590Nubians left Napata and established a kingdom at Meroe.Wiki: Pharohs
-590King of Sparta Agiad Eurycratides reign ends and Agiad Leon reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-580sSolon's visit to Egypt.(2019) YT: OSP - AtlantisPlato says Solon was here to translate Egyptian records from -9500.
-589Pharaoh Neferibre Psamtik2 (Psammetichus2) reign ended and Haaibre Wahibre (Apries) reign begins.Wiki: PharohsFled Egypt after Amasis2 (who was a general at the time) declared himself pharaoh following a civil war. Son of Psamtik2.
-586簡王 [King Jian] of Zhou reign begins and 定王 [King Ding] of Zhou reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-585Japanese 神武天皇 [Emperor Jimmu] (Kamu-yamato Iware-biko no Mikoto) reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
-585Periander of Korinthos uninstallsHellenic Faith - Delphic Maxims
-581Japanese 綏靖天皇 [Emperor Suizei] (Kamu Nunagawamimi no Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan3rd son of Jimmu;presumed legendary
-575King of Sparta Eurypontid Archidamus1 reign ends and Eurypontid Agasicles reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaContemporary with Leon
-572靈王 [King Ling] of Zhou reign begins and 簡王 [King Jian] of Zhou reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-570Pharaoh Haaibre Wahibre (Apries) reign ended and Khnemibre Ahmose2 (Amasis2) reign begins.Wiki: PharohsHe was the last great ruler of Egypt before the Persian conquest. According to the Greek historian Herodotus, he was of common origins. Father of Psamtik3.
-568Pittacus of Mitylene uninstallsHellenic Faith - Delphic Maxims
-560King of Sparta Agiad Leon reign ends and Agiad Anaxandridas2 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaBattle of the Fetters
-558Solon of Athens uninstallsHellenic Faith - Delphic Maxims
-550King of Sparta Eurypontid Agasicles reign ends and Eurypontid Ariston reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaBattle of the Fetters.
-549Japanese 安寧天皇 [Emperor Annei] (Shikitsuhiko Tamademi no Mikoto) reign begins and Suizei (綏靖天皇) [Kamu Nunagawamimi no Mikoto) reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of JapanSon and heir of Suizei;presumed legendary
-545景王 [King Jing] (Gui) of Zhou reign begins and 靈王 [King Ling] of Zhou reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-546Thales of Miletos uninstallsHellenic Faith - Delphic Maxims
-526Pharaoh Khnemibre Ahmose2 (Amasis2) reign ended and Ankhkaenre Psamtik3 (Psammetichus3) reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Amasis2. Ruled for about six months before being defeated by the Persians in the Battle of Pelusium and subsequently ordered to be uninstalled for attempting to revolt.
-525Egypt was conquered by the Persian Empire and constituted a satrapy as part of this empire.Wiki: PharohsThe Achaemenid Shahanshahs were acknowledged as Pharaohs in this era, forming the 27th Dynasty.
-525The Twenty-sixth Egyptian Dynasty ends.Wiki: Pharohs
-525Pharaoh Ankhkaenre Psamtik3 (Psammetichus3) reign ended in defeat at the Battle of Pelusium, where Cambyses (Cambyses2) took the throne.Wiki: Pharohs.
-522Pharaoh Petubastis3 & Smerdis (Bardiya) reign begins.Wiki: PharohsPetubastis3 was a native Egyptian rebel in the Delta. Smerdis (Bardiya) was a son of Cyrus the Great.
-521Pharaoh Smerdis (Bardiya) reign ends.Wiki: Pharohs
-521Pharaoh Cambyses (Cambyses2) reign ended and Darius1 the Great reign begins.Wiki: PharohsAscended throne by overthrowing Gaumata
-520Pharaoh Petubastis3 reign ends.Wiki: Pharohs
-520景王 [King Jing] (Gui) of Zhou reign ends, 敬王 [King Jing] (Gai) of Zhou reign occurs, and 悼王 [King Dao] of Zhou reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-520King of Sparta Agiad Anaxandridas2 reign ends and Agiad Cleomenes1 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaGreco-Persian Wars begins.
-515King of Sparta Eurypontid Ariston reign ends and Eurypontid Demaratus reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Spartadeposed
-511Japanese 安寧天皇 [Emperor Annei] (Shikitsuhiko Tamademi no Mikoto) reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
-510Japanese 懿徳天皇 [Emperor Itoku] (Oho Yamatohiko Sukitomo no Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan2nd son of Annei;presumed legendary
-509Tarquinius Superbius (Rome) dethroned and Republic created.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsThe Senate, Patrician nobility, and Citizen Assembly already existed, so this was mainly a reorganization of authority than a revolution. "Republic" comes from Latin "res publica" or "public thing". Plebians (who made the majority of the army) were left out and would go on strike to get rights.
-500Bronze age invades Japan with new tools and technology, leading to massive rice farms and huge population booms, creating villages.(2016) YT: BW - history of japanBefore this, humans on Japanese islands ate tree nuts and lived in the Stone Age.
-491King of Sparta Eurypontid Demaratus reign ends and Eurypontid Leotychidas2 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Spartagreat grandson of Hippocratidas, Greco-Persian Wars
-490King of Sparta Agiad Cleomenes1 reign ends and Agiad Leonidas1 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-489Gaius Julius Iulus serves as Roman consul.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsThis was one of Caesar's ancestors, proving Caesar's lineage as old nobility.
-486Pharaoh Darius1 the Great reign ended and Xerxes1 the Great reign begins.Wiki: Pharohsuninstalled by Artabanus of Persia.
-480sPharaoh Psammetichus6Wiki: PharohsA proposed native Egyptian rebel leader. Exact date uncertain.
-480Pharaoh Psammetichus4Wiki: PharohsA proposed native Egyptian rebel leader. Exact date uncertain.
-480King of Sparta Agiad Leonidas1 reign ends and Agiad Pleistarchus reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaBattle of Thermopylae. First Peloponnesian War begins.
-476Japanese 懿徳天皇 [Emperor Itoku] (Oho Yamatohiko Sukitomo no Mikoto) reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
-476敬王 [King Jing] (Gai) of Zhou reign ends the Spring and Autumn period (春秋時代), and 元王 [King Yuan] of Zhou reign begins the Chinese Warring States period (戰國時代).Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-475Japanese 孝昭天皇 [Emperor Kōshō] (Mimatsuhiko Kaeshine no Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of JapanSon and heir of It oku;presumed legendary
-469貞定王 [King Zhending] of Zhou reign begins and 元王 [King Yuan] of Zhou reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-469King of Sparta Eurypontid Leotychidas2 reign ends and Eurypontid Archidamus2 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaSecond Peloponnesian War begins.
-467Comet appears, lands near Aegusapami Greece, supposedly heralding the divinity of Caesar.(2019) YT: PN - Story of Comets 1This was later determined to be Halley's Comet.
-465Pharaoh Xerxes1 the Great reign ended and Artabanus the Hyrcanian reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-464Pharaoh Artabanus the Hyrcanian reign ended and Artaxerxes1 Longhand reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-459King of Sparta Agiad Pleistarchus reign ends and Agiad Pleistoanax reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaSecond Peloponnesian War begins.
-445King of Sparta Agiad Pleistoanax reign ends and Agiad Pausanias reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaHelped restore democracy in Athens; Spartan hegemony
-441思王 [King Si] of Zhou reign begins and 貞定王 [King Zhending] of Zhou reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-440哀王 [King Ai] of Zhou reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-439考王 [King Kao] of Zhou reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-427King of Sparta Eurypontid Archidamus2 reign ends and Eurypontid Agis2 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaSpartan hegemony; Attacked Epidaurus, Leuctra, Caryae, Orchomenos, and Mantineia; Invaded the Argolis; Council of war formed to check his powers.
-426威烈王 [King Weilie] of Zhou reign begins and 考王 [King Kao] of Zhou reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-426King of Sparta Agiad Pausanias reign ends and Agiad Pleistoanax reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaSecond Peloponnesian War begins.
-424Pharaoh Artaxerxes1 Longhand reign ended and Darius2 reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-409King of Sparta Agiad Pleistoanax reign ends and Agiad Pausanias reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaHelped restore democracy in Athens; Spartan hegemony
-404The Twenty-eighth Egyptian Dynasty begins.Wiki: PharohsLasted only 6 years, with one pharaoh.
-404Pharaoh Darius2 reign ended and Amyrtaeus reign begins.Wiki: PharohsAmyrtaeus was descendant of the Saite pharaohs of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty and led a successful revolt against the Persians.
-404Egypt no longer a satrapy of the Persian Empire.Wiki: Pharohs
-402安王 [King An] of Zhou reign begins and 威烈王 [King Weilie] of Zhou reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-401King of Sparta Eurypontid Agis2 reign ends and Eurypontid Agesilaus2 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaCorinthian War begins.
-400The Olmec civilization ends Mexico's Preclassic period.SFGate - Olmecs to Toltecs
-398The Twenty-eighth Egyptian Dynasty ends and The Twenty-ninth Egyptian Dynasty begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-398Pharaoh Amyrtaeus reign ended and Baenre Nefaarud1 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsAlso known as Nepherites. Defeated Amyrtaeus in open battle and ordered his uninstallation.
-393Pharaoh Baenre Nefaarud1 reign ended and Khenemmaatre Hakor (Achoris) reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Nefaarud1.
-395King of Sparta Agiad Pausanias reign ends and Agiad Agesipolis1 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaCorinthian War begins.
-393Japanese 孝昭天皇 [Emperor Kōshō] (Mimatsuhiko Kaeshine no Mikoto) reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
-392Japanese 孝安天皇 [Emperor Kōan] (Oho Yamato Tarashihiko Kunioshi Hito no Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan2nd son of Kōshō;presumed legendary
-391Pharaoh PsammuthesWiki: PharohsPossibly dethroned Hakor for a year.
-391Pharaoh Khenemmaatre Hakor (Achoris) reign ended.Wiki: Pharohs
-390Rome sacked by Galls(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsAll of Rome's history was lost during this sacking, and the Romans told legends in lieu of history. All Roman history before -500 was basically fable.
-384Demosthenes installs in Paiania.(2011) YT: SAAS - DemosthenesHe was a country boy, not a child of the city of Athens. And he wasn't very strong or big, with a bad stutter.
-380The Twenty-ninth Egyptian Dynasty ends and The Thirtieth Egyptian Dynasty begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-380King of Sparta Agiad Agesipolis1 reign ends and Agiad Cleombrotus1 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-379Pharaoh Nefaarud2Wiki: PharohsWas deposed and likely uninstalled by Nectanebo1 after ruling for only 4 months. Son of Hakor.
-379Pharaoh Kheperkare Nekhtnebef (Nectanebo1) reign begins.Wiki: PharohsAlso known as Nekhtnebef. Deposed and likely uninstalled Nefaarud2, starting the last dynasty of native Egyptians. Father of Teos.
-377Demosthenes' dad uninstalls.(2011) YT: SAAS - DemosthenesThe father of modern oratory started out as a stuttering country orphan at 7. But his dad left him a sword factory as an inheritance - but the guardians gambled it away. He sued them, but the courts were backed up and trial was over 2 years away. And lawyers (advocates/barristers/councilors) hadn't yet been invented. So he attended every public speech he could. Then he put stuff in his mouth to make speaking harder, to practice talking and get over stuttering. And he'd do this while running on the beach like Rocky.
-376烈王 [King Lie] of Zhou reign begins and 安王 [King An] of Zhou reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-375Demosthenes invents the profession of lawyering by winning his lawsuit.(2011) YT: SAAS - DemosthenesHe had spent the 2 year delay before the trial in good preparation and gave an amazing speech. (As though he earned a self-taught Associate's degree in public speaking.) So amazing that people started coming to him and asking him to write their legal speeches too - sometimes even asking him to represent them. Never speaking extemporaneously, he only spoke after researching and pondering his speech, and was happy to remain mute on a subject when he had no insight or datum to contribute.
-371King of Sparta Agiad Cleombrotus1 reign ends and Agiad Agesipolis2 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-369顯王 [King Xian] of Zhou reign begins and 烈王 [King Lie] of Zhou reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-369King of Sparta Agiad Agesipolis2 reign ends and Agiad Cleomenes2 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaThird Sacred War begins.
-361Pharaoh Kheperkare Nekhtnebef (Nectanebo1) reign ended and Irimaatenre Djedher (Teos) reign begins.Wiki: PharohsCo-regent with his father Nectanebo1 from about -365.
-360Plato writes about Atlantis, claiming he's retelling lawgiver and poet Solon's visit to Egypt in the -580s.(2019) YT: OSP - AtlantisThis is the first we're hearing about it.
-360Plato Describes Atlantis in 'Critias'(2020) YT: VOTP - Plato AtlantisFirst Mention of the Island.
-360King of Sparta Eurypontid Agesilaus2 reign ends and Eurypontid Archidamus3 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaThird Sacred War begins.
-359Pharaoh Irimaatenre Djedher (Teos) reign ended and Senedjemibre Nakhthorhebyt (Nectanebo2) reign begins.Wiki: PharohsLast native ruler of ancient Egypt to be recognized by Manetho. Overthrew Djedher with the aid of Agesilaus2 of Sparta.
-343The Thirtieth Egyptian Dynasty ends and Egypt again came under the control of the Achaemenid Persians.Wiki: PharohsOccasionally designated as the Thirty-first Egyptian Dynasty.
-343Pharaoh Senedjemibre Nakhthorhebyt (Nectanebo2) reign ended and Artaxerxes3 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsEgypt came under Persian rule for the second time.
-338Pharaoh Khababash reign begins.Wiki: PharohsRebel pharaoh who led an invasion in Nubia.
-338Pharaoh Artaxerxes3 reign ended and Artaxerxes4 Arses reign begins.Wiki: PharohsOnly reigned in Lower Egypt.
-338King of Sparta Eurypontid Archidamus3 reign ends and Eurypontid Agis3 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-336Pharaoh Artaxerxes4 Arses reign ended and Darius3 reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-335Pharaoh Khababash reign ends, and upper (southern) Egypt returned to Persian control.Wiki: Pharohs
-332Pharaoh Darius3 reign ended The Late Period, and Setepenre-meryamun Alexander3 (Alexander the Great) reign begins the Hellenistic period.Wiki: PharohsThe Achaemenid Persians were conquered by Macedon, while still holding Egypt. Back to The Argeads ruling, again.
-331King of Sparta Eurypontid Agis3 reign ends and Eurypontid Eudamidas1 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-330Philip2 of Macedon(Reference Missing)
-327Alexander the Great was rewarded by the defeated King Porus, not with gold or silver but with 30 pounds of steel.Wiki: Steel
-326Seric Iron is exported from the Sangam Tamil region to the Romans, Egyptians, Chinese, and Arabs.Wiki: SteelIt was mentioned in literature of Sangam Tamil, Arabic, and Latin as the finest steel in the world.
-325秦惠文王 [King Huiwen of Qin] reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsThe Duke of Qing, 嬴駟 [Ying Si], declared himself 王 (king) and was given this regnal name.
-323Pharaoh Setepenre-meryamun Alexander3 (Alexander the Great) reign ended and Philip3 Arrhidaeus reign begins.Wiki: PharohsFeeble-minded half-brother of Alexander the Great.
-321顯王 [King Xian] of Zhou reign ends and 慎靚王 [King Shenjing] of Zhou reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-320Selucid Satrap Seleucus1 Nicator reign begins.Wiki: Seleucid rulersApama
-317Pharaoh Philip3 Arrhidaeus reign ended and Haaibre Alexander4 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Alexander3 the Great and Roxana.
-315慎靚王 [King Shenjing] of Zhou reign ends and 赧王 [King Nan] of Zhou reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-315Selucid Satrap Seleucus1 Nicator reign ends.Wiki: Seleucid rulers
-312Selucid Satrap Seleucus1 Nicator reign begins.Wiki: Seleucid rulersApama
-309The Argeads second rule in Egypt ends.Wiki: Pharohs
-309Pharaoh Haaibre Alexander4 reign ended.Wiki: Pharohs
-309King of Sparta Agiad Cleomenes2 reign ends and Agiad Areus1 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaUninstalled in battle against Aristodemus, the tyrant of Megalopolis
-306秦昭襄王 [King Zhaoxiang] of Qin reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsZhaoxiang's reign as king of the State of Qin began before the fall of Zhou.
-305Pharaoh Setepenre-meryamun Ptolemy1 Soter reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-305The second Hellenistic Egyptian Dynasty, the Ptolemies, begins.Wiki: PharohsThey ruled Egypt until Egypt became a province of Rome. The most famous member of this Egyptian Dynasty was Cleopatra7, in modern times known simply as Cleopatra, who was successively the consort of Julius Caesar and, after Caesar's uninstall, of Mark Antony, having children with both of them.
-305King of Sparta Eurypontid Eudamidas1 reign ends and Selucid Satrap Seleucus1 Nicator reign ends and Seleucus1 Nicator reign begins and Eurypontid Archidamus4 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaSeleucus1 was with Apama
-300sThe screw (an inclined plane wrapped around an axis) had already been invented - possibly to irrigate the hanging gardens of Babylon - and Archimedes saw and described one, to whom it's incorrectly ascribed.(2020) YT: History Guy - Screwdriver
-290?Archimedes of Syracuse installs to an astronomer in Syracuse, Sicily(2019) YT: PN - Planck Reckoner"Archimedes" means "Master of Thought" (or "big 'ol brain") so was likely picked up as an adult. He designed the Syracusian, a 2000 ton ship with a gym, library, bath, and temple. The Archimedes Screw was invented to remove bilgewater. And he used a lever system to move it from dry dock to the sea.
-291Japanese 孝安天皇 [Emperor Kōan] (Oho Yamato Tarashihiko Kunioshi Hito no Mikoto) reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
-290Japanese 孝霊天皇 [Emperor Kōrei] (Oho Yamato Nekohiko Futoni no Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of JapanSon and heir of Kōan;presumed legendary
-288Pharaoh Weserkare-meryamun Ptolemy2 Philadelphos reign begins.Wiki: PharohsReigned for 39 years
-287Rome - by this point, Plebians and Patricians were equal in all but name.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsThe Roman republic was:
  1. Monarchic by Consuls
  2. Aristocratic by Senate/Magistrates
  3. Democratic by Assemblies.
This let each branch do its job best, and Polybius called this flexibility one of Rome's greatest strengths.
-285Berenice1 - Wife of Ptolemy1 uninstalls.Wiki: Pharohs
-285Pharaoh Setepenre-meryamun Ptolemy1 Soter reign ends.Wiki: Pharohs
-284Pharaoh Arsinoe1 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsWife of Ptolemy2
-281Selucid King Seleucus1 Nicator reign ends and Antiochus1 Soter reign begins.Wiki: Seleucid rulersCo-ruler with his father for 10 years, from 291. Stratonice of Syria
-280Rome has conquered the Etruscans in the north of the Italian peninsula, and the Samnites in the east of the peninsula.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsRome had been "defensively" conquering territory by launching "preemptive retalitory strikes" against those doomed to attack them. Rome set their sites for the Magna Graecia in the southern part of the peninsula. Magna Graecia called home to Greece, who sent Pyrrhus of Epirus. Pyrrhus won twice, but at such cost (1/3 of his armies) that he fled to Siciliy, then returned to fight the Romans and lose, and return to Greece.
-277Pharaoh Arsinoe2 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsWife of Ptolemy2
-276Eratosthenes (Greek mathematician and astronomer) installsAntiquitatem.com: Hour's dividers
-274Pharaoh Arsinoe1 reign ended.Wiki: Pharohs
-275King of Sparta Eurypontid Archidamus4 reign ends and Eurypontid Eudamidas2 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-273"The Ptolemies" proclaim a "state of friendship" with Rome.(2015) reddit: Carthage and EgyptThis was a "diplomatic foil" against Pyrrhus. (Was Egypt afraid of winning some battles to Pyrrhus?)
-270Pharaoh Arsinoe2 reign ends.Wiki: Pharohs
-265King of Sparta Agiad Areus1 reign ends and Agiad Acrotatus2 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-2641st Punic War starts over Sicily.(2014) YT: EH - Punic Wars 1This started when a group of Italian mercenaries called the Mamatines got bored and decided to become pirates. When someone tried to stop them, they appealed to Carthage, who had owned Sicily. When Carthaginian help came with strings attached, they appealed to Rome for help. Hamilcar "Thunder" Barca is a general in Sicily.
-2641st Punic War starts by the city of Syracuse seeking both Rome and Carthage to help them with rowdy pirates.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsRome and Carthage kinda tripped into war, and spent most of the war not fighting each other. Romans found a few Carthaginian triremes and quinqueremes that were beached or sank, and reverse engineered them to build a fleet.
-264Carthage applies to Egypt for a loan, to pay for the 1st Punic War.(2015) reddit: Carthage and EgyptEgypt turns them down.
-262King of Sparta Agiad Acrotatus2 reign ends and Agiad Areus2 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-261Selucid King Antiochus1 Soter reign ends and Antiochus2 Theos reign begins.Wiki: Seleucid rulersBerenice was a daughter of Ptolemy2 of Egypt. Laodice1 had her and her son uninstalled. With Laodice1, Berenice
-256Zhou [`Joe] dynasty becomes corrupt, ends.(Reference Missing)
-256赧王 [King Nan] of Zhou and King Zhaoxiang of Qin reigns ended the Eastern Zhou (東周) period the Zhou dynasty.Wiki: Chinese monarchsKing Nan was deposed by King Zhaoxiang of Qin, who had taken possession of the 九鼎 (Nine Tripod Cauldrons). Duke Wen of the vassal duchy of Eastern Zhou was proclaimed the new king of Zhou, but was considered inauthentic.
-254King of Sparta Agiad Areus2 reign ends and Agiad Leonidas2 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaBriefly deposed while in exile avoiding trial
-250Apollonius of Memphis, a physician, names the urination disease "diabetes".(2017) YT: NR - First diabetes testHe named it after "diabaineion" meaining "siphon" or "pass through", from the way water seemed to pass through the body.
-250秦昭襄王 Zhaoxiang of Qin reign ends and 秦孝文王 Xiaowen of Qin and 秦莊襄王 Zhuangxiang of Qin reigns beginWiki: Chinese monarchs
-249姬杰 [Ji Jie], Duke Wen of the vassal duchy of Eastern Zhou reign ends with his uninstallation.Wiki: Chinese monarchsJi Jie's reign was not widely recognized. Historians generally considered the title of Son of Heaven to be vacant from -256 to -221.
-247秦莊襄王 Zhuangxiang of Qin reign ends and Ying Zheng reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsYing Zheng had not yet unified China.
-246Pharaoh Weserkare-meryamun Ptolemy2 Philadelphos reign ended and Ptolemy3 Euergetes1 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsReigned for 24 years
-246Selucid King Antiochus2 Theos reign ends and Seleucus2 Callinicus reign begins.Wiki: Seleucid rulersLaodice2
-245King of Sparta Eurypontid Eudamidas2 reign ends and Eurypontid Agis4 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-243Pharaoh Berenice2 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsWife of Ptolemy3.
-242King of Sparta Agiad Leonidas2 reign ends and Agiad Cleombrotus2 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-2411st Punic War ends.(2014) YT: EH - Punic Wars 1About 1 million soldiers (including 1/5 of Rome's male population) were lost to this conflict. This war was where Rome gained sea power - rumor is they didn't know how to build warships so they copied a destroyed Carthaginian warship that had washed up onshore. Very interesting war. Carthage was broke after this and couldn't afford to pay their mercenaries. (Carthage was a merchant city and didn't do the "citizen soldier" thing.) So the mercenaries started raiding Carthage.
-2411st Punic War ends.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsRome takes Siciliy, and also Corsica and Sardinia because why not? Following this, Hamilcar Barca colonizes the seaside(?) coast(?) of Spain, to mine for reparations to Rome. Hamilcar, Hannibal, and the other Carthaginians were furious about losing the cities.
-241King of Sparta Agiad Cleombrotus2 reign ends and Eurypontid Agis4 reign ends and Agiad Leonidas2 reign begins and Eurypontid Eudamidas3 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-240First recorded sighting of comet later determined to be Halley's Comet.Wiki: Halley's Comet
-240Rice farms and rice kingdoms spread across Honshu island of Japan.(2016) YT: BW - history of japan
-239Hamilcar Barca completes defeating the unpaid Carthaginian mercenaries who were sacking Carthage.(2014) YT: EH - Punic Wars 1
-238?Hamilcar Barca convinces Carthaginians to give him money to secure their African holdings.(2014) YT: EH - Punic Wars 1Once the army is ready, they travel right through Africa to Spain. He makes his son Hannibal swear to never trust Rome, on a religious offering, when crossing the Strait of Gibraltar. Hamilcar takes the silver mines, and starts to carve out a personal empire. The Carthaginians are concerned that he's in Spain, but enjoying the new silver.
-235King of Sparta Agiad Leonidas2 reign ends and Agiad Cleomenes3 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaExiled after the Battle of Sellasia
-234?Hamilcar Barca's army finally reaches the Eastern coast of Spain, after 4 years of constant warring.(2014) YT: EH - Punic Wars 14 years of constant fighting turned these greenhorn mercenaries into one of the best fighting forces ever assembled, completely loyal to Hamilcar. Rome was concerned about the proximity of the army, sent an envoy, and Hamilcar told them he was just raiding the locals to repay Rome.
-230?Hamilcar Barca founds Barcelona, naming it Barcino after his family.(2014) YT: EH - Punic Wars 1Hamilcar uninstalled soon after, under much speculation.
-230?Hasdrubal Barca (son in law) rules the Barca empire.(2014) YT: EH - Punic Wars 1Most notable of Hasdrubal's works was the definition of borders with Rome, which will impact the 2nd Punic wars.
-228King of Sparta Eurypontid Eudamidas3 reign ends and Eurypontid Archidamus5 reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-227King of Sparta Eurypontid Archidamus5 reign ends and Eurypontid Eucleidas reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaActually an Agiad; elevated by Cleomenes3 in place of Archidamus5. Died in the Battle of Sellasia.
-225Selucid King Seleucus2 Callinicus reign ends and Seleucus3 Ceraunus (or Soter) reign begins.Wiki: Seleucid rulersSeleucus3 was politically uninstalled by members of his army.
-223Selucid King Seleucus3 Ceraunus (or Soter) reign ends and Antiochus3 the Great reign begins.Wiki: Seleucid rulersAntiochus3 was a brother of Seleucus3. With Laodice3, Euboea of Chalcis
-222Pharaoh Berenice2 reign ends.Wiki: Pharohs
-222Pharaoh Ptolemy3 Euergetes1 reign ended and Ptolemy4 Philopator reign begins.Wiki: Pharohsuninstalled in unclear circumstances, possibly by fire in the palace or uninstall.
-222Agiad Cleomenes3 reign ends and Eurypontid Eucleidas reign ends.Wiki: Seleucid rulers
-221Hasdrubal Barca uninstalled.(2014) YT: EH - Punic Wars 1
-221The Chinese of the Warring States had quench-hardened steelWiki: Steel
-221Qin [`Chin] dynasty replaces Zhou [`Joe] dynasty(2019) YT: OS - 3 Kingdoms
-221Ying Zheng (China) completed the conquest of the other states (kingdoms), ending the 戰國時代 (Warring States) period, and declared himself Qin Shi Huang (First Emperor of Qin).Wiki: Chinese monarchs Qin Shi Huang formed a new title for himself by combining 皇 [huáng] (sovereign) and 帝 [dì] (emperor), to form the new title 皇帝 [huángdì] (soverign emperor), thus claiming legendary status for himself. The unification of China under the Qin dynasty is usually considered to be the beginning of Imperial China. Chinese convention: use regnal name.
-220Pharaoh Arsinoe3 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsWife of Ptolemy4.
-219Hannibal attacks the Roman-allied Seguntum in Spain, and Rome (defensively) declares war.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsHannibal continues to "Leeroy Jenkins" across the Alps.
-219King of Sparta Agiad Agesipolis3 reign begins and Eurypontid Lycurgus reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaEurypontid deposes the last Agiad, Agesipolis3, and ruled alone. Following the Battle of Sellasia, the dual monarchy remained vacant until Cleomenes3's death in -219.
-218Hannibal reaches Rome with 40k soldiers and 37 elephants.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsHannibal and company stayed there for 16 years, raiding and looting and pillaging. Not sure how long the elephants lasted.
-2182nd Punic War starts(2014) YT: EH - Punic Wars 1
-216Battle at Cannae.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsA Roman supply depot, Carthage attacked in a U shape, and the center fell back under Roman pressure. Then the cavalry flank on either side pushed back the Roman cavalry, boxing in the Roman infantry with the Numidian cavalry on the sides. Rome lost most (at least 50k) of their 80k troops fell to the 40k Carthaginians (and 10k cavalry), and the remaining Romans were taken prisoner. Rumor was the Carthaginians stopped slaying and started capturing because their arms got tired.
-215Japanese 孝霊天皇 [Emperor Kōrei] (Oho Yamato Nekohiko Futoni no Mikoto) reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
-215King of Sparta Agiad Agesipolis3 reign ends.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-214Huron's granson, Hieronymus was assissinated by pro-Carthaginians, which led Rome to declare war.(2019) YT: PN - Planck ReckonerArchimedes, now in old age, designed war machines to defend his island of Syracuse. His most effective invention was staggering catapults, to extend their drop range.
-214Japanese 孝元天皇 [Emperor Kōgen] (Oho Yamato Nekohiko Kuni Kuru no Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of JapanSon and heir of Kōrei;presumed legendary
-211Scipio sails to Spain to "de-Carthage-ify" the area.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman Republics
-210Emperor 秦始皇 (Qin Shi Huang) of Zhou reign ends and 秦二世 [Qin Er Shi] of Zhou reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-210King of Sparta Eurypontid Lycurgus reign ends and Tyrant Machanidas reign begins and Eurypontid Pelops reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaMachanidas was regent for Pelops, who was son of Lycurgus
-207Silk Road begins.(2016) YT: GN - China
-207Upper (southern) Egypt revolt begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-207Emperor 秦二世 [Qin Er Shi] of Zhou reign ends the 秦朝 [Qin] dynasty and 秦三世 [Qin San Shi] of Zhou reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsZiying is often referred to by his personal name and as king, rather than emperor, of Qin (秦王子嬰).
-207King of Sparta Tyrant Machanidas reign ends.Wiki: Kings of Sparta
-206Qin [`Chin] dynasty becomes corrupt, Han dynasty replaces them(2019) YT: OS - 3 Kingdoms
-206King of Sparta Eurypontid Pelops reign ends and Tyrant Nabis reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Spartafirst regent for Pelops, then usurper, claiming descent from the Eurypontid king Demaratus
-205Pharaoh Hugronaphor reign begins.Wiki: PharohsPharaoh in revolt in Upper (southern) Egypt
-204Pharaoh Ptolemy4 Philopator reign ended and Ptolemy5 Epiphanes reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-204Pharaoh Arsinoe3 reign ends.Wiki: Pharohs
-202Scipio, having studied Cannae, knew the value of the Numidian cavalry, and went to the area to exploit a Numidian civil war and get his own horses.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsHannibal left Rome to meet Scipio at Zama. Supposedly the 2 met - so says Polybius's History of Rome book 30, chapters 30 & 31. When they fought, Scipio left "charge lanes" for elephants between his ranks. Scipio's cavalry took Carthage's to flight, and infantry fighting was close until Scipio's Roman cavalry returned from behind Carthage's infantry line. This ends the 2nd Punic War, but doesn't stop Cato the Elder from ending his speeches with "Carthago Delenda Est" (Carthage must be destroyed) for another 50 years.
-202Han Gaozu (China) aka 高皇帝 [Emperor Gao] of Han reign begins the 西漢 [Western Han] period of the 漢朝 [Han dynasty] (Chinese Morning)Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-2012nd Punic War ends.(2014) YT: EH - Punic Wars 1
-200Tenochtitlan exists.(2018) YT: OSP - QuetzalcoatlIt was built by an unknown nation or micropower. Or built itself, or possibly popped into existence fully formed - the history is unclear.
-200Tamil trade guild in TissamaharamaWiki: SteelIn the South East of Sri Lanka, brought with them some of the oldest iron and steel artifacts and production processes to the island from the classical period.
-200Apollonius of Perga attempted to extend Greek numerals beyond 100 million.(2019) YT: PN - Planck ReckonerAncient Greeks used basically Roman numerals with Greek letters, and M for "myriad" was 10k. Apollonius wrote Myraid squared as M^alpha, M cubed as M^Beta, etc. (invented exponents) (like the 32bit limit)
-200Zapotecs dominated the Oaxaca regionSFGate - Olmecs to ToltecsThey rose to ascendancy as the Olmec civilization declined.
-199Pharaoh Hugronaphor reign ended and Ankhmakis reign begins.Wiki: PharohsPharaoh in revolt in Upper (southern) Egypt
-195Han Gaozu (China) aka 高皇帝 [Emperor Gao] of Han reign ends and 孝惠皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Hui] of Han reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-194Eratosthenes uninstalls.Antiquitatem.com: Hour's dividersHe used the sexagesimal system to divide the circle into 60 parts or degrees (the Latin word gradus means step) and created the horizontal parallel lines from east to west to indicate the latitude.
-193Pharaoh Cleopatra1 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsWife of Ptolemy5, co-regent with Ptolemy6 during his minority
-192King of Sparta Tyrant Nabis reign ends and The Achaean League annexed Sparta reign begins and Tyrant Laconicus reign begins.Wiki: Kings of Spartalast known king of Sparta from Heraclid dynasty
-188孝惠皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Hui] of Han reign ends and Qianshao of Han reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs吕后 [dowager-Empress Lü] (personal name: 吕雉 [Lü Zhi]) served as regent for Qianshao, who would be deposed before reaching adulthood. She was totally pulling a "Cersi Lannister" here.
-187Selucid King Antiochus3 the Great reign ends and Seleucus4 Philopator reign begins.Wiki: Seleucid rulersThis was a brother-sister marriage. With Laodice4
-186Upper (southern) Egypt revolt ends.Wiki: Pharohs
-185Pharaoh Ankhmakis reign ended.Wiki: Pharohs
-184Emperor Qianshao of Han is deposed and Houshao of Han reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs吕后 [dowager-Empress Lü] (personal name: 吕雉 [Lü Zhi]) served as regent for Houshao, who would be deposed before reaching adulthood.
-180Pharaoh Ptolemy5 Epiphanes reign ended and Ptolemy6 Philometor first reign begins.Wiki: Pharohsuninstalled 145
-180Emperor Houshao of Han is deposed and 孝文皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Wen] of Han reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-176Pharaoh Cleopatra1 reign ended.Wiki: PharohsWife of Ptolemy5, continued to rule for 4 more years?
-175Pharaoh Cleopatra2 first reign begins.Wiki: PharohsWife of Ptolemy6.
-175Selucid King Seleucus4 Philopator reign ends and Antiochus4 Epiphanes reign begins.Wiki: Seleucid rulersThis was a brother-sister marriage. With Laodice4
-169Pharaoh Ptolemy8 Euergetes2 first reign begins.Wiki: PharohsProclaimed king by Alexandrians in 170; ruled jointly with Ptolemy6 Philometor and Cleopatra2 from 169 to 164.
-167Rome is so enriched by war that they stop property taxing their Italian citizens.(2018) YT: Invicta - Taxes Ancient RomeImport, export, and public land use taxes were still levied.
-164Babylonians record sighting of comet later determined to be Halley's Comet.Wiki: Halley's Comet
-164Pharaoh Ptolemy6 Philometor first reign ended.Wiki: Pharohs
-164Pharaoh Cleopatra2 first reign ended.Wiki: Pharohs
-163Pharaoh Ptolemy8 Euergetes2 second reign ended and Ptolemy6 Philometor second reign begins.Wiki: PharohsRestored
-163Pharaoh Cleopatra2 second reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-163Selucid King Antiochus4 Epiphanes reign ends and Antiochus5 Eupator reign begins.Wiki: Seleucid rulers
-161Selucid King Antiochus5 Eupator reign ends and Demetrius1 Soter reign begins.Wiki: Seleucid rulersSon of Seleucus4 Philopator and Laodice4. With Apama ?, Laodice5?
-158Japanese 孝元天皇 [Emperor Kōgen] (Oho Yamato Nekohiko Kuni Kuru no Mikoto) reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
-157Japanese 開化天皇 [Emperor Kaika] (Waka Yamato Nekohiko Oho Bibino no Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan2nd son of Kōgen;presumed legendary
-157孝文皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Wen] of Han reign ends and 孝景皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Jing] of Han reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-150Aretaeus of Cappdocia (physician), describes diabetes as "a melting down of the flesh and limbs into urine.(2017) YT: NR - First diabetes testAt some point, the taste test for urine was discovered. Diabetic urine is sweet, and so "mellitus" for "like honey" was appended to the disease's name.
-150Selucid King Demetrius1 Soter reign ends and Alexander1 Balas reign begins.Wiki: Seleucid rulersSon of Antiochus4 and Laodice4. With Cleopatra Thea
-1483rd Punic War starts(2014) YT: EH - Punic Wars 1
-1483rd Punic War starts(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsRome returned to raze Carthage completely and salt the earth so Carthage couldn't return.
-1463rd Punic War ends.(2014) YT: EH - Punic Wars 1
-1463rd Punic War ends.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsThe Roman religion (which was a cornerstone of the culture) required a priest to stab enemy land with a javelin - but sometimes enemy land was far, so they kept a small square of it in the city. So maybe instead of salting all of Carthage (and modern day Tunis, Tunisia), which would be prohibitively expensive, they might have just salted their local patch of Carthage.
-145Pharaoh Ptolemy6 Philometor second reign ended and Ptolemy8 Euergetes2 third reign & Ptolemy7 Neos Philopator only reign begins.Wiki: PharohsPtolemy8 was restored. Ptolemy7 was proclaimed co-ruler by his father (Ptolemy6?); later ruled under regency of his mother Cleopatra2
-145Selucid King Demetrius2 Nicator reign begins and Alexander1 Balas reign ends and Antiochus6 Dionysus (or Epiphanes) reign begins.Wiki: Seleucid rulersDemetrius2 was son of Demetrius1, first reign. With Cleopatra Thea
-144Pharaoh Ptolemy7 Neos Philopator reign ended.Wiki: Pharohs
-142Pharaoh Cleopatra3 first reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSecond wife of Ptolemy8.
-141孝景皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Jing] of Han reign ends and 孝武皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Wu] of Han reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-140Selucid King Diodotus Tryphon reign begins and Antiochus6 Dionysus (or Epiphanes) reign ends.Wiki: Seleucid rulersAntiochus6 was son of Alexander Balas and Cleopatra Thea. Diodotus was a general who was a regent for Antiochus6 Dionysus. Took the throne after uninstalling his charge.
-138Selucid King Diodotus Tryphon reign ends and Demetrius2 Nicator reign ends and Antiochus7 Sidetes (or Euergetes) reign begins.Wiki: Seleucid rulers
-1351st Servile War starts.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsThis was a slave revolt in Sicily and Italy.
-1321st Servile War ends.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman Republics
-131Pharaoh Ptolemy MemphitisWiki: PharohsProclaimed King by Cleopatra2; soon uninstalled by Ptolemy8
-131Pharaoh Ptolemy8 Euergetes2 third reign & Cleopatra3 first reign ended with Cleopatra2 leading a revolt against him & Cleopatra3, becoming sole ruler of Egypt.Wiki: PharohsThis allowed Harsiesi to take power in Upper (southern) Egypt
-131Pharaoh Harsiesi reign begins.Wiki: PharohsPharaoh in revolt in Upper (southern) Egypt
-130Pharaoh Harsiesi reign ended.Wiki: Pharohs
-129Selucid King Demetrius2 Nicator reign begins and Antiochus7 Sidetes (or Euergetes) reign ends and Alexander2 Zabinas reign begins.Wiki: Seleucid rulersAntiochus7 was son of Demetrius1. With Cleopatra Thea. Alexander2 was a counter-king who claimed to be an adoptive son of Antiochus7 Sidetes
-127Pharaoh Cleopatra2 second reign ended and Cleopatra3 & Ptolemy8 Euergetes2 reign begins, alongside Ptolemy8 Euergetes2 4th reign beins with restoration.Wiki: PharohsCleopatra3 was restored with Ptolemy8; later co-regent with Ptolemy9 and Ptolemy10 before being uninstalled by her own son Ptolemy10.
-126Selucid King Demetrius2 Nicator reign ends and Cleopatra Thea reign begins.Wiki: Seleucid rulersDaughter of Ptolemy6 of Egypt. Married to three kings: Alexander Balas, Demetrius2 Nicator, and Antiochus7 Sidetes. Mother of Antiochus6, Seleucus 5, Antiochus8 Grypus, and Antiochus9 Cyzicenus. Coregent with her son Antiochus8 Grypus. Gorgias (Greek General) and War against Jews
-125Selucid King Antiochus8 Grypus reign begins.Wiki: Seleucid rulersTryphaena of Egypt, Cleopatra Selene1 of Egypt
-124Pharaoh Cleopatra2 third reign begins.Wiki: PharohsReconciled with Ptolemy8. Reconciled with Ptolemy8; co-ruled with Cleopatra3 and Ptolemy until -116.
-123Selucid King Alexander2 Zabinas reign ends.Wiki: Seleucid rulers
-121Selucid King Cleopatra Thea reign ends.Wiki: Seleucid rulers
-116Pharaoh Ptolemy8 Euergetes2 fourth reign & Cleopatra2 reign ended and Ptolemy9 Soter2 & Cleopatra4 reign begins.Wiki: Pharohs
-115Pharaoh Cleopatra4 reign ended.Wiki: PharohsPushed out by Cleopatra3.
-114Selucid King Antiochus9 Cyzicenus reign begins.Wiki: Seleucid rulersCleopatra4 of Egypt, Cleopatra Selene1 of Egypt
-110Pharaoh Ptolemy9 Soter2 reign ended and Ptolemy10 Alexander1 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsPharaoh Ptolemy9 Soter2 uninstalled -80
-110s?Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus work to reward their political donors with land redistributions.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsWhen Tiberius comes up for reelection, he's uninstalled instead by the Optimates (conservative) faction.
-109Pharaoh Ptolemy10 Alexander1 reign ended.Wiki: Pharohsuninstalled -88
-107Pharaoh Cleopatra3 reign ended.Wiki: Pharohs
-1042nd Servile War starts.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsThis was a slave revolt in Sicily and Italy.
-1002nd Servile War ends.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman Republics
-100?Gaius Gracchus and allies uninstalled.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsAlso by the Optimates (conservative) faction.
-98Japanese 開化天皇 [Emperor Kaika] (Waka Yamato Nekohiko Oho Bibino no Mikoto) reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
-97Japanese 崇神天皇 [Emperor Sujin] (Mimaki Irihiko Inie no Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of JapanFirst emperor with a direct possibility of existence - previous emperors may have been legendary or mythological.
-96Selucid King Antiochus8 Grypus reign ends and Antiochus9 Cyzicenus reign ends and Seleucus6 Epiphanes Nicator reign begins.Wiki: Seleucid rulers
-95Selucid King Seleucus6 Epiphanes Nicator reign ends ands Philip1 Philadelphus and Demetrius3 Eucaerus (or Philopator) and Antiochus11 Epiphanes Philadelphus and Antiochus10 Eusebes Philopator reigns BeginWiki: Seleucid rulersEusebes was with Cleopatra Selene1
-92Selucid King Antiochus11 Epiphanes Philadelphus reign ends and Antiochus10 Eusebes Philopator reign ends.Wiki: Seleucid rulers
-90Social War occurs.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsMost of Italy revolts against the rest of Rome, after which all Italians were granted full citizenship.
-90Hipparchus created a system of vertical lines going from north to south, dividing the sphere into 360 degrees.Antiquitatem.com: Hour's dividers
-90Mayan king Yax Ehb' Xok (Tikal) reign occursWiki: Maya rulersFounder of Tikal lineage AKA Yax Moch Xok, Yax Chakte'l Xok, First Scaffold Shark
-88Sulla's 1st War starts.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsThis was a factional civil war between Gaius Marius's populist Populares (liberal) and Lucius Sulla's aristocratic Optimates (conservative). Sulla returns to Rome from a campaign in Anatolia, declares himself emperor, and proceeds to "uninstall en masse" Populares.
-87Babylonians and both record sighting of comet later determined to be Halley's Comet.Wiki: Halley's Comet
-87Sulla's 1st War ends.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman Republics
-87孝武皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Wu] of Han reign ends and 孝昭皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Zhao] of Han reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-87Selucid King Demetrius3 Eucaerus (or Philopator) reign ends and Antiochus12Dionysus reign begins.Wiki: Seleucid rulers
-84Selucid King Antiochus12Dionysus reign ends and Philip1 Philadelphus reign ends.Wiki: Seleucid rulers
-83Sulla's 2nd War starts.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsSulla does it all again.
-83Selucid King Seleucus7 Kybiosaktes or Philometor reign begins.Wiki: Seleucid rulers
-81Sulla's 2nd War ends.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman Republics
-81Sertorian War starts.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman Republics
-81Pharaoh Berenice3 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsForced to marry Ptolemy11; uninstalled on his orders 19 days later
-80Pharaoh Berenice3 reign ended and Ptolemy12 Neos Dionysos (Auletes) reign begins.Wiki: PharohsSon of Ptolemy9; uninstalled -51
-80Pharaoh Ptolemy11 Alexander2 - Young son of Ptolemy10 Alexander; installed by Sulla; ruled for 80 days before being lynched by citizens for uninstalling Berenice3Wiki: Pharohs
-79Pharaoh Cleopatra5 Tryphaena reign begins.Wiki: PharohsWife of Ptolemy12, mother of Berenice4
-74孝昭皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Zhao] of Han reign ends and Marquis of Haihun reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-733rd Servile War starts.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsThis was a slave revolt in Sicily and Italy.
-73Chinese Marquis of Haihun reign ends and 孝宣皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Xuan] of Han reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-72Sertorian War ends.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman Republics
-713rd Servile War ends.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman Republics
-69Selucid King Seleucus7 Kybiosaktes or Philometor reign ends and Antiochus13 Asiaticus reign begins.Wiki: Seleucid rulers
-68Pharaoh Cleopatra5 Tryphaena reign ended.Wiki: Pharohs
-65Selucid King Philip2 Philoromaeus reign begins.Wiki: Seleucid rulers
-64Selucid King Antiochus13 Asiaticus reign ends.Wiki: Seleucid rulers
-63Marcus Tullius Cicero [Kik-e-ro] elected in Greece(Reference Missing)
-63Cantiline Conspiracy to overthrow Cicero's consulship.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman Republics
-63Roman night watch division was adopted after Roman occupation of Judea began.Agape Bible Study - Jewish Time

We keep Roman time - the Romans began their day at midnight, and counted 12 hours to high (12) noon and then 12 more hours from noon to the next midnight. Jewish daytime hours begin with dawn and end with sundown, which begins the next day. The hours are seasonal, so the length of hours varied with the season of the year.

Twelve-hour time division
Jewish TimeRoman TimeNight Watch
12 Midnight-3AMThird watch
3AM-DawnFourth watch
1st HourDawn-8AM
2nd Hour8-9AM
3rd Hour9-10AM
4th Hour10-11AM
5th Hour11AM-12 Noon
6th Hour12 Noon-1PM
7th Hour1-2PM
8th Hour2-3PM
9th Hour3-4PM
10th Hour4-5PM
11th Hour5-6PM
12th Hour6PM-Sundown
Sundown-9PMFirst watch
9PM-12 MidnightSecond watch

The end of each watch was signaled by a trumpet signal as Jesus noted in Mark 13:35: "So stay awake, because you do not know when the master of the house is coming: evening, midnight, cockcrow or dawn." Referencing the Roman night watches, where a trumpet call signaled the end of each watch, and the 3rd ending into the 4th watch beginning was nicknamed the "cockcrow" - probably because male chickens would be up soon.

-63Selucid King Philip2 Philoromaeus reign ends.Wiki: Seleucid rulers
-60Julius Caesar is a consul.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsThis was partly about fulfilling his Nobilitas - being born rich, and using that advantage to contribute to society in some grand way. It was also about his triumvirate with Pompey Magnus and Licinius Crassus. Pompey married Caesar's daughter, Crassus bribed Caesar's way to consul, and Caesar passed laws for Pompey and Crassus, including land redistribution and debt forgiveness. Caesar may have passed illegal laws, but had Imperium while consul, which precluded being charged with crimes.
-60Cleopatra rules Egypt.(Reference Missing)
-59Caesar gets a small province in southern Gaul, with a few legions, and proceeds to go on campaign.(Reference Missing)This extends Caesar's Imperium, as it covers generals too. Caesar's history is so well known because he wrote extensively of his deeds, sending newsletters home to Rome for people to know how great he was.
-58Caesar attacks the Helvetii under pretense that they were attacking an ally of Rome.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsPart of Rome's defensive invasions. Caesar left his legions in southern Gaul for the winter, while he went to northern Italy.
-58Pharaoh Ptolemy12 Neos Dionysos (Auletes) first reign ended and Cleopatra6 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsDaughter of Ptolemy12
-57Pharaoh Cleopatra6 reign ended.Wiki: Pharohs
-58First Gallic Wars start(2017) YT: HC - Vercingetorix
-58Pharaoh Berenice4 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsDaughter of Ptolemy12; forced to marry Seleucus Kybiosaktes, but had him strangled. Joint rule with Cleopatra6 until 57.
-56Caesar attacks the Veneti micropower, saying they "revolted from Rome"(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsThis micropower was in Northeast France. He considers all of Gaul to be Rome's, which makes it all his.
-55Caesar invades Gaul(2017) YT: FOL - History of England
-55Caesar starts pushing "Gaul is Roman".(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsHe saw Britain and Germany as threats to Gaul and thus threats to Rome. So he crosses the Rhine, and also the British Channel (which was a bust)
-55Caesar invades Britain.(2017) YT: HC - Caesar in Britain 1

Many considered it legend, but he'd talked with traders from there.

This was why he was so keen on conquering Gaul, with a permanent base at Calais - where he planned to cross. 2 massive micropowers (4k humans) crossed the Rhine. When the snow melted, he met them, and their envoy said they had been forced out and needed relocation. He negotiated to buy time to close distance, then defensively attacked the micropowers. Micropower leadership came to personally apologize, but he had them arrested, which infuriated Cato back in Rome (Caesar had attacked the Veneti for doing the opposite). Without their leaders, the micropowers were disorganized and suffered a great rout.

He decided to cross the Rhine to punish the Germans. Instead of taking a ferry, he built a bridge (which he describes in excruciating detail) in 10 days. Vilages were empty because micropowers fled while he was building the bridge. So Caesar marched back and (partially?) destroyed the bridge. At least he got bragging rights of "First general to cross the Rhine with an army." Then, claiming the Britains were supporting Caesar's enemies in Gaul, to make this invasion a defensive one.

Transports could only take 2 of the 8 legions, and the ships with cavalry turned back in a small storm. On the island, Caesar was countered by British cavalry and chariots. They fought inland, created a fort, but kept meeting resistance so fled in the night, while waiting for another attack. On the way back, a boat of 300 infantry was blown deep into Belgae territory, and were surrounded by 6k Belgae fighters - Caesar ordered every cavalry unit to assist those soldiers.

-55Caesar visits Britain by crossing from Calais. Deals with German micropowers, bad weather, hostile Britons, and broken ships(2017) YT: FOL - History of England
-55Pharaoh Berenice4 reign ended and Ptolemy12 Neos Dionysos (Auletes) second reign begins.Wiki: PharohsRestored; reigned briefly with his daughter Cleopatra7 before his uninstall
-54Caesar returns to Britain and pushed all the way to the Thames.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsHe had to prove to Rome that he still had it.
-53First Gallic Wars end(2017) YT: HC - Vercingetorix
-53Caesar reattacks Germany.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsHe leaves half of a bridge behind as an open threat.
-52Vercingetorix had been uniting Gaul's remaining micropowers against Rome.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsHe camped the micropowers on a hillside near Alesia. Caesar surrounded the hill and the city with a 10 mile wall, then built a 14 mile wall to defend the inner wall. Gallic micropowers came to help the city, but a few of Caesar's cavalry squads were enough to scare them off. And so Caesar took the rest of Gaul in one move.
-51Pharaoh Ptolemy12 Neos Dionysos (Auletes) second reign ended and Ptolemy13 & Cleopatra7 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsPtolemy13 & Cleopatra7 were brother & sister. Cleopatra7 ruled jointly with her father Ptolemy12, her brother Ptolemy13, her brother-husband Ptolemy14, and her son Ptolemy15; in modern usage, the stand-alone use of Cleopatra with no ordinal number usually refers to Cleopatra7.
-49Inhabitants of Cisalpine Gaul received Roman citizenship.(2013) YT: EN - Cisalpine Gaul
-49Caesar crosses the Rubicon with the 13th Legion and returns to Rome.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsHe spent the last 2 years cleaning up small pockets of resistance. Pompey (who had Caesar's province revoked) and most of the Senate "noped" to Greece. Caesar was proclaimed "Speaker" (Dictator). Caesar then demoilshed Pompey's army at the Battle of Pharsalus against all odds.
-49Caesar's Civil War starts.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman Republics
-49孝宣皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Xuan] of Han reign ends and 孝元皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Yuan] of Han reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-48Pompey flees from Caesar to Egypt.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsHe was looking for a boy Pharaoh Ptolemy, but got beheaded instead. Caesar was terrified to see Pompey's head, because they were both Romans, but also Caesar was going to pardon Pompey. Most of Pompey's army and everyone who fled to Greece was pardoned, balancing out the mass-uninstall of Galls in some way.
-48Pharaoh Arsinoe4 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsArsinoe4 was in opposition to Cleopatra7.
-48Caesar stays in Egypt and helps Cleopatra in her civil war against her brother.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman Republics
29-47Caesarion (Ptolemy15 Philopator Philometor Caesar) was the last king of the Ptolemaic Egyptian Dynasty of Egypt, reigned jointly with his mother Cleopatra7 of Egypt.Wiki: PharohsHe was the eldest son of Cleopatra7, and possibly the only son of Julius Caesar, after whom he was named. He also ran a census, construction projects, brought the provinces closer to Rome, and was a solid leader.
-47Pharaoh Ptolemy13 & Arsinoe4 reign ended and Ptolemy14 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsPtolemy14 was the younger brother of Cleopatra7 and Ptolemy13
-46Caesar returns to Rome and instituted reforms.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsHe limited the power of province governors, so they couldn't do what he did to Pompey. He replaced the old Roman calendar (10 months, February is an endless time of cold misery, and needs annual realignment or it loses 11 days a year.) with the Julian Calendar, a modified form of which is in use today.
-45Caesar's Civil War ends.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman Republics
-44Pharaoh Ptolemy14 reign ended and Ptolemy15 reign begins.Wiki: PharohsInfant son of Cleopatra7; aged 3 when proclaimed co-ruler with Cleopatra. Last known ruler of ancient Egypt when Rome took over.
-44[Political uninstaller] Wars start.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman Republics
-44Caesar named dictator for life.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman Republics
15Mar-44Caesar uninstalled by 23 nobles in the theater of Pompey.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman RepublicsWhile the politically-motivated uninstallers thought themselves noble, the people did love Caesar, and he had pardoned most of those same nobles. For this, Dante later put Brutus and Cassius in the lowermost pit of hell for betraying their protector.
-44Sicilian Revolt starts.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman Republics
-43Iron age ends in BritainWiki: Iron & Steel (link 404s)
-42[Political uninstaller] Wars end.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman Republics
-42Final Wars of the Republic start.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman Republics
-41Roman Gallia merged with Roman Italy(2013) YT: EN - Cisalpine Gaul
-36Sicilian Revolt ends.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman Republics
-33孝元皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Yuan] of Han reign ends and 孝成皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Cheng] of Han reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-30Pharaoh Ptolemy15 reign ended.Wiki: Pharohs
-30Pharaoh Cleopatra7 reign ended with her self-uninstall.Wiki: Pharohs
12Aug-30Alleged uninstall of Cleopatra7.Wiki: PharohsCesarion was sole Pharaoh for the next 11 days.
23Aug-30Alleged uninstall of Cesarion.Wiki: PharohsIt is tradition that he was hunted down and uninstalled on the orders of Octavian, who would become the Roman emperor Augustus, but the historical evidence does not exist.
-30Final Wars of the Republic end.(2020) YT: OSP - Roman Republics
-30The second Hellenistic Egyptian Dynasty ends.(Reference Missing)
-30Japanese 崇神天皇 [Emperor Sujin] (Mimaki Irihiko Inie no Mikoto) reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
-29Japanese 垂仁天皇 [Emperor Suinin] (Ikume Irihiko Isachi no Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
16Jan-27Roman emperor Augustus (Imperator Caesar Augustus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsGrandnephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar, became emperor as a result of settlement with the Roman Senate.
-12Han court records 2-week sighting of comet later determined to be Halley's Comet.Wiki: Halley's Comet
-7孝成皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Cheng] of Han reign ends and 孝哀皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)'Ai] of Han reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
-1孝哀皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)'Ai] of Han reign ends and 孝平皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Ping] of Han reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
AUC 753Carbon steel was made in Western Tanzania, by the ancestors of the Haya micropower - through a complex process of pre-heating, allowing temperatures inside a furnace to reach 1300-1400 C (2373-2552 F).Wiki: Steel
4Jesus of Nazareth installs(2019) YT: VOTP - Jesus
5孝平皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Ping] of Han reign ends and Ruzi Ying reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsRuzi was prince, rather than emperor of Han. Officially, the throne of emperor of Han was vacant from calendar years 6 to 9.
Dec9Ruzi Ying reign ends the Western Han (西漢) period of the Han dynasty (漢朝); and 王莽 [King Mang] reign begins the Xin dynasty (新朝) and Han Interregnum.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
14Augustus Caesar uninstalls.(2018) YT: Invicta - Taxes Ancient RomeRome held most of the Mediterranean coastline, along with all of current France and Spain.
18Sep14Roman emperor Augustus (Imperator Caesar Augustus) reign ends and Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Augustus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsTiberius was stepson, former son-in-law and adopted son of Augustus
30Jesus of Nazareth sentenced to uninstall by Pontius Pilate.(2019) YT: VOTP - JesusChristianity quickly resurges, both in Judea and in Rome, "where all things horrible or shameful in the world collect, and find a vogue" says Tacitus.
23王莽 [King Mang] reign ends the Xin dynasty (新朝) and Han Interregnum. and Gengshi Emperor reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
25Chinese Gengshi Emperor reign ends and 光武皇帝 [Emperor Guangwu] of Han reign begins the Eastern Han (東漢) period of the Han dynasty (漢朝)Wiki: Chinese monarchs
30Pope St Peter (PETRVS) (Jewish) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesApostle of Jesus. According to Catholic tradition he received the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven (Matthew 16:18–19). Feast day (Feast of Saints Peter and Paul) 29 June. He is recognized by the Catholic Church as the first Bishop of Rome appointed by Christ. Also revered as saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 29 June. St Peter's Basilica in Vatican City is named after him.
33Pliny the Elder makes note of Aegusapami comet(2019) YT: PN - Story of Comets 1
16Mar37Roman emperor Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Augustus) reign ends and Caligula (formally Gaius) (Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsCaligula was grandnephew and adoptive grandson of Tiberius & great-grandson of Augustus.
40Caligula invades England(2017) YT: FOL - History of England
24Jan41Roman emperor Caligula (formally Gaius) (Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus) reign ends and Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsClaudius was uncle of Caligula, grandnephew of Augustus, proclaimed emperor by the Praetorian Guard and accepted by the Senate.
43Claudius conquers England (and Wales?), naming it Britannia. Founds London (Londinium), Bath, York, Chester(s), etc(2018) YT: Florencio Purdy - Roman Britain
43End of Iron Age in Britain(20??) YT: A Great British Timeline (link 404s)
13Oct54Roman emperor Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus) reign ends and Nero (Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsNero was grandnephew, stepson, son-in-law and adopted son of Claudius, great-great-grandson of Augustus.
56Tacitus installs(2019) YT: VOTP - JesusRoman historian
58光武皇帝 [Emperor Guangwu] of Han reign ends and 孝明皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Ming] of Han reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
60Boudicca (Celtic) tries to start uprising(2017) YT: FOL - History of England
64Great Fire of Rome(2019) YT: VOTP - JesusNero blamed Christians, who Tacitus says were widely disliked. Christians were rounded up, charged more with hatred of the human race than arson, and put in arenas with wild dogs, as entertainment. Or fastened on crosses, and burned for light when daylight failed. Nero opened his gardens for this spectacle and gave an exhibition. Some began to pity them, for being subject to such a cruel man.
64Pope St Peter (PETRVS) papacy ends and Pope St Linus (LINVS) (Roman) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesFeast day 23 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 7 June.
66Comet might have been mentioned in Josephus's The Jewish War later determined to be Halley's Comet.Wiki: Halley's Comet
8Jun68Roman emperor Nero (Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus) reign ends and Galba (Servius Galba Caesar Augustus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsGalva revolted against Nero, so Nero committed uninstall and Galva seized power.
15Jan69Roman emperor Galba (Servius Galba Caesar Augustus) reign ends and Otho (Marcus Otho Caesar Augustus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsOtho seized the purple in a coup while uninstalling Galba
18Apr69Roman emperor Otho (Marcus Otho Caesar Augustus) reign ends and Vitellius (Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Augustus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsVitellius seized power with support of Rhine legions, in opposition to Galba and Otho
21Dec69Roman emperor Vitellius (Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Augustus) reign ends and Vespasian (Caesar Vespasianus Augustus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsVitellius seized power with the support of the eastern legions
70Japanese 垂仁天皇 [Emperor Suinin] (Ikume Irihiko Isachi no Mikoto) reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
70Jewish Temple in Rome destroyed.Agape Bible Study - Jewish Time According to the Jewish Book of Why, volume I - the Ma'ariv, or evening prayer at sundown, is a later addition which was instituted after this date. The Jewish Talmud records the late addition of the Ma'ariv service which is not connected with the sacrificial system.
71Japanese 景行天皇 [Emperor Keikō] (Oho Tarashihiko Oshirowake no Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
75孝明皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Ming] of Han reign ends and 孝章皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Zhang] of Han reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
76Pope St Linus (LINVS) papacy ends and Pope St Anacletus ((Cletus) (ANACLETVS (CLETVS)) (Greek) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesFeast day 26 April. Once erroneously split into Cletus and Anacletus.
79Pompeii buried by lava(Reference Missing)
24Jun79Roman emperor Vespasian (Caesar Vespasianus Augustus) reign ends and Titus (Titus Caesar Vespasianus Augustus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsTitus was son of Vespasian
14Sep81Roman emperor Titus (Titus Caesar Vespasianus Augustus) reign ends and Domitian (Caesar Domitianus Augustus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsBrother of Titus and son of Vespasian, Domitian was accepted as emperor by the Praetorian Guard and the Senate
26Apr88Pope St Anacletus ((Cletus) (ANACLETVS (CLETVS)) papacy ends and Pope St Clement1 (CLEMENS) (Roman) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesFeast day 23 November. Issued 1 Clement which is said to be the basis of apostolic authority for the clergy. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 25 November. He was uninstalled by persecution by being tied to an anchor and being thrown in the sea.
88孝章皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Zhang] of Han reign ends and 孝和皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)He] of Han reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
18Sep96Roman emperor Domitian (Caesar Domitianus Augustus) reign ends and Nerva (Nerva Caesar Augustus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsNerva was proclaimed emperor after the uninstall of Domitian. First of the Five Good Emperors.
98Roman emperor Trajan reign begins.(2018) YT: Invicta - Taxes Ancient RomeRome adds Dacia, Armenia to Baghdad and Babylon, & Israel to Suez (Arabia) since Augustus
28Jan98Roman emperor Nerva (Nerva Caesar Augustus) reign ends and Trajan (Caesar Nerva Traianus Augustus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsAdopted son and heir of Nerva (who uninstalled by a stroke), Trajan's reign marked the geographical peak of the empire.
23Nov99Pope St Clement1 (CLEMENS) papacy ends and Pope St Evaristus (EVARISTVS) (Hellenized Jew) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesSaid to have divided Rome into parishes, assigning a priest to each. Feast day of 26 October.
100Plutarch writes about how, during the reign of Tiberius, a sailor named Thamus heard a divine voice off the island of Paksi, saying "the great god Pan is dead!"(2019) YT: OSP - Hermes"Thamus Panmegas tethneke" - Pan's name is also a prefix for "all" (still in use today) and so this could also mean "Tammuz the all-great is dead!" - The Babylonian deity had gained a strong following in Greece over the years. So the "Pan is Dead" thing might just be a misunderstanding.
100Someone (?) completes Pyramid of the Sun in Tenochtitlan(2018) YT: OSP - Quetzalcoatl
100sGautama writes the Nyaya Sutras, which examine questions of logic and epistemology.History.com: Romantics
100sPtolemy (Hipparchus?) completes catalog of 1028 stars(2019) YT: PN - Barnards Star
116Roman emperor Trajan reign ends.(2018) YT: Invicta - Taxes Ancient RomeRome adds the remaining parts of Bulgaria and Turkey, along with England (but not the rest of the UK), and the Algerian and Moroccan coasts, under Trajan.
116Tacitus' Annals(2019) YT: VOTP - JesusEarliest Roman reference to Jesus & Christianity
27Oct105Pope St Evaristus (EVARISTVS) papacy ends and Pope St Alexander1 (ALEXANDER) (Roman) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesInaugurated the custom of blessing houses with holy water. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 18 March.
105孝和皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)He] of Han reign ends and 孝殤皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Shang] of Han & Emperor 孝安皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)'An] of Han reigns beginWiki: Chinese monarchs
3May115Pope St Alexander1 (ALEXANDER) papacy ends and Pope St Sixtus1 (XYSTVS) (Greek) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesFeast day of 6 April. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 10 August.
11Aug117Roman emperor Trajan (Caesar Nerva Traianus Augustus) reign ends and Hadrian (Caesar Traianus Hadrianus Augustus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsHadrian was supposedly adopted by Trajan
120Tacitus uninstalls(2019) YT: VOTP - Jesus
120Prince Yamato (Japan) takes Ame no Murakumo no Tsurugi out hunting with his uncle, who tries to uninstall him by igniting the field he's in so it'll look like an accident.(2016) YT: OSP - Grass cutterYamato starts cutting the grass with it, to remove the fuel, and learns the sword can control the wind. Yamato then turns the tables on his uncle by uninstalling him with the same firey field. Thus the sword's nickname, Grass Gutter. Later Yamato fails to take it when facing a monster, which uninstalls him, and Grass Gutter remains at the Atsuta Shrine for safekeeping. Fun fact: Grass Gutter is not a katana because it's too old to be one. It was hundreds of years old at this point, while katanas wouldn't be invented for another millenium. Son of Emperor Keiko, Yamato had been expelled from heaven for fratricide, and got Ame no Murakumo no Tsurugi from his aunt Amaterasu after begging her for help.
122Guy builds wall(2017) YT: FOL - History of EnglandWhere?
3Apr125Pope St Sixtus1 (XYSTVS) papacy ends and Pope St Telesphorus (TELESPHORVS) (Greek) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesFeast day of 5 January. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 22 February. Church Father St Irenaeus called him a great martyr.
125孝順皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Shun] of Han reign begins and 孝安皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)'An] of Han reign ends and Marquess of Beixiang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
126Selucid King Seleucus5 Philometor reign begins.Wiki: Seleucid rulersMurdered by his mother Cleopatra Thea
130Japanese 景行天皇 [Emperor Keikō] (Oho Tarashihiko Oshirowake no Mikoto) reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
131Japanese 成務天皇 [Emperor Seimu] (Waka Tarashihiko no Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
5Jan136Pope St Telesphorus (TELESPHORVS) papacy ends and Pope St Hyginus (HYGINVS) (Greek) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesTradition holds he was uninstalled by persecution; feast day 11 January.
10Jul138Roman emperor Hadrian (Caesar Traianus Hadrianus Augustus) reign ends and Antoninus Pius (Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsAntoninus Pius was adopted son and heir of Hadrian
11Jan140Pope St Hyginus (HYGINVS) papacy ends and Pope St Pius1 (PIVS) (Roman) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesBrother of Hermas. Uninstalled by persecution by sword; feast day 11 July. Decreed that Easter should only be celebrated on a Sunday.
141Han and Tamil record sighting of comet later determined to be Halley's Comet.Wiki: Halley's CometHan court record it having tails.
144孝沖皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Chong] of Han reign begins and 孝順皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Shun] of Han reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
145孝質皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Zhi] of Han reign begins and 孝沖皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Chong] of Han reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
146孝桓皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Huan] of Han reign begins and 孝質皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Zhi] of Han reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
mid 100sPtolemy invents minutes and seconds.Antiquitatem.com: Hour's dividersIn his work "Almagest", Ptolemy extended Hipparchus work, dividing each of the 360 degrees into 60 smaller parts.
  • He called these fractions "partes minutae primae" (first small parts), which ended up being shortened to "minutae" (small), then further rounded off to just "minute".
  • Again he fractionated these first parts into 60 smaller bits, and he called these "partes minutae secundae ", ie "second small parts", which ended up being called "secundae", and rounded off to "second".
Ptolemy published this in his work Μαθηματικὴ Σύνταξις [Mathematike Syntax], the original Greek title. (Syntaxis mathematica in Latin.) It was then called 'Ἡ Μεγάλε Σύνταξις' He Megale Syntaxis, Great syntax, the Great Treatise. The name Almagest is the Latin form of the Arabic word لمجسطي [al-Majisti], which is the Arabic translation of the Greek superlative μεγίστη [megale] (the greatest, the largest).
11Jul155Pope St Pius1 (PIVS) papacy ends and Pope St Anicetus (ANICETVS) (Hellenized Syrian) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesTradition holds he was uninstalled by persecution; feast day 17 April. Decreed that priests are not allowed to have long hair.
7Mar161Roman emperor Antoninus Pius (Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius) reign ends and Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus) & Lucius Verus (Lucius Aurelius Verus) reigns beginWiki: List of Roman emperorsAdopted sons of Antoninus Pius. Adoptive brothers/in-laws and co-emperors. Marcus was last of the Five Good Emperors.
20Apr166Pope St Anicetus (ANICETVS) papacy ends and Pope St Soter (SOTERIVS) (Greek) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesTradition holds he was uninstalled by persecution; feast day 22 April. Declared that marriage was valid as a sacrament blessed by a priest; formally inaugurated Easter as an annual festival in Rome.
168孝靈皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Ling] of Han reign begins and 孝桓皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Huan] of Han reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
23Jan169Roman emperor Lucius Verus (Lucius Aurelius Verus) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsUninstalled by the Antonine Plague.
22Apr174Pope St Soter (SOTERIVS) papacy ends and Pope St Eleutherius (ELEVTHERIVS) (Greek) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesTradition holds he was uninstalled by persecution; feast day 6 May.
17Mar180Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus) reign ends and Commodus (Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsCommodus was son of Marcus Aurelius, who also uninstalled by the Antonine Plague.
184Yellow Turban Rebellion broke out across China, with millions of people rising up against the Han dynasty.(2019) YT: OS - 3 KingdomsHan dynasty calls on independent micropower leaders to shut down the local rebellions. This basically handed over provincial control from the Han dynasty to the regional micropower leaders.
26May189Pope St Eleutherius (ELEVTHERIVS) papacy ends and Pope St Victor1 (VICTOR) (Roman Berber) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesFirst pope to have been installed on the continent of Africa. Known for excommunicating Theodotus of Byzantium. Quartodecimanism controversy.
189孝靈皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Ling] of Han reign ends and Prince of Hongnong & Emperor 孝獻皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Xian] of Han reigns beginWiki: Chinese monarchs
189Han emperor succeeded by child son, uncle He Jin [Hujin] becomes regent. (2019) YT: OS - 3 Kingdoms
  • Previously, nanny-eunuchs were regents, but the empress refuses to allow uninstall of eunuchs, so uncle sends for nearby micropower leader Dong Zhuo [Dong Joe].
  • Eventually the eunuchs find out, uninstall the captain of the guard, and start an uprising in Luoyang.
  • Child emperor flees into hills, where he's found by Dong Zhuo, who uses them and his army to take control of Luoyang.
  • Then the micropower leaders across China get involved, and raise an army of 100k to fight Dong Zhuo.
  • The war entered a stalemate after the first battle.
  • Dong Zhuo was uninstalled by his adopted son, Lu Bu, over a very attractive woman.
191Japanese 成務天皇 [Emperor Seimu] (Waka Tarashihiko no Mikoto) reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
192Period of Chinese civil war starts.(Reference Missing)
192Japanese 仲哀天皇 [Emperor Chūai] (Tarashi Nakatsuhiko no Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
31Dec192Roman emperor Commodus (Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus) reign ends and Pertinax (Publius Helvius Pertinax) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsPertinax was proclaimed emperor after Commodus was uninstalled in his bath.
28Mar193Roman emperor Pertinax (Publius Helvius Pertinax) reign ends and Didius Julianus (Marcus Didius Severus Julianus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsThe Praetorian Guards uninstalled Pertinax, then auctioned off the position of emperor, which Didius Julianus won.
9Apr193Roman emperor Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus Pertinax) reign begins in June after and Didius Julianus (Marcus Didius Severus Julianus) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSeptimius Severus was proclaimed emperor by the Pannonian legions after Didius Julianus was uninstalled on orders of the Senate.
28Jul199Pope St Victor1 (VICTOR) papacy ends and Pope St Zephyrinus (ZEPHYRINVS) (Roman) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesCombated against the adoptionist heresies of the followers of Theodotus the Byzantium who were ruled by Theodotus and Asclepiodotus. Although not physically uninstalled by persecution, he is called a martyr for the suffering he endured.
199Antipope Natalius (NATALIVS) (Roman) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesIn opposition to pope Zephyrinus. Later reconciled.
200Japanese 仲哀天皇 [Emperor Chūai] (Tarashi Nakatsuhiko no Mikoto) reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
200Antipope Natalius (NATALIVS) papacy ends (Greek)Wiki: List of PopesUninstalled by persecution; feast day 14 October.
201Japanese Empress Jingū (神功皇后) (Okinaga Tarashihime no Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of JapanServed as regent for Emperor Ōjin; not counted among the officially numbered Emperors
200sYu Huan (China) visits Rome and records the trip.(2020) YT: VOTP - Weilüe
208Battle of the Red Cliffs(2019) YT: OS - 3 KingdomsCao Cao [Tsao Tsao] controlled most of the land north of the Yangtze, with Liu Bei [Leo Bay] holding the southwest, and Sun Quan [Siun Ch'ian] holding the soutwest. Red Cliffs are along the Yangtze. Liu Bei and Sun Quan formed an alliance, and had 50k soldiers against Cao Cao's 200k - who were sick and uncomfortable on ships. One of Sun Quan's soldiers offered to change sides, and was accepted - but this was an ambush of ships full of reeds not soldiers, burning Cao Cao's ships. This forced Cao Cao to order a retreat through rainy marshlands, making his forces sicker. Cao Cao continued to attempt to cross the Yangtze, but was constantly repelled, and even lost some land north of it.
4Feb211Roman emperor Geta (Publius Septimius) & Geta Caracalla ((formally Antoninus) - Marcus Aurelius Antoninus) reigns begin and Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus Pertinax) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSons and heirs of Septimius Severus (Snape), Geta & Caracalla ruled jointly.
2Feb212Roman emperor Geta (Publius Septimius Geta) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsUninstalled on Caracalla's orders
214East-central Asian lands stabilize into 3 empires - Cao Cao to the north, Liu Bei to the southwest, and Sun Quan to the southeast.(2019) YT: OS - 3 KingdomsLiu Bei and Sun Quan fight over a chunk of south-central China, with Sun Quan taking it from Liu Bei.
217Antipope St Hippolytus (HIPPOLYTVS) (Greek) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesIn opposition to Callistus1, Urban1 and Pontian. Later reconciled with Pontian (see below).
11Apr217Roman emperor Caracalla ((formally Antoninus) - Marcus Aurelius Antoninus) reign ends and Macrinus (Marcus Opellius Severus Macrinus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsMacrinus was Praetorian prefect to Caracalla, whom he possibly conspired with Caracalla own soldiers to have uninstalled, and afterwards Macrinus became emperor with consent of the army.
20Dec217Pope St Zephyrinus (ZEPHYRINVS) papacy ends and Pope St Callixtus1 (CALLIXTVS) papacy begins.Wiki: List of Popes
16May218Roman emperor Elagabalus ((formally Antoninus) - Marcus Aurelius Antoninus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsCousin and alleged illegitimate son of Caracalla, grandnephew of Septimius Severus, proclaimed emperor by the army, in opposition to Macrinus.
20May218Roman emperor Diadumenian (Marcus Opellius Antoninus Diadumenianus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSon of Macrinus, named emperor by his father after the eruption of a rebellion in favor of Elagabalus.
8Jun218Roman emperor Macrinus (Marcus Opellius Severus Macrinus) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsUninstalled in favor of Elagabalus
20Jun218Roman emperor Diadumenian (Marcus Opellius Antoninus Diadumenianus) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsCaught in flight and uninstalled in favor of Elagabalus
219鮮卑 拓拔部 (New Tuoba dynasty) begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsThe Tuoba micropower was the ruling family of Northern Wei dynasty, founded by Tuoba Gui. All micropower leaders were revered as emperors in Weishu and Beishi which they never were. They were denoted here as 王 [wáng] (king) which was inherited by all successors of Tuoba Yi Lu.
219King of Sparta Agiad reign begins.Wiki: Kings of SpartaFollowing the Battle of Sellasia, the dual monarchy remained vacant until Cleomenes3's uninstall here.
220Period of Chinese civil war ends.(2019) YT: OS - 3 KingdomsCao Cao uninstalls of a head disease, and is replaced by his son, Cao Pi - who convinced the Han emperor to abdicate, and names himself emperor of Wei. Liu Bei named himself emperor of Shu (Han), and Sun Quan followed suit a few years later, naming himself emperor of Wu.
220Eastern Han (東漢) ends and 三國 [Sānguó] (Three Kingdoms) begins and 孝獻皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Xian] of Han reign ends and 曹丕 [Cáo Pī] reign begins and Cao Wei (曹魏) begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
220Blacksmiths of the Han dynasty created steel by melting together wrought iron with cast iron, thus producing a carbon-intermediate steel.Wiki: Steel
220Silk Road ends.(2016) YT: GN - China
221Chinese 劉備 [Liú Bèi] reign begins the Shu Han (蜀漢) empire.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
13Mar222Roman emperor Elagabalus ((formally Antoninus) - Marcus Aurelius Antoninus) reign ends and Severus Alexander (Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsCousin and adopted heir of Elagabalus, grandnephew of Septimius Severus, proclaimed emperor by the troops after Elagabalus had been uninstalled and thrown into the Tiber river.
14Oct222Pope St Callixtus1 (CALLIXTVS) papacy ends and Pope St Urban1 (VRBANVS) (Roman) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesAlso revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 25 May.
222Chinese 孫權 [Sūn Quán] reign begins and Eastern Wu (東吳) begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
223Chinese 劉禪 [Liú Shàn] reign begins and 劉備 [Liú Bèi] reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
226Chinese 曹叡 [Cáo Ruì] reign begins and 曹丕 [Cáo Pī] reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
23May230Pope St Urban1 (VRBANVS) papacy ends and Pope St Pontian (PONTIANVS) (Roman) papacy begins 90 days later.Wiki: List of PopesFirst to abdicate after exile to Sardinia by Emperor Maximinus Thrax. The Liberian Catalogue records his uninstall on 28 September 235, the earliest exact date in papal history.
20Mar235Roman emperor Severus Alexander (Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander) reign ends and Maximinus Thrax (Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsProclaimed emperor by Germanic legions after they uninstalled Severus Alexander alongside his own mother.
28Sep235Pope St Pontian (PONTIANVS) papacy ends and Pope St Anterus (ANTERVS) (Greek) papacy begins 54 days later.Wiki: List of PopesFeast day 3 January. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 5 August.
235Antipope St Hippolytus (HIPPOLYTVS) papacy endsWiki: List of Popes
3Jan236Pope St Anterus (ANTERVS) papacy ends and Pope St Fabian (FABIANVS) (Roman) papacy begins 7 days later.Wiki: List of PopesDivided the communities of Rome into seven districts, each supervised by a deacon. Feast day 20 January. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 5 August.
22Mar238Roman emperor Gordian1 (Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus) & Gordian2 (Ibid) reigns beginWiki: List of Roman emperorsFather & son proclaimed emperor in a revolt against Maximinus and recognized by the Senate, while serving as governor of Africa.
22Apr238Roman emperor Pupienus (Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus) & Balbinus (Decimus Caelius Calvinus Balbinus) reigns beginWiki: List of Roman emperorsProclaimed emperor jointly with Balbinus by the Senate after uninstall of Gordian I and2, in opposition to Maximinus
24Apr238Roman emperor Gordian1 (Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus) & Gordian2 (Ibid) reigns endWiki: List of Roman emperorsSon was uninstalled outside Carthage a few months later, in battle against an army loyal to Maximinus, and pops uninstalled upon hearing the news.
Jun238Roman emperor Maximinus1 'Thrax (Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsUninstalled by his men during the siege of Aquileia
29Jul238Roman emperor Pupienus (Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus) & Balbinus (Decimus Caelius Calvinus Balbinus) reigns end and Gordian3 (Marcus Antonius Gordianus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsGrandson of Gordian1, appointed as heir by Pupienus and Balbinus, upon whose (torture and uninstall by the Praetorian Guard) he succeeded as emperor
239Chinese 曹芳 [Cáo Fāng] reign begins and 曹叡 [Cáo Ruì] reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
Feb244Roman emperor Gordian3 (Marcus Antonius Gordianus) reign ends and Philip the Arab (Marcus Julius Philippus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsPhilip the Arab was a Praetorian prefect to Gordian3 and took power after his uninstall - possibly in an uninstall plot instigated by Philip, while on campaign against Persia.
Jul247Roman emperor Philip2 (Marcus Julius Severus Philippus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSon of Philip the Arab, named co-emperor in 247
Sep249Roman emperor Philip the Arab (Marcus Julius Philippus) & Philip2 (Marcus Julius Severus Philippus) reigns end and Decius (Gaius Messius Quintus Traianus Decius) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsProclaimed emperor by the troops in Moesia, then defeated Philip the Arab in battle. Philip2 was uninstalled by the Praetorian Guard.
20Jan250Pope St Fabian (FABIANVS) papacy ends and Pope St Cornelius (CORNELIVS) (Roman) papacy begins 410 days later.Wiki: List of PopesUninstalled by persecution through extreme hardship; feast day 16 September.
Mar251Antipope Novatian (NOVATIANVS) (Roman) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesFounder of Novatianism. In opposition to Cornelius, Lucius1, Stephen1 and Sixtus2.
Jun251Roman emperor Herennius Etruscus (Quintus Herennius Etruscus Messius Decius) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSon of Decius, appointed joint emperor
Jun251Roman emperor Trebonianus Gallus (Gaius Vibius Trebonianus Gallus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsProclaimed emperor by the army after Decius's uninstall
Jun251Roman emperor Hostilian (Gaius Valens Hostilianus Messius Quintus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSon and heir of Decius, accepted as emperor by Trebonianus Gallus
Aug251Roman emperor Volusianus (Gaius Vibius Afinius Gallus Veldumnianus Volusianus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSon of Trebonianus Gallus, appointed joint emperor
Jun251Roman emperor Herennius Etruscus (Quintus Herennius Etruscus Messius Decius) & Decius (Gaius Messius Quintus Traianus Decius) reigns endWiki: List of Roman emperorsUninstalled in battle against the Goths alongside each other.
Nov251Roman emperor Hostilian (Gaius Valens Hostilianus Messius Quintus) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsProbably uninstalled by the plague, but possibly by Trebonianus Gallus
252Chinese 孫亮 [Sūn Liàng] reign begins and 孫權 [Sūn Quán] reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
25Jun253Pope St Cornelius (CORNELIVS) papacy ends and Pope St Lucius1 (LUCIVS) (Roman) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesFeast day 5 March.
Jul253Roman emperor Aemilian (Marcus Aemilius Aemilianus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsCommander of the army in Moesia, proclaimed emperor by the soldiers after defeating barbarians, and in opposition to Gallus
Aug253Roman emperor Trebonianus Gallus (Gaius Vibius Trebonianus Gallus) & Volusianus (Gaius Vibius Afinius Gallus Veldumnianus Volusianus) reigns endWiki: List of Roman emperorsUninstalled by their own troops, alongside each other, in favor of Aemilian
Sep253Roman emperor Aemilian (Marcus Aemilius Aemilianus) reign ends and Valerian (Publius Licinius Valerianus) reign begins & Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) reigns beginWiki: List of Roman emperorsValerian was an army commander in Raetia and Noricum, proclaimed emperor by the legions in opposition to Aemilian, whose own troops uninstalled him.
5Mar254Pope St Lucius1 (LUCIVS) papacy ends and Pope St Stephen1 (STEPHANVS) (Greek) papacy begins 7 days later.Wiki: List of PopesUninstalled by persecution by beheading; feast day 2 August. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with the same feast day.
254Chinese 曹髦 [Cáo Máo] reign begins and 曹芳 [Cáo Fāng] reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
2Aug257Pope St Stephen1 (STEPHANVS) papacy ends and Pope St Sixtus2 (XYSTVS Secundus) (Greek) papacy begins 28 days later.Wiki: List of PopesUninstalled by persecution by beheading. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 10 August.
258Antipope Novatian (NOVATIANVS) papacy ends (Greek)Wiki: List of PopesFeast day 26 December.
6Aug258Pope St Sixtus2 (XYSTVS Secundus) papacy ends and Pope St Dionysius (DIONYSIVS) papacy begins 350 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
258Chinese 孫休 [Sūn Xiū] reign begins and 孫亮 [Sūn Liàng] reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
Jan260Roman emperor Saloninus ((Publius Licinius Cornelius) Saloninus Valerianus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSon of Gallienus, appointed briefly co-emperor.
Jun260Roman emperor Valerian (Publius Licinius Valerianus) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsCaptured at Edessa by the Persian king Shapur1, uninstalled in captivity
Sep260Roman emperor Saloninus ((Publius Licinius Cornelius) Saloninus Valerianus) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsUninstalled by the soldiers of Postumus
260Chinese 曹奐 [Cáo Huàn] reign begins and 曹髦 [Cáo Máo] reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
263Chinese 劉禪 [Liú Shàn] reign ends and Shu Han (蜀漢) ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
264Chinese 孫皓 [Sūn Hào] reign begins and 孫休 [Sūn Xiū] reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
266Chinese 曹奐 [Cáo Huàn] reign ends and 武皇帝 [Emperor Wu] of Jin reign begins and Western Jin (西晉) reign begins and Cao Wei (曹魏) ends and Jin dynasty (晉朝) reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsChinese convention: Use "Jin" + posthumous name. Note that the posthumous names of some Jin monarchs bore the character "xiao" (孝; "filial"), but this character is usually omitted by scholars when referencing these monarchs by their posthumous names (i.e. "Emperor Xiaohui" is normally known as "Emperor Hui")
Sep268Roman emperor Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) reign ends and Claudius Gothicus (Marcus Aurelius Claudius) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsVictorious general at Battle of Naissus, Claudius seized power after uninstalling Gallienus, in a conspiracy of army officers and Aurelian
26Dec268Pope St Dionysius (DIONYSIVS) papacy ends and Pope St Felix1 (FELIX) (Roman) papacy begins 10 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
269Japanese Empress Jingū (神功皇后) (Okinaga Tarashihime no Mikoto) reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
269Legendary emperors ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
269Kofun period begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
Apr270Roman emperor Claudius Gothicus (Marcus Aurelius Claudius) reign ends and Quintillus (Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsQuintillus was brother of Claudius Gothicus, proclaimed emperor after his uninstall (of disease, possibly the plague of Cyprian)
May270Roman emperor Quintillus (Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus) reign ends and Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSupreme commander of the Roman cavalry, proclaimed emperor by Danube legions after Claudius's uninstall, in opposition to Quintillus (who committed uninstall at the behest of Aurelian)
270Japanese 応神天皇 [Emperor Ōjin] (Honda no Sumeramikoto / Ōtomowake no Mikoto / Homutawake no Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japandeified as Hachiman
30Dec274Pope St Felix1 (FELIX) papacy ends and Pope St Eutychian (EVTYCHIANVS) (Roman) papacy begins 5 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
Oct275Roman emperor Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsUninstalled by the troops
Dec275Roman emperor Tacitus (Marcus Claudius Tacitus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsElected by the Senate to replace Aurelian
Jun276Roman emperor Tacitus (Marcus Claudius Tacitus) reign ends and Florianus (Marcus Annius Florianus) & Probus (Marcus Aurelius Probus) reigns beginWiki: List of Roman emperorsFlorianus was likely half-brother of Tacitus, and the troops proclaimed him emperor after Tacitus's uninstall. But eastern legions proclaimed Probus emperor, in opposition to Florianus
Sep276Roman emperor Florianus (Marcus Annius Florianus) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsUninstalled by his own troops, in favor of Probus
277Sima Yi, leader of the Sima micropower, had influence in Wei, and decided Wei would invade Shu (Han).(2019) YT: OS - 3 Kingdoms
278Sima Yi forces the emperor of Wei - Cao Huan - to abdicate and names himself emperor of Jin.(2019) YT: OS - 3 Kingdoms
279Jin dynasty invades Wu dynasty.(2019) YT: OS - 3 Kingdoms
280Jin dynasty defeats Wu dynasty, uniting China.(2019) YT: OS - 3 Kingdoms
280Chinese 孫皓 [Sūn Hào] ends and 三國 [Sānguó] (Three Kingdoms) ends and Eastern Wu (東吳) ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
Sep282Roman emperor Probus (Marcus Aurelius Probus) reign ends and Carus (Marcus Aurelius Carus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsProbus was uninstalled by his troops, in favor of Carus, a Praetorian prefect to Probus
Jul283Roman emperor Carus (Marcus Aurelius Carus) reign ends and Numerian (Marcus Aurelius Numerianus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsCarus uninstalled during a campaign against Persia, likely of illness, or possibly by lightning. His younger son and heir, Numerian) reigned jointly with his older brother, Carinus
Aug283Roman emperor Carinus (Marcus Aurelius Carinus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsEldest son of Carus, who appointed him joint emperor with his younger brother Numerian
7Dec283Pope St Eutychian (EVTYCHIANVS) papacy ends and Pope St Caius (CAIVS) (Roman) papacy begins 10 days later.Wiki: List of PopesUninstalled by persecution by beheading (according to legend). Feast day 22 April. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 11 August.
20Nov284Roman emperor Numerian (Marcus Aurelius Numerianus) reign ends and Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsNumerian uninstalled during army march to Europe, probably of disease, possibly uninstalled. Diocletian was proclaimed emperor by army after uninstall of Numerian, and in opposition to Carinus
285Roman emperor Carinus (Marcus Aurelius Carinus) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsProbably uninstalled in battle against Diocletian, likely betrayed by his men
1Apr286Roman emperor Maximian (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsAppointed Caesar in 285 by Diocletian, and raised to rank of Augustus in 286
290武皇帝 [Emperor Wu] of Jin reign ends and 孝惠皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Hui] of Jin reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
292Mayan king ? Bahlam (Tikal) reign occursWiki: Maya rulers? Bahlam AKA Foliated Jaguar, Decorated Jaguar, Scroll Ahau Jaguar
294Diocletian divides the Roman empire into 4 parts.(2019) YT: FOL - Byzantines
22Apr296Pope St Caius (CAIVS) papacy ends and Pope St Marcellinus (MARCELLINVS) (Roman) papacy begins 69 days later.Wiki: List of PopesFeast day 26 April. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 7 June.
296Chouchi (仇池) dynasty begins and Former Chouchi (前仇池) dynasty beginsWiki: Chinese monarchs
297Mayan king K'an Ahk1 (Piedras Negras) reign occursWiki: Maya rulersRuler A was later captured by Moon Skull of Yaxchilan AKA Ruler A, Turtleshell
300Nubian kingdom at Meroe ends.(Reference Missing)
300Mexico's Classic period beginsSFGate - Olmecs to ToltecsThis period is best known for producing the Maya's greatest accomplishments.
303Duan micropower (鮮卑 段部) dynasty begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
26Apr304Pope St Marcellinus (MARCELLINVS) papacy ends and Pope St Marcellus1 (MARCELLVS) (Roman) papacy begins 1492 days later.Wiki: List of PopesBanished from Rome under Maxentius (309).
304Sixteen Kingdoms (十六國) period begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
304Cheng (成) dynasty begins and Northern Han (北漢) dynasty begins and Sixteen Kingdoms (十六國) dynasty beginsWiki: Chinese monarchs
1May305Roman emperor Galerius (Galerius Valerius Maximianus) & Constantius1 (Flavius Valerius Constantius) reign begins and Maximian (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus) & Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsConstantius1 was appointed Caesar to Maximian in 293, upon whose abdication he succeeded as Augustus. Galerius was appointed Caesar in 293 by Diocletian, upon whose abdication he succeeded as Augustus.
25Jul306Roman emperor Constantine1 (Flavius Valerius Constantinus) reign begins and Constantius1 (Flavius Valerius Constantius) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsConstantine1 was the son of Constantius1, proclaimed emperor by his father's troops. Accepted as Caesar by Galerius in 306, promoted to Augustus in 307 by Maximian, refused demotion to Caesar in 309.
28Oct306Roman emperor Maxentius (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSon of Maximian, seized power after being initially passed over in the succession
Aug306Roman emperor Severus (Flavius Valerius Severus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsAppointed Caesar in 305, raised to rank of Augustus by Galerius upon Constantius I's uninstall
Late306Roman emperor Maximian (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsAbdicated with Diocletian, later tried to regain the purple with, and then from, Maxentius, twice, before being finally uninstalled (possibly by uninstall)
306孝惠皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Hui] of Jin reign ends and 孝懷皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Huai] of Jin reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
Apr307Roman emperor Severus (Flavius Valerius Severus) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsUninstalled or forced to commit uninstall on 16 September 307 after surrendering to Maximian and Maxentius
307Mayan king Sihyaj Chan K'awiil1 (Tikal) reign occursWiki: Maya rulersSihyaj Chan K'awiil1 's Monuments: Stela 1 of El Encanto
11Nov308Roman emperor Licinius (Valerius Licinianus Licinius) reign begins and Maximian (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsLicinius appointed emperor by Galerius as replacement to Severus, in opposition to Maxentius. Defeated Maximinus Daia in a civil war to become sole emperor of the East in 313.
16Jan309Pope St Marcellus1 (MARCELLVS) papacy ends and Pope St Eusebius (EVSEBIVS) (Greek) papacy begins 92 days later.Wiki: List of PopesBanished by the emperor Maxentius, and uninstalled in exile.
1May310Roman emperor Maximinus Daia (Galerius Valerius Maximinus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsNephew of Galerius, adopted as Caesar and his heir in 305; succeeded as Augustus (shared with Licinius1) in 311
17Aug310Pope St Eusebius (EVSEBIVS) papacy ends and Pope St Miltiades (Melchiades) (MILTIADES) (Roman Berber) papacy begins 319 days later.Wiki: List of PopesFirst pope after the end of the persecution of Christians through the Edict of Milan (313 AD) issued by Constantine the Great. Presided over the Lateran council of 313.
310Japanese 応神天皇 [Emperor Ōjin] (Honda no Sumeramikoto / Ōtomowake no Mikoto / Homutawake no Mikoto) reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
310Dai (代) dynasty begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
May311Roman emperor Galerius (Galerius Valerius Maximianus) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperors
312Roman empire divided into 2 parts - Constantine ruled by Licinus, and Milan ruled by Nicomedia.(2019) YT: FOL - ByzantinesPopulation of empire was 50 million.
312Roman empire united again, with a capital in Constantinople, on the location of ancient Byzantium.(2019) YT: FOL - Byzantines
28Oct312Roman emperor Maxentius (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsUninstalled at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, against Constantine1
Aug313Roman emperor Maximinus Daia (Galerius Valerius Maximinus) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsDefeated in civil war against Licinius, probably committed uninstall thereafter
313Japanese 仁徳天皇 [Emperor Nintoku] (Ō Sazaki no Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
313孝懷皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Huai] of Jin reign ends and 孝愍皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Min] of Jin reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
10Jan314Pope St Miltiades (Melchiades) (MILTIADES) papacy ends and Pope St Sylvester1 (SILVESTER) (Roman) papacy begins 21 day later.Wiki: List of PopesFeast day 31 December. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 2 January. Pope during the First Council of Nicaea (325), the first ecumenical council. Under him was built: the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran, Santa Croce in Gerusalemme and Old St Peter's Basilica. Stated to be the recipient of the Donation of Constantine, which was later shown to be a forgery.
Dec316Roman emperor Valerius Valens (Aurelius Valerius Valens) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsAppointed western Augustus, in opposition to Constantine, being uninstalled within weeks
1Mar317Roman emperor Valerius Valens (Aurelius Valerius Valens) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperors
317Western Jin (西晉) reign ends and Eastern Jin (東晉) reign begins and 孝愍皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Min] of Jin reign ends and 元皇帝 [Emperor Yuan] of Jin reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
317Mayan king Unen Bahlam (Tikal) reign occursWiki: Maya rulersAssumed to be female, the sex of this ruler is in fact unclear. AKA Lady Une' B'alam - Monuments: Stela 31 (twice), Small sherd (fragment of a vase)
318Former Zhao (前趙) dynasty begins and Northern Han (北漢) dynasty endsWiki: Chinese monarchs
319Later Zhao (後趙) dynasty begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
320Former Liang (前涼) dynasty begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
322明皇帝 [Emperor Ming] of Jin reign begins and 元皇帝 [Emperor Yuan] of Jin reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
Jul324Roman emperor Martinian (Sextus Marcius Martinianus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsAppointed Augustus by Licinius in 324, in opposition to Constantine
19Sep324Roman emperor Martinian (Sextus Marcius Martinianus) & Licinius (Valerius Licinianus Licinius) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsLicinius was defeated, deposed and put to uninstall by Constantine1. Martinian was uninstalled by Constantine in 325
325明皇帝 [Emperor Ming] of Jin reign ends and 成皇帝 [Emperor Cheng] of Jin reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
325The first of seven ecumenical councils was held.EWTN - Great Schism All of which still are recognized as valid by Vatican City's religion.
329Former Zhao (前趙) dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
330The sleepy fishing village of Byzantium was transformed into Constantinople, the New Rome.EWTN - Great Schism It also became a center of Christianity.
331Mayan king Te' K'ab Chaak (Caracol) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
331Alexandria was established in Egypt by Alexander the Great.EWTN - Great Schism He accepted the liturgical rite developed by St Mark, believed to be an adaptation of the Antiochene Rite. It was the first indigenous African church.
31Dec335Pope St Sylvester1 (SILVESTER) papacy ends and Pope St Mark (MARCVS) (Roman) papacy begins 18 days later.Wiki: List of PopesOne of Mark's undertakings was to compile stories of the lives of martyrs and bishops before his time. There is some reason to believe he founded two churches in the area of Rome. One of them is still known to this day as the Church of San Marco, although it is greatly changed since his time. The other church was at the Catacomb of Balbina, a cemetery. Emperor Constantine gave gifts of land and furnishing for both buildings. Feast day 7 October.
7Oct336Pope St Mark (MARCVS) papacy ends and Pope St Julius1 (IVLIVS) (Roman) papacy begins 122 days later.Wiki: List of PopesHe was involved in the Arian controversy. Credited with splitting the birth of Christ into two distinct celebrations: The Epiphany stayed on the traditional date, and the Nativity was added on 25 December.
9Sep337Roman emperor Constans (Flavius Julius Constans (Vetranio) & Constantine2 (Flavius Claudius Constantinus) & Constantius2 (Flavius Julius Constantius) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSons and heir of Constantine1, the brothers ruled jointly.
22May337Roman emperor Constantine1 (Flavius Valerius Constantinus) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperors
337Former Yan (前燕) dynasty begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
338Han (漢) dynasty begins and Duan micropower (鮮卑 段部) dynasty ends and Cheng (成) dynasty endsWiki: Chinese monarchs
Apr340Roman emperor Constantine2 (Flavius Claudius Constantinus) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsBattle against his brother, Constans
342成皇帝 [Emperor Cheng] of Jin reign ends and 康皇帝 [Emperor Kang] of Jin reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
344康皇帝 [Emperor Kang] of Jin reign ends and 穆皇帝 [Emperor Mu] of Jin reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
345Yuwen micropower (鮮卑 宇文部) dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
347Han (漢) dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
349Mayan king Te' K'ab Chaak (Caracol) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
1Mar350Roman emperor Vetranio) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsGeneral of Constans, proclaimed emperor against Magnentius and temporarily recognized by Constantius2
18Jan350Roman emperor Constans (Flavius Julius Constans (Vetranio) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsUninstalled by the usurper Magnentius
25Dec350Roman emperor Vetranio) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsCompelled by Constantius2 to abdicate and retire, and uninstalled 6 years later
350Ran Wei (冉魏) (Addressed as Wei in traditional texts) dynasty begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
351Former Qin (前秦) dynasty begins and Later Zhao (後趙) dynasty endsWiki: Chinese monarchs
352Ran Wei (冉魏) (Addressed as Wei in traditional texts) dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
12Apr352Pope St Julius1 (IVLIVS) papacy ends and Pope Liberius (LIBERIVS) (Roman) papacy begins 35 days later.Wiki: List of PopesEarliest pope not canonized by the Roman Catholic Church. Revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 27 August.
355Antipope Felix2 (FELIX Secundus) (Roman) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesIn opposition to Pope Liberius. Installed by Roman Emperor Constantius2.
23May359Mayan king K'inich Muwaan Jol (Tikal) reign ends and king Yopaat Bahlam1 (Yaxchilan) reign begins a month later.Wiki: Maya rulersK'inich Muwaan Jol AKA Mahk'ina Bird Skull, Feather Skull. Yopaat Bahlam1 was founder of Yaxchilan lineage.
7Aug360Mayan king Chak Tok Ich'aak1 (Tikal) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersAKA Great Paw, Great Jaguar Paw, Toh Chak Ich'ak - Monuments: Stelae 26, 31 and 39; Stela from Corozal; Sculpture named Man of Tikal
3Nov361Roman emperor Constantius2 (Flavius Julius Constantius) reign ends and Julian (the Apostate) - Flavius Claudius Julianus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsJulian was appointed Caesar in 355 by his cousin Constantius2. Proclaimed Augustus by his troops in early 360. Sole emperor after the uninstall of Constantius.
361穆皇帝 [Emperor Mu] of Jin reign ends and 哀皇帝 [Emperor Ai] of Jin reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
26Jun363Roman emperor Julian (the Apostate) - Flavius Claudius Julianus) reign ends and Jovian (Flavius Jovianus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsJulian was the last non-Christian emperor of Rome. Mortally wounded in battle against Persia. Jovian was a general in Julian's army, proclaimed emperor by the troops upon Julian's uninstall
17Feb364Roman emperor Jovian (Flavius Jovianus) reign ends and Valentinian1 (Flavius Valentinianus) reign begins 9 days laterWiki: List of Roman emperorsValentinian1 was elected by the army to replace Jovian.
28Mar364Roman emperor Valens (Flavius Valens) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsBrother of Valentinian1, appointed emperor over the eastern provinces
22Nov365Antipope Felix2 (FELIX Secundus) papacy endsWiki: List of Popes
365哀皇帝 [Emperor Ai] of Jin reign ends and Fei of Jin reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
24Sep366Pope Liberius (LIBERIVS) papacy ends and Pope St Damasus1 (DAMASVS) (Roman) papacy begins 7 days later.Wiki: List of PopesThe first pope from modern-day Portugal. Patron of Jerome, commissioned the Vulgate translation of the Bible. Pope during the First Council of Constantinople (381), the second ecumenical council. Council of Rome (382). First pope to be the official head of the church after the Emperor Gratian abdicates the title of "Pontifex Maximus".
1Oct366Antipope Ursinus (VRSINVS) (Roman) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesIn opposition to Damasus1. Banished to Gallia by Emperor Valentinian2 after a war between two micropowers and uninstalled after 384.
16Nov367Antipope Ursinus (VRSINVS) papacy endsWiki: List of Popes
24Aug367Roman emperor Gratian (Flavius Gratianus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSon of Valentinian1, appointed junior Augustus by him in 367, became senior Augustus (for the west) after Valentinian's uninstall.
370Former Yan (前燕) dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
371Chouchi (仇池) dynasty ends and Former Chouchi (前仇池) dynasty endsWiki: Chinese monarchs
371Fei of Jin reign ends and 簡文皇帝 [Emperor Jianwen] of Jin reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
372簡文皇帝 [Emperor Jianwen] of Jin reign ends and 孝武皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Wu] of Jin reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
17Nov375Roman emperor Valentinian1 (Flavius Valentinianus) reign ends and Valentinian2 (Flavius Valentinianus) reign begins 5 days laterWiki: List of Roman emperorsSon of Valentinian1, Valentinian2 was proclaimed emperor by Pannonian army, accepted as co-emperor for the west by Gratian
376鮮卑 拓拔部 (New Tuoba dynasty) ends and 代 [Dai] dynasty ends and 前涼 (Former Liang) dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchsAnd your mother's dynasty ends.
9Aug378Roman emperor Valens (Flavius Valens) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsUninstalled at the Battle of Adrianople against the Goths
14Jan378Mayan king Chak Tok Ich'aak1 (Tikal) reign ends and Spearthrower Owl (Teotihuacan) reign occurs and Yaxun Bahlam1 (Yaxchilan) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersYaxun Bahlam1 AKA Bird Jaguar1. Chak Tok Ich'aak1 uninstalled the same day that Tikal was invaded by troops leaded by Siyaj K'ak' (son of Spearthrower Owl), who overthrew the reigning family.
19Jan379Roman emperor Theodosius1 (Flavius Theodosius) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSon-in-law of Valentinian1, appointed as Augustus for the east by Gratian to replace Valens
12Sep379Mayan king Yax Nuun Ayiin1 (Tikal) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersProbably son of the king of Teotihuacan, founded a new line of rulers in Tikal. AKA Curl Snout, Curl Nose - Monuments: Stelae 4, 18 and 31; Sculpture named Man of Tikal; Burial 10 of Temple 34
25Aug383Roman emperor Gratian (Flavius Gratianus) reign ends and Magnus Maximus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsGratian was uninstalled by rebellious army faction. Usurper in the West, Magnus Maximus was legitimized by Theodosius1 as emperor of Britain and Gaul
384Roman emperor Victor (Flavius Victor) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSon of Magnus Maximus, recognized as emperor by Theodosius1
11Dec384Pope St Damasus1 (DAMASVS) papacy ends and Pope St Siricius (SIRICIVS) (Roman) papacy begins 6 days later.Wiki: List of PopesHis famous letters—the earliest surviving texts of papal decretals—focus particularly on religious discipline and include decisions on baptism, consecration, ordination, penance, and continence. Siricius’ important decretal of 386 (written to Bishop Himerius of Tarragona), commanding celibacy for priests, was the first decree on this subject.
384Later Qin (後秦) dynasty begins and Later Yan (後燕) dynasty begins and Western Yan (西燕) dynasty beginsWiki: Chinese monarchs
385Later Chouchi (後仇池) dynasty begins and Western Qin (西秦) dynasty beginsWiki: Chinese monarchs
386Northern Wei (北魏) (北魏) reign begins and Northern dynasties (北朝) (北朝) reign begins and Northern and Southern Dynasties (南北朝) (南北朝) reign begins and 道武皇帝 [Emperor Daowu] of N. Wei reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
386Later Liang (後涼) dynasty begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
28Aug388Roman emperor Victor (Flavius Victor) & Magnus Maximus reigns endWiki: List of Roman emperorsMagnus Maximus was uninstalled by Theodosius1 in Aquileia after the Battle of the Save. Victor was uninstalled by Arbogast at the behest of Theodosius1.
389Mayan king Yax Deer-Antler Skull (Yaxchilan) reign begins and Yaxun Bahlam1 (Yaxchilan) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
391Tiefu micropower (匈奴 鐵弗部) dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
15May392Roman emperor Valentinian2 (Flavius Valentinianus) reign endsWiki: List of Roman emperorsValentinian2 was found vertically uninstalled, probably committed uninstall at the instigation of Arbogast
22Aug392Roman emperor Eugenius reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsEugenius was raised to the purple by the magister militum Arbogast to replace Valentinian2, against the wish of Theodosius1
6Sep394Roman emperor Eugenius reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsUninstalled as a criminal by Theodosius1 after the Battle of the Frigidus
394Former Qin (前秦) dynasty ends and Western Yan (西燕) dynasty endsWiki: Chinese monarchs
17Jan395Roman emperor Theodosius1 (Flavius Theodosius) reign ends and Arcadius & Honorius reigns beginWiki: List of Roman emperorsSons of Theodosius1, who appointed them as junior Augustus for the east (Arcadius) and west (Honorius in January 383; became senior Augustus for their respective region after their father's uninstall
395Emperor Theodosius formally established Constantinople as the political capital of the Eastern Roman Empire.EWTN - Great Schism This developed into the more prominent of the eastern patriarchates.
396安皇帝 [Emperor An] of Jin reign begins and 孝武皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Wu] of Jin reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
397Northern Liang (北涼) (The Northern Liang was re-established at Gaochang in 442.) dynasty begins and Southern Liang (南涼) dynasty beginsWiki: Chinese monarchs
398Southern Yan (南燕) dynasty begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
26Nov399Pope St Siricius (SIRICIVS) papacy ends and Pope St Anastasius1 (ANASTASIVS) (Roman) papacy begins 1 day later.Wiki: List of PopesInstructed priests to stand and bow their heads as they read from the Gospels.
399Japanese 仁徳天皇 [Emperor Nintoku] (Ō Sazaki no Mikoto) reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
400sVatsyayana livesHistory.com: RomanticsWrote the Kama Sutra as a tribute to the Indian god of love, Kama, as well as a love manual. He also transcribed the Nyaya Sutras (- were they only in oral legend before this?).
400People in China and Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka learned how to make Wootz steel from the Chera Dynasty Tamils of South India.Wiki: SteelThis early steel-making method employed a unique wind furnace, driven by the monsoon winds, capable of producing high-carbon steel.
400Japanese 履中天皇 [Emperor Richū] (Isaho Wake no Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
400Western Liang (西涼) dynasty begins and Western Qin (西秦) dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
19Dec401Pope St Anastasius1 (ANASTASIVS) papacy ends and Pope St Innocent1 (INNOCENTIVS) (Roman) papacy begins 2 days later.Wiki: List of PopesVisigoth Sack of Rome (410) under Alaric1.
402Mayan king Ruler 5 (Yaxchilan) reign occurs and Yax Deer-Antler Skull (Yaxchilan) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
403Later Liang (後涼) dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
17Jun404Mayan king Yax Nuun Ayiin1 (Tikal) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
405Japanese 履中天皇 [Emperor Richū] (Isaho Wake no Mikoto) reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
405Western Shu (西蜀) dynasty begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
406Japanese 反正天皇 [Emperor Hanzei] (Tajihi Mizuha Wake no Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
407Roman emperor Constantine3 (Flavius Claudius Constantinus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsUsurper who declared himself emperor in the west in 407, recognized as co-emperor by Honorius in 409. Not recognized by the Eastern Empire.
407Hu Xia (胡夏) dynasty begins and Northern Yan (北燕) dynasty begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1May408Roman emperor Arcadius reign ends and Theodosius2 reign begins in the eastWiki: List of Roman emperorsSon of Arcadius, Theodosius2 was appointed as junior Augustus by Arcadius in 402; became senior Augustus for the east after his father's uninstall
409Roman emperor Constans2 reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsElevated by his father, Constantine3, to rank of co-emperor in 409. Not recognized by Honorius nor the Eastern Empire.
409道武皇帝 [Emperor Daowu] of N. Wei reign ends and 明元皇帝 [Emperor Mingyuan] of N. Wei reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
409Western Qin (西秦) dynasty begins and Later Yan (後燕) dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
410Romans leave England.(20??) YT: A Great British Timeline (link 404s)
410Romans leave England.(2017) YT: FOL - History of England
410Japanese 反正天皇 [Emperor Hanzei] (Tajihi Mizuha Wake no Mikoto) reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
410Southern Yan (南燕) dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
Aug411Roman emperor Constans2 reign ends and Constantine3 (Flavius Claudius Constantinus) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsConstantine3 was uninstalled by Constantius3
411Japanese 允恭天皇 [Emperor Ingyō] (Wo Asazuma Wakugo no Sukune no Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
26Nov411Mayan king Sihyaj Chan K'awiil2 (Tikal) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersSihyaj Chan K'awiil2 AKA Storm Sky, Manikin Cleft Sky
413Western Shu (西蜀) dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
414Southern Liang (南涼) dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
12Mar417Pope St Innocent1 (INNOCENTIVS) papacy ends and Pope St Zosimus (ZOSIMVS) (Greek) papacy begins 6 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
417Later Qin (後秦) dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
26Dec418Pope St Zosimus (ZOSIMVS) papacy ends and Pope St Boniface1 (BONIFACIVS) (Roman) papacy begins 2 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
27Dec418Antipope Eulalius (EVLALIVS) (Roman) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesIn opposition to Pope Boniface1. Elected on the eve of the election of Boniface, first benefited from the support of the emperor Honorius, but lost it quickly. Exiled in Campania, and uninstalled in 423.
418安皇帝 [Emperor An] of Jin reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
3Apr419Antipope Eulalius (EVLALIVS) papacy endsWiki: List of Popes
419恭皇帝 [Emperor Gong] of Jin reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
420Southern dynasties (南朝) reign begins and Liu Song (劉宋) reign begins and Jin dynasty (晉朝) reign ends and 武皇帝 [Emperor Wu] of Liu Song reign begins and 恭皇帝 [Emperor Gong] of Jin reign ends and Eastern Jin (東晉) reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
8Feb421Roman emperor Constantius3 reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsMarried to Theodosius1's daughter Galla Placidia, elevated to co-Augustus for the west by Honorius; not recognized by the Eastern Empire
2Sep421Roman emperor Constantius3 reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperors
421Western Liang (西涼) dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
4Sep422Pope St Boniface1 (BONIFACIVS) papacy ends and Pope St Celestine1 (CAELESTINVS) (Roman) papacy begins 6 days later.Wiki: List of PopesAlso revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 8 April. Pope during the Council of Ephesus (431), the third ecumenical council recognized by the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox churches.
422武皇帝 [Emperor Wu] of Liu Song reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
15Aug423Roman emperor Honorius reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsUninstall by Edema
27Aug423Roman emperor Joannes reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsA senior civil servant under Honorius, proclaimed emperor by Castinus; not recognized by the Eastern Empire
423明元皇帝 [Emperor Mingyuan] of N. Wei reign ends and Shao of Liu Song reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsEmperor Shao of Liu Song
424文皇帝 [Emperor Wen] of Liu Song reign begins and 太武皇帝 [Emperor Taiwu] of N. Wei reign begins and Shao of Liu Song reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
23Oct425Roman emperor Valentinian3 (Placidus Valentinianus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSon of Constantius3, appointed Caesar for the west by Theodosius2 after the uninstall of Honorius, in opposition to the regime of Joannes; became Augustus for the west after the defeat of Joannes
May425Roman emperor Joannes reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsDefeated in battle by Theodosius2 and Valentinian3, captured and uninstalled
426Mayan king K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo' (Copán) reign begins and "Tok Casper" (Quiriguá) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersK'inich Yax K'uk' Mo' (Copán) came from Tikal. Founder of Copán lineage, he also founded Quirigua's by installing there the first king, Tok Casper. AKA Great Sun, Quetzal Macaw - Monuments: Hunal tomb in Temple 16
431Hu Xia (胡夏) dynasty ends and Western Qin (西秦) dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
10Mar431Mayan king K'uk' Bahlam1 (Palenque dynasty) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersFounder of the dynasty. AKA Kuk, Bahlum K'uk'
27Jul432Pope St Celestine1 (CAELESTINVS) papacy ends and Pope St Sixtus3 (XYXTVS Tertius) (Roman) papacy begins 4 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
435Mayan king Casper (Palenque dynasty) reign begins and K'uk' Bahlam1 (Palenque dynasty) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersCasper AKA 11 Rabbit
436Northern Yan (北燕) dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
437Mayan king K'inich Popol Hol (Copán) reign begins and K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo' (Copán) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersK'inich Popol Hol (Copán) was co-ruler with his father since 430, as he was shown in Structure 10L-26, dated to 9 December 435. Founded the institutions of the city. AKA Great Sun - Monuments: Stelae 18 & 63, Motmot capstone, Xukpi Stone
439Sixteen Kingdoms (十六國) and Northern Liang (北涼) dynasties endWiki: Chinese monarchs
18Aug440Pope St Sixtus3 (XYXTVS Tertius) papacy ends and Pope St Leo1 ((Leo the Great) (LEO MAGNVS) (Roman) papacy begins 42 days later.Wiki: List of PopesConvinced Attila the Hun to turn back his invasion of Italy. Wrote the Tome which was instrumental in the Council of Chalcedon (451) and in defining the hypostatic union. Feast day 10 November. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 18 February.
442The Northern Liang dynasty was re-established at Gaochang.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
450The height of Tenochtitlan civilization.(2018) YT: OSP - QuetzalcoatlAt 125k people, it's the 6th largest city in the world
25Aug450Roman emperor Marcian (Marcianus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsNominated as successor (and husband) by Pulcheria, ruled alongside her 450-453 and later alone
28Jul450Roman emperor Theodosius2 reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsUninstalled by injuries suffered during a hunting accident
451A larger rift occurred at the fourth ecumenical council, held in Chalcedon.EWTN - Great Schism
452隱王 [King Prince Yin] of N. Wei reign begins and 太武皇帝 [Emperor Taiwu] of N. Wei reign ends and 文成皇帝 [Emperor Wencheng] of N. Wei reign begins and 文皇帝 [Emperor Wen] of Liu Song reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
453Japanese 允恭天皇 [Emperor Ingyō] reign ends and Ankō (安康天皇) [Anaho no Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
454孝武皇帝 [Emperor Xiaowu] of Liu Song reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
454Mayan king Moon Skull (Yaxchilan) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersMoon Skull, his name is not an actual reference to the moon but is rather the Maya word for a spear-thrower.
16Mar455Roman emperor Valentinian3 (Placidus Valentinianus) reign ends and Petronius Maximus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsThe son-in-law of Theodosius2, Petronius proclaimed himself emperor with the support of the army, after the involuntarily uninstall of Valentinian3, which Petronius may have ordered. Not recognized by the Eastern Empire. He appointed his son Palladius as caesar.
31May455Roman emperor Petronius Maximus) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsUninstalled, probably stoned to uninstall by the Roman mob
9Jul455Roman emperor Avitus (Eparchius Avitus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsMagister militum under Petronius Maximus, proclaimed emperor by the Visigoth king Theoderic2 after Petronius's uninstall. Not recognized by the Eastern Empire.
455Mayan king Mat Head? (Copán) reign begins and Tutuum Yohl K'inich (Quiriguá) reign occursWiki: Maya rulersMat Head? is identifiable with Ruler 3. Probably, given his reign date, a co-ruler. AKA Ruler 3
17Oct456Roman emperor Avitus (Eparchius Avitus) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsDeposed by his Magister militum, he became a bishop of Placentia & uninstalled at some point afterwards
456Japanese 安康天皇 [Emperor Ankō] reign ends and 雄略天皇 [Emperor Yūryaku] (Oho Hatsuse Wakatakeru no Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
3Feb456Mayan king Sihyaj Chan K'awiil2 (Tikal) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
26Jan457Roman emperor 'Marcian (Marcianus) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsUninstalled by gout
7Feb457Roman emperor Leo1 the Thracian reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsChosen by the army
1Apr457Roman emperor Majorian (Julius Valerius Maiorianus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsProclaimed emperor by his troops. Recognized by the Eastern Empire at the behest of Ricimer.
8Aug458Mayan king K'an Chitam (Tikal) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersK'an Chitam AKA Kan Boar, K'an Ak
461Roman emperor Flavius Ricimer rule begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsA Romanized Germanic general who effectively ruled the remaining territory of the Western Roman Empire.
2Aug461Roman emperor Majorian (Julius Valerius Maiorianus) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsDeposed and beheaded on the orders of Ricimer.
10Nov461Pope St Leo1 ((Leo the Great) (LEO MAGNVS) papacy ends and Pope St Hilary (HILARIVS) (Roman) papacy begins 9 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
Nov461Roman emperor Libius Severus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsAppointed emperor by Ricimer. Not recognized by the Eastern Empire.
464孝武皇帝 [Emperor Xiaowu] of Liu Song reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
Aug465Roman emperor Libius Severus) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsProbably poisoned by Ricimer
465明皇帝 [Emperor Ming] of Liu Song reign begins and 文成皇帝 [Emperor Wencheng] of N. Wei reign ends and Qianfei of Liu Song reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsEmperor Qianfei of Liu Song
465Mayan king Mat Head? (Copán) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
466獻文皇帝 [Emperor Xianwen] of N. Wei reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
12Apr467Roman emperor Anthemius (Procopius Anthemius) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSon-in-law of Marcian, appointed emperor by Leo1, with the consent of Ricimer.
467Mayan king Moon Skull (Yaxchilan) reign ends and Yaxun Bahlam2 (Yaxchilan) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersYaxun Bahlam2 AKA Bird Jaguar2
29Feb468Pope St Hilary (HILARIVS) papacy ends and Pope St Simplicius (SIMPLICIVS) (Roman) papacy begins 3 days later.Wiki: List of PopesPapacy during the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and subsequent overtaking of Rome and Italy in general by Odoacer.
470Mayan king Ku Ix (Copán) reign begins and K'ak' Ujol K'inich1 (Caracol) reign occurs and K'inich Popol Hol (Copán) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersKu Ix was co-ruler since 465. AKA K'altuun Hix, Tuun K'ab' Hix, Ruler 4 - Monuments: Stela 34, Papagayo Step, CPN 584
471獻文皇帝 [Emperor Xianwen] of N. Wei reign ends and 孝文皇帝 [Emperor Xiaowen] of N. Wei reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsThe Tuoba family changed their family name to 元 (yuán) during the reign of the Emperor Xiaowen in 496.
11Jul472Roman emperor Olybrius (Anicius Olybrius) reign begins and Anthemius (Procopius Anthemius) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSon-in-law of Valentinian3, Olybrius was appointed emperor by Ricimer. Not recognized by the Eastern Empire.
19Aug472Roman emperor Flavius Ricimer rule ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperors
2Nov472Roman emperor Olybrius (Anicius Olybrius) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperors
472明皇帝 [Emperor Ming] of Liu Song reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
3Mar473Roman emperor Glycerius reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsAppointed emperor by Gundobad (Ricimer's successor). Not recognized by the Eastern Empire.
473蒼梧王 [King Prince Cangwu] of Liu Song reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsEmperor Houfei of Liu Song
473Wuxing (武興) dynasty begins and Later Chouchi (後仇池) dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
18Jan474Roman emperor Leo1 the Thracian reign ends and Leo2 reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsLeo2 was the grandson of Leo1, who uninstalled by Oregon Trail.
24Jun474Roman emperor Glycerius reign ends and Julius Nepos reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsDeposed by Julius Nepos, who appointed him Bishop of Salona
10Nov474Roman emperor Leo2 reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsPossibly poisoned
17Nov474Roman emperor Zeno reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsNamed co-emperor by his son Leo2 on 9 February 474.
31Oct475Roman emperor Romulus Augustus (Augustulus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsAppointed by his father, Orestes. Listed as an emperor by historical convention. His rule never extended beyond portions of the Italian peninsula. Not recognized by Eastern Emperor Zeno.
9Jan475Roman emperor Basiliscus reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSeized throne from Zeno
475Roman emperor Marcus reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSon of Basiliscus, appointed co-emperor at some point in 475
28Aug475Roman emperor Julius Nepos reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsDeposed in Italy by Orestes in 475, but maintained as figurehead in Dalmatia (Italy) by Odoacer to his uninstall in 480.
475Mayan king Ruler 5 (Copán) reign occurs and Stela 41 (Naranjo) reign occurs and Yas-tu-Chaak (Machaquila) reign occursWiki: Maya rulers
476Romulus Augustus deposed as western Roman emperor.(2020) YT: FOL - CharlemagneLast western emperor until Charlemagne. This is when the Roman Empire entered its 'Byzantine' period.
476Eno the Historian becomes the first Emperor of what's now known as the Byzantine Empire.(2019) YT: FOL - ByzantinesThey kept calling it the Roman Empire up until the Ottomans toppled them.
Aug476Roman emperor Marcus & Basiliscus reigns endWiki: List of Roman emperorsStarved to uninstall together in Limnae (in Cappadocia) by Zeno
4Sep476Roman emperor Romulus Augustus (Augustulus) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsLived out his life in obscurity on a private villa.
476Mayan king Ku Ix (Copán) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
477順皇帝 [Emperor Shun] of Liu Song reign begins and 蒼梧王 [King Prince Cangwu] of Liu Song reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
477Yinping (陰平) dynasty begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
478Mayan king K'an Ahk2 (Piedras Negras) reign occursWiki: Maya rulersK'an Ahk2 AKA Ruler B
479Japanese 雄略天皇 [Emperor Yūryaku] (Oho Hatsuse Wakatakeru no Mikoto) reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
479Southern Qi (南齊) reign begins and Liu Song (劉宋) reign ends and 高皇帝 [Emperor Gao] of Liu Song reign begins and 順皇帝 [Emperor Shun] of Liu Song reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
Apr480Roman emperor Julius Nepos reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperors
480Japanese 清寧天皇 [Emperor Seinei] (Shiraka Takehiro Kuni Oshi Waka Yamato Neko no Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
480Mayan king Ruler 3 (Turtle Shell) (Quiriguá) reign occursWiki: Maya rulers
481Clovis becomes King of Franks.(2020) YT: FOL - Charlemagne
482武皇帝 [Emperor Wu] of Liu Song reign begins and 高皇帝 [Emperor Gao] of Liu Song reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
10Mar483Pope St Simplicius (SIMPLICIVS) papacy ends and Pope St Felix3 (FELIX Tertius) (Imperial Roman) papacy begins 3 days later.Wiki: List of PopesSometimes called Felix2. Great-great-grandfather of pope Gregory1.
484Japanese 清寧天皇 [Emperor Seinei] (Shiraka Takehiro Kuni Oshi Waka Yamato Neko no Mikoto) reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
484Mayan king Yuknoom Ch'een1 (La Amelia) reign begins and Yajaw Te' K'inich1 (Caracol) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersYuknoom Ch'een1 founded the dynasty, or at least was the first recorded ruler of the city.
485Japanese 顕宗天皇 [Emperor Kenzō] (Ohoke no Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
485Mayan king Muyal Jol (Copán) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersMuyal Jol AKA Ruler 6
486Mayan king Chak Tok Ich'aak2 (Tikal) reign begins and K'an Chitam (Tikal) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersChak Tok Ich'aak2 AKA Jaguar Paw2, Jaguar Paw Skull
487Japanese 顕宗天皇 [Emperor Kenzō] (Ohoke no Mikoto) reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
28Jul487Mayan king B'utz Aj Sak Chiik (Palenque dynasty) reign begins and Casper (Palenque) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
488Japanese 仁賢天皇 [Emperor Ninken] (Ohoshi (Ohosu) no Mikoto/ Shimano Iratsuko) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
11Apr491Roman emperor Zeno reign ends and Anastasius1 (Dicorus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsZeno uninstalled by Oregon Trail or epilepsy. Anastasius1 was son-in-law of Leo1.
1Mar492Pope St Felix3 (FELIX Tertius) papacy ends and Pope St Gelasius1 (GELASIVS) (Roman Berber) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesThe last pope to have been installed on the continent of Africa. The first pope called the "Vicar of Christ".
493Chinese Xiao Zhaoye reign begins and 武皇帝 [Emperor Wu] of Liu Song reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchsXiao Zhaoye
493Mayan king Mih Toh (Quiriguá) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
494明皇帝 [Emperor Ming] of Liu Song and Xiao Zhaoye reigns end, and 明皇帝 [Emperor Ming] and 恭王 [King Prince Gong] of Liu Song reigns beginWiki: Chinese monarchsXiao Zhaowen
21Nov496Pope St Gelasius1 (GELASIVS) papacy ends and Pope Anastasius2 (ANASTASIVS Secundus) (Greek) papacy begins 3 days later.Wiki: List of PopesTried to end the Acacian schism but it resulted in the Laurentian schism.
19Nov498Pope Anastasius2 (ANASTASIVS Secundus) papacy ends and Pope St Symmachus (SYMMACHVS) (Roman) papacy begins 3 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
498Japanese 仁賢天皇 [Emperor Ninken] reign ends and 武烈天皇 [Emperor Buretsu] (Wohatsuse Wakasazaki) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
22Nov498Antipope Laurence (LAVRENTIVS) (Roman) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesIn opposition to Symmachus. Elected on the same day as Symachus, King Theodoric settled in favor of his adversary. Took control of Rome in 501 and remained pope in fact until he uninstalled in 506/08.
499煬侯 [Marquess Yang] of Liu Song reign begins and 孝文皇帝 [Emperor Xiaowen] of N. Wei reign ends and 宣武皇帝 [Emperor Xuanwu] of N. Wei reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
500sTenochtitlan civilization begins to decline(2018) YT: OSP - Quetzalcoatl
500Mayan king Yu’npik Tok’ founded Cobá and the ruling family and Hun Uitzil Chac Tutul Xiu founded Uxmal and B'alam Ya Acal (Toniná) reign occursWiki: Maya rulersB'alam Ya Acal AKA Jaguar Bird Peccary; Zots Choj 500s
501煬侯 [Marquess Yang] of Liu Song reign ends and 和皇帝 [Emperor He] of Liu Song reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsEmperor He of Southern Qi
3Jun501Mayan king Ahkal Mo' Nahb1 (Palenque dynasty) reign begins and king B'utz Aj Sak Chiik (Palenque dynasty) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersThe list of ancestors made by his descendant Pakal the Great starts with Ahkal Mo' Nahb1. AKA Chaacal1, Akul Anab1. B'utz Aj Sak Chiik's successor, Ahkal Mo' Nahb, was probably his brother. AKA Manik
502Southern Qi (南齊) reign ends and Liang dynasty (梁朝) reign begins and 和皇帝 [Emperor He] of Liu Song reign ends and 武皇帝 [Emperor Wu] of Liang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
504Mayan king Bahlam Nehn (Copán) reign begins and Muyal Jol (Copán) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersBahlam Nehn AKA Mirror Jaguar, Waterlily Jaguar
Aug506Antipope Laurence (LAVRENTIVS) papacy endsWiki: List of Popes
506Japanese 武烈天皇 [Emperor Buretsu] reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
506Wuxing (武興) dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
507Japanese 継体天皇 [Emperor Keitai] [Ōto/Hikofuto] (Hikofuto no Mikoto/Ōdo no Sumera Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
24Jul508Mayan king Joy Bahlam1 (Yaxchilan) reign begins and king Chak Tok Ich'aak2 (Tikal) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersJoy Bahlam1 AKA Knot-eye Jaguar1
510Mayan king Yat Ahk1 (Piedras Negras) reign occursWiki: Maya rulersYat Ahk1 AKA Ah Cauac Ah K'in, Turtletooth
511Clovis uninstalls.(2020) YT: FOL - Charlemagne
19Apr511Mayan kings Kaloomte' Bahlam (Tikal) & Yo K'in (Tikal) reigns beginWiki: Maya rulersRuled jointly. Possibly married? Kaloomte' Bahlam AKA Curl Head - Monuments: Stelae 10, 12 and 25. Yo K'in AKA Lady of Tikal - Monuments: Stelae 6, 12 and 23
513Mayan king Ruler 1 (Tamarindito) reign occursWiki: Maya rulers
19Jul514Pope St Symmachus (SYMMACHVS) papacy ends and Pope St Hormisdas (HORMISDAS) (Roman) papacy begins 1 day later.Wiki: List of PopesFather of Pope Silverius. Acacian schism.
30Jun514Mayan king Ruler C (Piedras Negras) reign begins and king Yajaw Te' K'inich1 (Caracol) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
515宣武皇帝 [Emperor Xuanwu] of N. Wei reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
516孝明皇帝 [Emperor Xiaoming] of N. Wei reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
9Jul518Roman emperor Anastasius1 (Dicorus) reign ends and Justin1 (Iustinus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsJustin1 was elected by army
518Mayan king Joy Bahlam1 (Yaxchilan) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
520Mayan king Tuun K'ab' Hix (La Amelia) reign begins and Ruler C (Piedras Negras) reign ends and king Yuknoom Ch'een1 (La Amelia) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersTuun K'ab' Hix's daughter married a lord from La Corona. AKA Cu Ix, Ku Ix, K'altuun Hix, Bound-Stone Jaguar
6Aug523Pope St Hormisdas (HORMISDAS) papacy ends and Pope St John1 (IOANNES) (Roman) papacy begins 7 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
29Nov524Mayan king Ahkal Mo' Nahb1 (Palenque dynasty) reign ends and king Interregnum (Palenque dynasty) reign begins and king Bahlam Nehn (Copán) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersor 544
18May526Pope St John1 (IOANNES) papacy ends and Pope St Felix4 (FELIX Quartus) (Roman) papacy begins 55 days later.Wiki: List of PopesSometimes called Felix3. Built Santi Cosma e Damiano.
526Mayan king K'inich Tatb'u Jol2 (Yaxchilan) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersK'inich Tatb'u Jol2 's Monuments: Temple 12, Lintel 35
527Justinian1 the Great's rule over Byzantine Empire begins.(2019) YT: FOL - ByzantinesEmpire population 20 million. He's known as the first actual Byzantine emperor.
1Apr527Roman emperor Justinian1 (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus) reign begins, and Justin1 (Iustinus) reign ends 4 months later.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsNephew of Justin1
527Mayan king Kaloomte' Bahlam (Tikal) reign ends and Yo K'in (Tikal) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
528孝明皇帝 [Emperor Xiaoming] of N. Wei reign ends and 孝莊皇帝 [Emperor Xiaozhuang] and 元釗 [Yuan Zhao] of N. Wei reigns begin.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
6Feb529Mayan king K'an Joy Chitam1 (Palenque dynasty) reign begins and Interregnum (Palenque dynasty) ends.Wiki: Maya rulersK'an Joy Chitam1 AKA Hok, Kan Xul1, K'an Hok' Chitam
22Sep530Pope St Felix4 (FELIX Quartus) papacy ends and Pope Boniface2 (BONIFACIVS Secundus) (German) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesOstrogoth; first Germanic pope. Changed the numbering of the years in the Julian Calendar from Ab Urbe Condita to Anno Domini.
22Sep530Antipope Dioscore (DIOSCORVS) (Greek) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesIn opposition to Pope Boniface2. Candidate of the Byzantine party, elected by the majority of the cardinals and recognized by Constantinople, he uninstalled less than a month after his election.
14Oct530Antipope Dioscore (DIOSCORVS) papacy ends.Wiki: List of Popes
530孝莊皇帝 [Emperor Xiaozhuang] of N. Wei reign ends and 元曄 [Yuan Ye] of N. Wei reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
531Japanese 継体天皇 [Emperor Keitai] reign ends and 安閑天皇 [Emperor Ankan] (Hirokuni Oshitake Kanahi no Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
531節閔皇帝 [Emperor Jiemin] of N. Wei reign begins and 元朗 [Yuan Lang] of N. Wei reign begins and 元曄 [Yuan Ye] of N. Wei reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
531Mayan king K'an1 (Caracol) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
17Oct532Pope Boniface2 (BONIFACIVS Secundus) papacy ends and Pope John2 (IOANNES Secundus) (Roman) papacy begins 77 days later.Wiki: List of PopesFirst pope not to use his personal name, as it was associated with a Roman god, Mercury.
532節閔皇帝 [Emperor Jiemin] of N. Wei reign ends and 孝武皇帝 [Emperor Xiaowu] of N. Wei reign begins and 元朗 [Yuan Lang] of N. Wei reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
532Mayan king Wil Ohl K'inich (Copán) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersIf Bahlam Nehn ruled until 544, Wil Ohl K'inich was a co-ruler until the former's death. AKA Head on Earth, Ruler 8
534孝靜皇帝 [Emperor Xiaojing] of N. Wei reign begins and Eastern Wei (東魏) reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
8May535Pope John2 (IOANNES Secundus) papacy ends and Pope St Agapetus1 (AGAPETVS) (Roman) papacy begins 5 days later.Wiki: List of PopesFeast days 22 April and 20 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 17 April.
534Mayan king K'an1 (Caracol) reign ends and Wakoh K'inich (Tamarindito) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
535Japanese 安閑天皇 [Emperor Ankan] reign ends and 宣化天皇 [Emperor Senka] (Takeo Hirokuni Oshitate no Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
535Western Wei (西魏) reign begins and Northern Wei (北魏) (北魏) reign ends and 文皇帝 [Emperor Wen] of N. Wei reign begins and 孝武皇帝 [Emperor Xiaowu] of N. Wei reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
535Yang Zhihui reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
22Apr536Pope St Agapetus1 (AGAPETVS) papacy ends and Pope St Silverius (SILVERIVS) (Roman) papacy begins 47 days later.Wiki: List of PopesExiled; feast day 20 June, son of Hormisdas.
11Mar537Pope St Silverius (SILVERIVS) papacy ends and Pope Vigilius (VIGILIVS) (Roman) papacy begins 18 days later.Wiki: List of PopesPope during the Second Council of Constantinople (553), the fifth ecumenical council recognized by the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches.
27Dec537Mayan king Wak Chan K'awiil (Tikal) reign begins and king K'inich Tatb'u Jol2 (Yaxchilan) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersWak Chan K'awiil AKA Double Bird
539Japanese 宣化天皇 [Emperor Senka] reign ends and 欽明天皇 [Emperor Kinmei] (Amekuni Oshiharuki Hironiwa no Sumera Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of JapanAll Emperors from Kinmei onwards are historically verifiable;
539Kofun period ends and Kofun period ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
539Asuka period begins and Asuka period begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
545Yang Zhihui reign ends and Yang Bixie reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsYang Zhihui and Yang Bixie could be the same person.
5May546Mayan king Aj Wosal Chan K'inich (Naranjo) reign begins and king Tuun K'ab' Hix (La Amelia) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersAj Wosal Chan K'inich AKA Double Comb
549武皇帝 [Emperor Wu] of Liang reign ends and 簡文皇帝 [Emperor Jianwen] of Liang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
550孝靜皇帝 [Emperor Xiaojing] of N. Wei reign ends the Eastern Wei (東魏), and 文宣皇帝 [Emperor Wenxuan] of N. Wei reign begins the Northern Qi (北齊) dynasty.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
551簡文皇帝 [Emperor Jianwen] of Liang reign ends and 文皇帝 [Emperor Wen] of N. Wei reign ends, and Xiao Dong reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
551Mayan king Sak-Lu (Copán) reign begins and Wil Ohl K'inich (Copán) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersSak-Lu AKA Ruler 9
552Chinese Xiao Dong reign ends and 孝元皇帝 [Emperor Xiaoyuan] of Liang reign begins and 元欽 [Yuan Qin] of N. Wei reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
553Yang Bixie reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
May553Mayan king Sak-Lu (Copán) reign ends and king Tzi-Bahlam (Copán) reign begins and king Yajaw Te' K'inich2 (Lord Water) (Caracol) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersTzi-Bahlam AKA Moon Jaguar, Ruler 10
554恭皇帝 [Emperor Gong] of N. Wei reign begins and 元欽 [Yuan Qin] of N. Wei reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
554Mayan king Wakoh K'inich (Tamarindito) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
555孝元皇帝 [Emperor Xiaoyuan] of Liang reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
7Jun555Pope Vigilius (VIGILIVS) papacy ends and Pope Pelagius1 (PELAGIVS) (Roman) papacy begins 314 days later.Wiki: List of PopesCredited with the construction of the basilica of Santi Apostoli.
557恭皇帝 [Emperor Gong] of N. Wei reign ends and (孝)明皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Ming] and 孝閔皇帝 [Emperor Xiaomin] of N. Wei reigns begin, the 西魏 [Western Wei] ends and 北周 [Northern Zhou] begins, and 敬皇帝 [Emperor Jing] of Liang reign ends the 梁朝 [Liang dynasty] and 武皇帝 [Emperor Wu] of Chen reign begins the 陳朝 [Chen dynasty]Wiki: Chinese monarchs
559Emperor 高殷 [Gao Yin] of N. Wei reign begins and 武皇帝 [Emperor Wu] of Chen reign ends and 文皇帝 [Emperor Wen] of Chen reign begins and 文宣皇帝 [Emperor Wenxuan] of N. Wei reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
560Emperor 高殷 [Gao Yin] of N. Wei reign ends and 明皇帝 or 孝明皇帝 [Emperor Ming or Emperor Xiaoming] of N. Wei reign ends and 孝昭皇帝 [Emperor Xiaozhao] of N. Wei reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
560Mayan king Joy Bahlam2 (Yaxchilan) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersJoy Bahlam2 AKA Knot-eye Jaguar 2
4Mar561Pope Pelagius1 (PELAGIVS) papacy ends and Pope John3 (IOANNES Tertius) (Roman) papacy begins 135 days later.Wiki: List of PopesSecond Pope not to use his personal name.
561武皇帝 [Emperor Wu] of N. Wei reign begins and 武成皇帝 [Emperor Wucheng] of N. Wei reign begins and 孝昭皇帝 [Emperor Xiaozhao] of N. Wei reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
561Mayan king Sky Witness (La Amelia) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersSky Witness, made war with Tikal and won over that city, causing the collapse of the extensive power that Tikal had. Before 561
562宣皇帝 [Emperor Xuan] of W. Liang reign ends and 孝明皇帝 [Emperor (Xiao)Ming] of W. Liang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
562Mayan king Wak Chan K'awiil (Tikal) reign ends and K'inich Waaw (Tikal) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersor 593. AKA Animal Skull, Lizard Head, Ete2
564Mayan king U K'ab' (Sak tz'i) reign occursWiki: Maya rulers
565Justinian1 rule over Byzantine Empire ends.(2019) YT: FOL - ByzantinesLast Roman emperor. Byzantine empire moves from Latin to Greece for spoken language.
14Nov565Roman emperor Justinian1 (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus) reign ends and Justin2 (Iustinus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsNephew of Justinian1
565Emperor 高緯 [Gao Wei] of N. Wei reign begins and 武成皇帝 [Emperor Wucheng] of N. Wei reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
6Feb565Mayan king K'an Joy Chitam1 (Palenque dynasty) reign ends and king Ahkal Mo' Nahb2 (Palenque dynasty) reign begins 85 days later.Wiki: Maya rulersAhkal Mo' Nahb2 AKA Chaacal2, Akul Anab2
566文皇帝 [Emperor Wen] of Chen reign ends and Fei of Chen reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsEmperor Fei of Chen
568Emperor Fei of Chen reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
569孝宣皇帝 [Emperor Xiaoxuan] of Liu Song reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsEmperor Xuan of Chen
569Mayan king K’awiil Chan K’inich (Pusilha) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersK’awiil Chan K’inich, this first ruler and dynasty probably descended from the first dynasty of Naranjo
21Jul570Mayan king Ahkal Mo' Nahb2 (Palenque dynasty) reign ends and king Joy Bahlam2 (Yaxchilan) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
571Japanese 欽明天皇 [Emperor Kinmei] reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
572Japanese 敏達天皇 [Emperor Bidatsu] (Osada no Nunakura no Futotamashiki no Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
6Apr572Mayan king Kan Bahlam1 (Palenque dynasty) reign begins and king Yax Yopaat (La Amelia) reign begins and king Sky Witness (La Amelia) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersKan Bahlam1 AKA Chan Bahlum1
573Mayan king Ruler 3 (Tamarindito) reign occursWiki: Maya rulers
13Jul574Pope John3 (IOANNES Tertius) papacy ends and Pope Benedict1 (BENEDICTVS) (Roman) papacy begins 324 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
577Emperor 高緯 [Gao Wei] of N. Wei reign ends and 高紹義 [Gao Shaoyi] of N. Wei reign begins and 高恆 [Gao Heng] of N. Wei reign begins and Northern Qi (北齊) reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
5Oct578Roman emperor Justin2 (Iustinus) reign ends and Tiberius2 Constantine (Tiberius Constantinus) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsTiberius2 was adopted son of Justin2, and regent from 574. Justin2 uninstalled by natural causes, after insanity.
578武皇帝 [Emperor Wu] of N. Wei reign ends and 宣皇帝 [Emperor Xuan] of N. Wei reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
22Oct578Mayan king Tzi-Bahlam (Copán) reign ends and king K'ak' Chan Yopaat (Copán) reign begins 24 days later.Wiki: Maya rulersK'ak' Chan Yopaat AKA Butz' Chan, Smoke Serpent
30Jul579Pope Benedict1 (BENEDICTVS) papacy ends and Pope Pelagius2 (PELAGIVS Secundus) (Romanized Ostrogoth) papacy begins 119 days later.Wiki: List of PopesOrdered the construction of the Basilica di San Lorenzo fuori le Mura.
579Emperor 高紹義 [Gao Shaoyi] of N. Wei reign ends and 靜皇帝 [Emperor Jing] of N. Wei reign begins and 宣皇帝 [Emperor Xuan] of N. Wei reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
2Sep579Mayan king Uneh Chan (La Amelia) reign begins and king Yax Yopaat (La Amelia) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersUneh Chan AKA Scroll Serpent
581文皇帝 [Emperor Wen] of Sui reign begins and Sui dynasty (隋朝) reign begins and Northern Zhou (北周) reign ends and Northern dynasties (北朝) (北朝) reign ends and 靜皇帝 [Emperor Jing] of N. Wei reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
14Aug582Roman emperor Tiberius2 Constantine (Tiberius Constantinus) reign ends and Maurice (Mauricius Tiberius) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsMaurice was son-in-law of Tiberius2
582孝宣皇帝 [Emperor Xiaoxuan] of Liu Song reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
583Chinese Chen Shubao reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsChen Shubao
1Feb583Mayan king Kan Bahlam1 (Palenque dynasty) reign ends and king Yohl Ik'nal (Palenque dynasty) reign begins 323 days later.Wiki: Maya rulersYohl Ik'nal AKA Lady Kan Ik, Lady K'anal Ik'nal
585Japanese 敏達天皇 [Emperor Bidatsu] reign ends and 用明天皇 [Emperor Yōmei] (Ooe/Tachibana no Toyohi no Sumera Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
585孝靖皇帝 [Emperor Xiaojing] of W. Liang reign begins and 孝明皇帝 [Emperor Xiaoming] of W. Liang reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
587Japanese 用明天皇 [Emperor Yōmei] reign ends and 崇峻天皇 [Emperor Sushun] ( [Hatsusebe no (Wakasasagi) Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
587Western Liang (西梁) reign ends and 孝靖皇帝 [Emperor Xiaojing] of W. Liang reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
589Southern dynasties (南朝) reign ends and Northern and Southern Dynasties (南北朝) (南北朝) reign ends and Chen Shubao reign ends and Chen dynasty (陳朝) reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
590Roman emperor Theodosius reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSon of Maurice
7Feb590Pope Pelagius2 (PELAGIVS Secundus) papacy ends and Pope St Gregory1 ((Gregory the Great) (GREGORIVS MAGNVS) (Roman) papacy begins 208 days later.Wiki: List of PopesLast imperial Roman Pope. Great-great-grandson of pope Felix3. The first formally to employ the titles Servus servorum Dei and Pontifex Maximus. Established the Gregorian chant. Feast day 3 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 12 March. Known as "the Father of Christian Worship". Known as "St Gregory the Dialogist" in Eastern Orthodoxy.
592Japanese 崇峻天皇 [Emperor Sushun] reign ends and 推古天皇 [Empress Suiko] [Nukatabe/Toyomike Kashikiyahime) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japanfirst non-legendary female Emperor; Prince Shotoku acted as her regent
593Prince Shotoku brings Buddism over from Baekje on the Korean peninsula.(2016) YT: BW - history of japan
593Mayan king Yajaw Te' K'inich2 (Lord Water) (Caracol) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
594Mayan king K'ab Chan Te'1 (Sak tz'i) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
595Mayan king K'inich Hix Chapat (Toniná) reign begins and king K’ahk U’ Ti’ Chan (Pusilha) reign begins and king K’awiil Chan K’inich (Pusilha) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersK'inich Hix Chapat AKA Personage 2
599Mayan king It zamnaaj Bahlam2 (Yaxchilan) reign begins and king Knot Ajaw (Caracol) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersIt zamnaaj Bahlam2 AKA Shield Jaguar 2
600Slavic micropower of Poland form around Baltic sea and Vistula river delta.(2017) YT: PI - History of PolandPomeranians, Sorbs, Masovians, Silesians, and Vistulans.
600Mayan king Pat-K'awiil (Seibal) reign begins (600s) and king Yahav Chan Muwaahn1 (Chiapa de Corzo) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
600sKingdom of Srivijaya begins around Sumatra.(2019) YT: EH - MajapahitThey controlled access to the sea in exchange for rice, but left islands to govern themselves, including their own. Mataram gained control of Sumatra, much more conservative than the Srivijayan. Centuries before, the Javanese started using wet rice production to increase yields, and through rainwater collection and resovoir control, Mataram controlled who could grow food on the island, giving them a large work force.
600sTenochtitlan decline continues until sudden collapse(2018) YT: OSP - Quetzalcoatl
600sArabic scholars translate Ptolemy (Hipparchus?)'s catalog of 1028 stars into Arabic(2019) YT: PN - Barnards Star
23Nov602Roman emperor Maurice (Mauricius Tiberius) reign ends and Phocas (reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsPhocas seized the throne, uninstalling Maurice
Dec602Roman emperor Theodosius reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsUninstalled by supporters of Phocas
14Nov603Mayan king K'inich Yo'nal Ahk1 (Piedras Negras) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersSome scholars have argued that K'inich Yo'nal Ahk1 refounded the ruling dynasty at Piedras Negras. AKA Ruler 1
12Mar604Pope St Gregory1 (Gregory the Great) (GREGORIVS MAGNVS) papacy ends and Pope Sabinian (SABINIANVS) (Roman) papacy begins 185 days later.Wiki: List of PopesFor the next two centuries the Roman popes were all controlled by the Byzantine Empire.
604Prince Shotoku (Japan) gets Buddism to take hold in Japan.(2016) YT: BW - history of japan
5Nov604Mayan king Yohl Ik'nal (Palenque dynasty) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
605煬皇帝 [Emperor Yang] of Sui reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1Jan605Mayan king Ajen Yohl Mat (Palenque dynasty) reign begins and king Yahav Chan Muwaahn1 (Chiapa de Corzo) reign ends and king Ak-Naal (Chiapa de Corzo) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersDuring his reign (4 April 611), Palenque was invaded by Calakmul. AKA Aj Ne' Ohl Mat, Ac Kan, Ahl Lawal Mat
22Feb606Pope Sabinian (SABINIANVS) papacy ends and Pope Boniface3 (BONIFACIVS Tertius) (Greek) papacy begins 362 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
12Nov607Pope Boniface3 (BONIFACIVS Tertius) papacy ends and Pope St Boniface4 (BONIFACIVS Quartus) (Roman) papacy begins 308 days later.Wiki: List of PopesFirst pope to bear the same name as his immediate predecessor.
5Oct610Roman emperor Phocas (reign ends and Heraclius (Φλάβιος Ἡράκλειος Αὔγουστος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsHeraclius led a revolt against Phocas
610Mayan king Ak-Naal (Chiapa de Corzo) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
611Mayan king It zamnaaj Bahlam2 (Yaxchilan) reign ends and Uneh Chan (La Amelia) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
8Aug612Mayan king Ajen Yohl Mat (Palenque dynasty) reign ends and king Janahb Pakal (Palenque dynasty) reign occurs and king Sak K'uk' (Palenque dynasty) reign begins 73 days later.Wiki: Maya rulersJanahb Pakal AKA Janaab Pakal, Pakal1. Position uncertain. Sak K'uk' AKA 6 Cimi Pakal
613Mayan king Knot Ajaw (Caracol) reign ends and Ruler 4 (Tamarindito) reign ends and Wakoh Chan K'inich (Tamarindito) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
8May615Pope St Boniface4 (BONIFACIVS Quartus) papacy ends and Pope St Adeodatus1 (ADEODATVS or DEVSDEDIT) (Roman) papacy begins 189 days later.Wiki: List of PopesSometimes called Deusdedit. The first pope to use lead seals on papal documents, which in time came to be called papal bulls.
27Jul615Mayan king Aj Wosal Chan K'inich (Naranjo) reign ends and king K'inich Janaab' Pakal1 the Great (Palenque dynasty) reign begins and king Sak K'uk' (Palenque dynasty) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersK'inich Janaab' Pakal1 was responsible for the construction or extension of some of Palenque's most notable surviving inscriptions and monumental architecture. AKA Pacal, 8 Ahau, Sun Shield
617煬皇帝 [Emperor Yang] of Sui reign ends and 恭皇帝 [Emperor Gong1] of Sui reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsDeclared emperor by Li Yuan (the later Emperor Gaozu of Tang), implying a retirement for Emperor Yang (whom he "honoured" as Taishang Huang [retired emperor]) at the western capital Daxing (Chang'an), but only the commanderies under Li's control recognized this change; for the other commanderies under Sui control, Emperor Yang was still regarded as emperor, not as retired emperor. Now generally regarded as a legitimate emperor, due to his recognition by Li Yuan.
8Nov618Pope St Adeodatus1 (ADEODATVS or DEVSDEDIT) papacy ends and Pope Boniface5 (BONIFACIVS Quintus) (Roman) papacy begins 410 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
618 恭皇帝 [Emperor Gong1] of Sui reign ends and 恭皇帝 [Emperor Gong2] of Sui reign begins, and 高祖 [Gaozu] of Tang reign begins the Tang dynasty (唐朝), and Yang Hao reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsAfter news of Emperor Yang's death in 618 reached Daxing and the eastern capital Luoyang, Li Yuan deposed Emperor Gong1 and took the throne himself, establishing Tang dynasty, but the Sui officials at Luoyang declared Emperor Gong1's brother Yang Tong (later also known as Emperor Gong2) emperor. The legitimacy of his reign is disputed.
618Mayan king K'an2 (Caracol) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
619恭皇帝 [Emperor Gong2] of Sui reign ends the 隋朝 (Sui dynasty).Wiki: Chinese monarchs
619Mayan king Yuknoom Ti' Chan (La Amelia) reign occursWiki: Maya rulersYuknoom Ti' Chan AKA Chan
28Mar622Mayan king Tajoom Uk'ab K'ahk' (La Amelia) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersTajoom Uk'ab K'ahk' AKA Ta Batz
25Oct625Pope Boniface5 (BONIFACIVS Quintus) papacy ends and Pope Honorius1 (HONORIVS) (Roman) papacy begins 2 days later.Wiki: List of PopesNamed a heretic and anathematized by the Third Council of Constantinople. (680)
626Emperor 高祖 [Gaozu] of Tang reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
626Mayan king Defeated by Caracol (Naranjo) reign occursWiki: Maya rulers
627Emperor 太宗 [Taizong] of Tang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
628Heraclius rules Byzantine Empire.(2019) YT: FOL - ByzantinesPopulation of empire is 15 million.
628Japanese 推古天皇 [Empress Suiko] reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
8Feb628Mayan king K'inich Wayaan? (Tikal) reign begins and king K'inich Muwaan Jol2 (Tikal) reign begins and king Chan Imix K'awiil (Copán) reign begins and king K'ak' Chan Yopaat (Copán) reign ends and king K'inich Waaw (Tikal) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersK'inich Wayaan?, probably identifiable with 23rd Ruler - 635 if he is the 23rd Ruler, K'inich Muwaan Jol2, probably identifiable with 24th Ruler - 645 if he is the 24th Ruler. Chan Imix K'awiil was probably the longest-reigning ruler of the city. AKA Smoke Jaguar, Smoke Imix - Monuments: Stelae 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 12, 13, 19, 23; Altars H', I', K & 5; Burial in Temple 26
629Japanese 舒明天皇 [Emperor Jomei] (Tamura (Oki Nagatarashihi Hironuka no Sumera Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1Oct630Mayan king Yuknoom Head (La Amelia) reign begins and king Tajoom Uk'ab K'ahk' (La Amelia) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersYuknoom Head AKA Cauac Head
631Mayan king K'uxaj (Naranjo) reign occurs and king Yaxun Bahlam3 (Yaxchilan) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersK'uxaj, defeated by Calakmul, Yaxun Bahlam3 AKA 6-Tun-Bird Jaguar, Bird Jaguar3 K'uxaj, defeated by Calakmul, Yaxun Bahlam3 AKA 6-Tun-Bird Jaguar, Bird Jaguar3
28Apr636Mayan king Yuknoom Ch'een2 the Great (La Amelia) reign begins and king Yuknoom Head (La Amelia) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersYuknoom Ch'een2 the Great, his daughter married a lord from La Corona. Yuknoom Ch'een2 the Great, his daughter married a lord from La Corona.
12Oct638Pope Honorius1 (HONORIVS) papacy ends and Pope Severinus (SEVERINVS) (Roman) papacy begins 594 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
12Apr639Mayan king K'inich Yo'nal Ahk1 (Piedras Negras) reign ends and king It zam K'an Ahk1 (Piedras Negras) reign begins 68 days later.Wiki: Maya rulersIt zam K'an Ahk1 AKA Ruler 2
2Aug640Pope Severinus (SEVERINVS) papacy ends and Pope John4 (IOANNES Quartus) (Roman) papacy begins 144 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
11Feb641Roman emperor Heraclius (Φλάβιος Ἡράκλειος Αὔγουστος) reign ends and Heraklonas (Φλάβιος Κωνσταντῖνος Ἡράκλειος Αὔγουστος) with Tiberius (Φλάβιος Τιβέριος Αὔγουστος) and Martinus (Φλάβιος Μαρτίνος Αὔγουστος) & Constantine3 (Ἡράκλειος νέος Κωνσταντῖνος Αὔγουστος) reigns beginWiki: List of Roman emperorsSons of Heraclius; all briefly served as co-emperors.
24May641Roman emperor Constantine3 (Ἡράκλειος νέος Κωνσταντῖνος Αὔγουστος) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsUninstall by tuberculosis
Sep641Roman emperor Heraklonas (Φλάβιος Κωνσταντῖνος Ἡράκλειος Αὔγουστος) with Tiberius (Φλάβιος Τιβέριος Αὔγουστος) and Martinus (Φλάβιος Μαρτίνος Αὔγουστος) reigns end and Constans2 (Φλάβιος Κωνσταντῖνος Αὔγουστος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSon of Constantine3. Constans2 succeeded his uncle Heraklonas after he was deposed as emperor.
641Japanese 舒明天皇 [Emperor Jomei] (Tamura (Oki Nagatarashihi Hironuka no Sumera Mikoto) reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
641Mayan king K'ab Chan Te'1 (Sak tz'i) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
12Oct642Pope John4 (IOANNES Quartus) papacy ends and Pope Theodore1 (THEODORVS) (Greek) papacy begins 43 days later.Wiki: List of PopesThe last pope from Palestine. Planned the Lateran Council of 649, but uninstalled before it could open.
642Japanese Empress Kōgyoku (皇極天皇) [Takara (Ame Toyotakaraikashi Hitarashi Hime no Sumera Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japanreigned twice
643Mayan king Vinikhaab To’k (Chiapa de Corzo) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
644Mayan king K'ahk' Xiiw Chan Chaahk (Naranjo) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersK'ahk' Xiiw Chan Chaahk, 37th ruler of Naranjo, according to the inscriptions on the site. His rule, however, didn't produce any surviving monuments. He was victorious against Caracol., K'ahk' Xiiw Chan Chaahk
645Taika Reforms instituted by Emperor Kotoku, Naka No Oe (Tenji) and Naktomi (Fujiwara) no Kamatari.(2016) YT: BW - history of japanThey wanted to emulate China's Chang'an dynasty.
645Japanese Empress Kōgyoku (皇極天皇) [Takara (Ame Toyotakaraikashi Hitarashi Hime no Sumera Mikoto) reign ends and 孝徳天皇 [Emperor Kōtoku] (Karu Ame Yorozu Toyohi no Sumera Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
648Mayan king B'alaj Chan K'awiil founds Dos Pilas, beginning his reign.Wiki: Maya rulersB'alaj Chan K'awiil probably saw himself as the legitimate heir to the Tikal throne. He moved away from the capital to found a new one at Dos Pilas, which grew to become a rival kingdom, under overlordship of Calakmul. AKA Ruler 1, Flint Sky, Flint Sky God K, Lightning Sky, Malah Chan K'awil.
649When England's hereditary monarchy began, according to Charles1.(2020) YT: HC - Trial Charles1This was during his trial, so may have been hyperbolic.
14May649Pope Theodore1 (THEODORVS) papacy ends and Pope St Martin1 (MARTINVS) (Roman) papacy begins 52 days later.Wiki: List of PopesLast pope recognized as a martyr. Feast day of 12 November. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 14 April.
649Emperor 太宗 [Taizong] of Tang reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
650Emperor 高宗 [Gaozong] of Tang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
650Mayan king K'inich Muwaan Jol2 (Tikal) reign ends and K'inich Wayaan? (Tikal) reign ends and K’ahk U’ Ti’ Chan (Pusilha) reign ends and Muyal Naah K’ukhul K’ahk’ U’ (Pusilha) reign begins and Vinikhaab To’k (Chiapa de Corzo) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
653Mayan king K'ab Chan Te'2? (Sak tz'i) reign begins and K'awiil Yopaat (Ruler 5) (Quiriguá) reign occursWiki: Maya rulers
10Aug654Pope St Eugene1 (EVGENIVS) (Roman) papacy begins.Wiki: List of Popes
654Japanese 孝徳天皇 [Emperor Kōtoku] reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
12Nov655Pope St Martin1 (MARTINVS) papacy endsWiki: List of Popes
655Japanese 斉明天皇 [Empress Saimei] (Takara Ame Toyotakaraikashi Hitarashi Hime no Sumera Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of JapanSecond reign of Empress Kōgyoku
2Jun657Pope St Eugene1 (EVGENIVS) papacy ends and Pope St Vitalian (VITALIANVS) (Roman) papacy begins 58 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
657Mayan king Nuun Ujol Chaak (Tikal) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersNuun Ujol Chaak AKA Shield Skull, Nun Ban Chak
658Mayan king K'ak' Ujol K'inich2 (Caracol) reign begins and K'an2 (Caracol) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
659Roman emperor Heraclius (Φλάβιος Ἡράκλειος Αὔγουστος) and Tiberius (Φλάβιος Τιβέριος Αὔγουστος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsBrothers of Constantine4 and co-emperors.
660Mayan king Aj Ajan Nah (Tamarindito) reign occurs and Aj Ihk' Wolok (Tamarindito) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
661Japanese 斉明天皇 [Empress Saimei] reign ends and 天智天皇 [Emperor Tenji] reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan [Katsuragi/Nakano-ooe] (Ame Mikoto Hirakasuwake no Mikoto/Amatsu Mikoto Sakiwake no Mikoto)
662Mayan king Muwaan Jol (Moral Reforma) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersMuwaan Jol ascended under king Yuknoom of Calakmul; however, in 690, ascended once again under the king of Palenque.
665Mayan king K'inich Hix Chapat (Toniná) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
15Sep668Roman emperor Constans2 (Φλάβιος Κωνσταντῖνος Αὔγουστος) reign ends and Constantine4 (Φλάβιος Κωνσταντῖνος Αὔγουστος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsConstantine4 was the odest son of Constans2, co-emperor since 654. Constans2 was possibly uninstalled by his son Romanos2.
668Mayan king Ruler 2 (Toniná) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersRuler 2 AKA Jaguar Casper
670Mayan king Sihyaj K'in Ich'aak1 (Machaquila) reign begins and Muyal Naah K’ukhul K’ahk’ U’ (Pusilha) reign ends and Ruler D (Pusilha) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersSihyaj K'in Ich'aak1 's Monuments: Stela 13, Altar E
27Jan672Pope St Vitalian (VITALIANVS) papacy ends and Pope Adeodatus2 (ADEODATVS Secundus) (Roman) papacy begins 75 days later.Wiki: List of PopesSometimes called Adeodatus, without a number, in reference to Adeodatus1 sometimes being called Deusdedit.
672Japanese 天智天皇 [Emperor Tenji] reign ends and Kōbun (弘文天皇) [Ōtomo) reign begins, then gets usurped by - Emperor Tenmu (天武天皇) [Ōama/Ohoshiama/Ōsama (Ame no Nunahara Oki no Mahito no Sumera Mikoto)Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
672Mayan king Lady K'abel (El Perú) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
17Jun676Pope Adeodatus2 (ADEODATVS Secundus) papacy ends and Pope Donus (DONVS) (Roman) papacy begins 138 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
11Apr678Pope Donus (DONVS) papacy ends and Pope St Agatho (AGATHO) (Greek) papacy begins 77 days later.Wiki: List of PopesAlso revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 20 February. Pope during the Third Council of Constantinople (680), the sixth ecumenical council accepted by the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches.
679Mayan king Nuun Ujol Chaak (Tikal) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
680Mayan king K'ahk' Xiiw Chan Chaahk (Naranjo) reign ends and K'ak' Ujol K'inich2 (Caracol) reign ends and Ruler D (Pusilha) reign ends and Ruler E (Pusilha) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
681Roman emperor Heraclius (Φλάβιος Ἡράκλειος Αὔγουστος) and Tiberius (Φλάβιος Τιβέριος Αὔγουστος) reign ends and Justinian2 (Φλάβιος Ἰουστινιανὸς Αὔγουστος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsConstantine4 deposed and uninstalled Heraclius by disassembly, then elevated his son Justinian2.
10Jan681Pope St Agatho (AGATHO) papacy ends and Pope St Leo2 (LEO Secundus) (Greek) papacy begins 584 days later.Wiki: List of PopesFeast day 3 July.
23Oct681Mayan king It zamnaaj Bahlam3 (Yaxchilan) reign begins and king Yaxun Bahlam3 (Yaxchilan) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersIt zamnaaj Bahlam3 AKA Shield Jaguar3
3May682Mayan king Jasaw Chan K'awiil1 (Tikal) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersJasaw Chan K'awiil1's defeat of the rival Maya city of Calakmul in 695 is seen to represent a resurgence in the strength and influence of Tikal. AKA Ruler A, Ah Cacao, Sky Rain - Monuments: Tikal Temple1, Lintels 2 and 3 of Temple 1
3Jul683Pope St Leo2 (LEO Secundus) papacy ends and Pope St Benedict2 (BENEDICTVS Secundus) (Roman) papacy begins 359 days later.Wiki: List of PopesFeast day 7 May.
683Emperor 高宗 [Gaozong] of Tang reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
26Aug683Mayan king K'inich Janaab' Pakal1 the Great (Palenque dynasty) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
684Emperor 睿宗 [Ruizong] of Tang reign begins and 中宗 [Zhongzong] of Tang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
Jan684Mayan king K'inich Kan Bahlam2 (Palenque dynasty) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersK'inich Kan Bahlam2 continued the ambitious project of adorning Palenque with fine art and architecture begun by his father. AKA Chan Bahlum2
14Sep685Roman emperor Constantine4 (Φλάβιος Κωνσταντῖνος Αὔγουστος) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsConstantine4 was uninstalled by Oregon Trail.
8May685Pope St Benedict2 (BENEDICTVS Secundus) papacy ends and Pope John5 (IOANNES Quintus) (Greek) papacy begins 76 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
2Aug686Pope John5 (IOANNES Quintus) papacy ends and Pope Conon (CONON) (Greek) papacy begins 80 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
686Japanese Emperor Tenmu (天武天皇) [Ōama/Ohoshiama/Ōsama (Ame no Nunahara Oki no Mahito no Sumera Mikoto) reign ends and Empress Jitō (持統天皇) [Unonosarara (Takama no Harahiro no Hime no Sumera Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
15Nov686Mayan king It zam K'an Ahk1 (Piedras Negras) reign ends and king Yuknoom Ch'een2 the Great (La Amelia) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
21Sep687Pope Conon (CONON) papacy ends and Pope St Sergius1 (SERGIVS) (Hellenized Syrian) papacy begins 85 days later.Wiki: List of PopesIntroduced the singing of the Lamb of God at mass.
2Jan687Mayan king K'inich Yo'nal Ahk2 (Piedras Negras) reign begins and king Ruler 2 (Toniná) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersK'inich Yo'nal Ahk2 AKA Ruler 3
688Mayan king K'inich B'aaknal Chaak (Toniná) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers"K'inich B'aaknal Chaak AKA Ruler 3; Personage 3; Kuk; Craneo de Serpiente (Snake Skull)
690睿宗 [Ruizong] of Tang reign ends, and Wu Zhou (武周) & Empress Regnant Tiance Jinlun Shengshen reigns begin the Tang Interregnum.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
690Mayan king Muwaan Jol (Moral Reforma) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersafter 690
692Mayan king B'alaj Chan K'awiil (Dos Pilas) reign ends and Lady K'abel (El Perú) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
31May693Mayan king K'ak' Tiliw Chan Chaak (Naranjo) reign begins and king K'ab Chan Te'2? (Sak tz'i) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersK'ak' Tiliw Chan Chaak's father (B'alaj Chan K'awiil) was probably a cousin of K'ahk' Xiiw Chan Chaahk. She used the Tikal emblem to prove her lineage from the Tikal royal line, through B'alaj Chan K'awiil. Under regency of Lady Wak Chanil of Dos Pilas until 26 March 706. Shortly after his accesson, Naranjo fought and won a series of victories against polities, some of whom may have been rebelling against K'ak' Tiliw's mother. It's possible that was his mother the organizer of many of Naranjo campaigns that, early in his reign, defeated Yaxha, Tikal, and Ucanal. AKA Smoking Squirrel - Monuments: Stelae 1, 2, 3, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 28, 29, 30 and 31
695Roman emperor Justinian2 (Φλάβιος Ἰουστινιανὸς Αὔγουστος) reign ends and Leontios (Λεόντιος Αὔγουστος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsLeontios led the army in revolt against Justinian2.
15Jun695Mayan king Split Earth (La Amelia) reign occurs and king It zamnaaj B'alam (Dos Pilas) reign occurs and king Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil (Copán) reign begins and king Chan Imix K'awiil (Copán) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersSplit Earth, probably a co-ruler. Little is known about It zamnaaj B'alam. He probably had a short reign. AKA Shield Jaguar If Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil ascended on 2 January, he briefly co-ruled with his predecessor. K'awii was captured and beheaded by the ruler of Quirigua. AKA Oxwitik, 18 Rabbit - Monuments: Stelae A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J & 4; Altar S; Lower Hieroglyphic Stairway of Temple 26; Step of Temple 22; Ballcourt A2b markers; Ballcourt A-3 text & markers
697Japanese Empress Jitō (持統天皇) [Unonosarara (Takama no Harahiro no Hime no Sumera Mikoto) reign ends and Monmu (文武天皇) [Karu (Ame no Mamune Toyoohoji no Sumera Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
698Roman emperor Leontios (Λεόντιος Αὔγουστος) reign ends and Tiberios3 Apsimaros (Τιβέριος Αὔγουστος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsTiberios3 led the army in revolt against Leontios.
24Mar698Mayan king It zamnaaj K'awiil (Dos Pilas) reign begins and king It zamnaaj Bahlam (Ucanal) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersIt zamnaaj K'awiil AKA Ruler 2, Shield God K
700sNasrid Kingdom of Granada begins.Wiki: Expulsion Jews Spain
700Mayan king Ucha'an K'an B'alam (Aguateca) reign occurs and king name unknown (Caracol) reign occurs and king Pat-K'awiil (Seibal) reign ends and king Ruler7 (Caracol) reign occurs and king Sak Muwaan (Motul de San José) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersUcha'an K'an B'alam, father of Tan Te' Kinich. Reigns here are vague, during 700s
700Teotihuacan conquered by northern micropowers.SFGate - Olmecs to ToltecsIts widespread influence rapidly diminished.
8Sep701Pope St Sergius1 (SERGIVS) papacy ends and Pope John6 (IOANNES Sextus) (Ioannes) (Greek) papacy begins 52 days later.Wiki: List of PopesThe only pope who came from Asia Minor.
701Mayan king Yichte K'inich1 (Motul de San José) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
1Feb702Mayan king Yuknoom Took' K'awiil (La Amelia) reign begins and king K'inich Kan Bahlam2 (Palenque dynasty) reign ends and king K'inich K'an Joy Chitam2 (Palenque dynasty) reign begins 116 days later. and king Aj Ihk' Wolok (Tamarindito) reign ends and king It zamnaaj Bahlam (Ucanal) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersYuknoom Took' K'awiil's daughter married a lord from La Corona. AKA Ruler 5/6/7 - Monuments: Stelae 1, 7?, 8, 23, 24, 38, 39?, 40, 41?, 42?, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74 and 8. K'inich K'an Joy Chitam2 was captured by Toniná in 711, but possibly restored to kingship. AKA Kan Xul2, K'an Hok' Chitam On2
11Jan705Pope John6 (IOANNES Sextus) (Ioannes) papacy ends and Pope John7 (IOANNES Septimus) (Ioannes) (Greek) papacy begins 49 days later.Wiki: List of PopesThe second pope to bear the same name as his immediate predecessor.
Aug705Roman emperor Tiberios3 Apsimaros (Τιβέριος Αὔγουστος) reign ends and Justinian2 (Φλάβιος Ἰουστινιανὸς Αὔγουστος) second) reignwith Tiberius (Τιβέριος Αὔγουστος) reigns beginWiki: List of Roman emperorsJustinian2 returned on the throne with Bulgar support, naming his son Tiberius as co-emperor in 706.
705Wu Zhou (武周) & Empress Regnant Tiance Jinlun Shengshen reigns end the Tang Interregnum, and 中宗 [Zhongzong] of Tang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
18Oct707Pope John7 (IOANNES Septimus) (Ioannes) papacy ends and Pope Sisinnius (SISINNIVS) (Sisinnius) (Syrian) papacy begins 89 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
707Japanese Emperor Monmu (文武天皇) [Karu (Ame no Mamune Toyoohoji no Sumera Mikoto) reign ends and Empress Genmei (元明天皇) [Ahe (Yamatoneko Amatsu Mishiro Toyokuni Narihime no Sumera Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
4Feb708Pope Sisinnius (SISINNIVS) (Sisinnius) papacy ends and Pope Constantine (CONSTANTINVS) (Constantinus) (Syrian) papacy begins 50 days later.Wiki: List of PopesLast pope to visit Greece while in office, until John Paul2 in 2001.
708Mayan king Ruler 4 (Toniná) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersRuler 4 AKA Dios Jaguar (Jaguar God)
710Asuka period ends and Nara period begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
710Emperor 睿宗 [Ruizong] of Tang reign begins and 中宗 [Zhongzong] of Tang reign ends and Shang of Tang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
710Mayan king Lady1ch’aak K’inich (Pusilha) reign begins and Ruler E (Pusilha) reign ends and Sihyaj K'in Ich'aak1 (Machaquila) reign ends and Yichte K'inich1 (Motul de San José) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
711Kojiki - Records of Ancient Matters published in Japan, using Chinese characters.(2016) YT: BW - history of japanThis is when Japan started writing Japanese language with Chinese letters.
Dec711Roman emperor Justinian2 (Φλάβιος Ἰουστινιανὸς Αὔγουστος) second) reignwith Tiberius (Τιβέριος Αὔγουστος) reign ends and Philippikos Bardanes (Φιλιππικὸς Αὔγουστος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsPhilippikos Bardanes led a the army in revolt, uninstalling both.
711Mayan king Ets'nab-Chaak (Machaquila) reign begins and king Ruler 9 (Tamarindito) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersAt the end of his reign, Machaquilá's suzerain kingdom, Dos Pilas, was abandoned and, during the political turmoil that followed, Cancuén stole power from Machaquilá.
712Emperor 睿宗 [Ruizong] of Tang reign ends and 玄宗 [Xuanzong] of Tang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
712Mayan king Chak Bin Ahk (Tamarindito) reign begins and Ruler 10 (Tamarindito) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
3Jun713Roman emperor Philippikos Bardanes (Φιλιππικὸς Αὔγουστος) reign ends and Anastasios2 (Αρτέμιος Ἀναστάσιος Αὔγουστος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsBureaucrat and secretary under Philippikos, Anastasios2 was raised to the purple by the soldiers
9Apr715Pope Constantine (CONSTANTINVS) (Constantinus) papacy ends and Pope St Gregory2 (GREGORIVS Secundus) (Gregorius) (Roman) papacy begins 40 days later.Wiki: List of PopesFeast day 11 February. Held the Synod of Rome (721).
May715Roman emperor Theodosius3 (Θεοδόσιος Αὔγουστος) reign begins, and Anastasios2 (Αρτέμιος Ἀναστάσιος Αὔγουστος) reign ends in NovemberWiki: List of Roman emperorsTroops chose Theodosius3 over Anastasios2.
715Japanese Empress Genmei (元明天皇) [Ahe (Yamatoneko Amatsu Mishiro Toyokuni Narihime no Sumera Mikoto) reign ends and Empress Genshō (元正天皇) [Hidaka/Niinomi (Yamatoneko Takamizu Kiyotarashi Hime no Sumera Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
715Mayan king K'inich B'aaknal Chaak (Toniná) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
25Mar717Roman emperor Theodosius3 (Θεοδόσιος Αὔγουστος) reign ends and Leo3 the Isaurian (Λέων) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsLeo3 led a rebellion, causing Theodosius3 to become a monk.
720Nihon Shoki - Chronicles of Japan published in Japan, full of poetry.(2016) YT: BW - history of japan
720Mayan king K'ak' Tiliw Chan Chaak (Naranjo) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
11Oct721Mayan king Wak Chanil of Dos Pilas (Naranjo) reign begins and king K'inich Ahkal Mo' Nahb3 (Palenque dynasty) reign begins 80 days later. and king K'inich K'an Joy Chitam2 (Palenque dynasty) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersK'inich Ahkal Mo' Nahb3 was grandson of K'inich Janaab Pakal1. His construction program rivaled that of his predecessors, and contributed enormously to the surviving records of Palenque history. AKA Chaacal3, Akul Anab3. Wak Chanil of Dos Pilas was mother of her predecessor. Previously regent on her son's behalf, from 721 assumed the reins of the kingdom herself as queen regnant. AKA Lady Six Sky - Monuments: Stelae 3, 18, 24, 29, 31
723Mayan king K'inich Ich'aak Chapat (Toniná) reign begins and king Ruler 4 (Toniná) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers"K'inich Ich'aak Chapat AKA Ruler 5; Garra de Jaguar (Jaguar Claw)
724Japanese Empress Genshō (元正天皇) [Hidaka/Niinomi (Yamatoneko Takamizu Kiyotarashi Hime no Sumera Mikoto) reign ends and Shōmu (聖武天皇) [Obito (Ameshirushi Kunioshiharuki Toyosakurahiko no Sumera Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
724Mayan king K'ak' Tiliw Chan Yopaat (Cauac Sky or Kawak Sky) (Quiriguá) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
725Mayan king Sak Muwaan (Motul de San José) reign ends and king Tayel Chan K'inich (Motul de San José) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
22Oct726Mayan king It zamnaaj K'awiil (Naranjo) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
6Jan727Mayan king Ucha'an K'in B'alam (Dos Pilas) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersUcha'an K'in B'alam has no apparent family relation to his predecessors, being probably a regent. It is known that, twenty years earlier, he was already a prominent figure in the kingdom (being responsible, for example, for the capture of the lord of Tikal in 705, or involving himself closely in rituals performed by the previous king). As a ruler (regent or usurper) he provided strong leadership. Erected monuments in Dos Pilas and Aguateca. AKA Ruler 3, Master of the Sun Jaguar, Scroll-head God K, Spangle-head, Jewelled-head - Monuments: Stela 5
729Mayan king It zam K'an Ahk2 (Piedras Negras) reign begins and king K'inich Yo'nal Ahk2 (Piedras Negras) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersThere is evidence that It zam K'an Ahk2 started a new patriline at Piedras Negras. AKA Ruler 4
11Feb731Pope St Gregory2 (GREGORIVS Secundus) (Gregorius) papacy ends and Pope St Gregory3 (GREGORIVS Tertius) (Gregorius) (Syrian) papacy begins 35 days later.Wiki: List of PopesThe last pope from Syria. The third pope to bear the same name as his immediate predecessor. Last pope to have been installed outside Europe until the election of Francis in 2013.
9Nov731Mayan king K’ahk Chan (Pusilha) reign begins and king Chak Bin Ahk (Tamarindito) reign ends and king Lady1ch’aak K’inich (Pusilha) reign ends and king Yuknoom Took' K'awiil (La Amelia) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersK’ahk Chan began a new line of rulers
8Dec734Mayan king Yik'in Chan K'awiil (Tikal) reign begins and king Jasaw Chan K'awiil1 (Tikal) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersYik'in Chan K'awiil was one of Tikal's most successful and expansionary rulers, consolidating the political gains won by his father. AKA Ruler B, Yaxkin Caan Chac, Sun Sky Rain - Monuments: Stelae 5, 20 and 21
735Mayan king Ich'aak Bahlam1 (Seibal) reign ends and king Ich'aak Bahlam2 (Seibal) reign begins and king Tayel Chan K'inich (Motul de San José) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersIch'aak Bahlam1 and Ich'aak Bahlam2 were both known as Jaguar Claw
12May736Mayan king K'inich Ahkal Mo' Nahb3 (Palenque dynasty) reign ends and king Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil (Copán) reign ends and king Wamaw K'awiil (La Amelia) reign occursWiki: Maya rulers
7June738Mayan king K'ak' Joplaj Chan K'awiil (Copán) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersK'ak' Joplaj Chan K'awiil AKA Smoke Monkey
739Mayan king K'inich Ich'aak Chapat (Toniná) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersAfter 739
18Jun741Roman emperor Artabasdos (Ἀρτάβασδος) with Nikephoros (Νικηφόρος) and Constantine5 (Κωνσταντῖνος) reigns beginWiki: List of Roman emperorsConstantine5 was son of Leo3, and Artabasdos was son-in-law of Leo3. Artabasdos usurped throne, proclaiming his son Nikephoros as co-emperor.
18Jun741Roman emperor Leo3 the Isaurian (Λέων) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsUninstalled byEdema
28Nov741Pope St Gregory3 (GREGORIVS Tertius) (Gregorius) papacy ends and Pope St Zachary (ZACHARIAS) (Zacharias) (Greek) papacy begins 5 days later.Wiki: List of PopesFeast day 15 March. Built the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva.
11Feb741Mayan king Wak Chanil of Dos Pilas (Naranjo) reign ends and king Ucha'an K'in B'alam (Dos Pilas) reign ends 106 days later. and king K'awiil Chan K'inich (Dos Pilas) reign begins 26 days later. and king Bolon K'awiil1 (La Amelia) reign occurs and king Yax Mayuy Chan Chaak (Naranjo) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersK'awiil Chan K'inich was forced to flee from Dos Pilas in 761 and was never mentioned again. AKA Ruler 4, God K Sky Mahk'ina - Monuments: Panel 19. Bolon K'awiil1 AKA Ruler Y, Ruler 8. Yax Mayuy Chan Chaak was defeated by Tikal and ceremonially uninstalled.
15Jun742Mayan king K'inich Janaab Pakal2 (Palenque dynasty) reign occurs and king It zamnaaj Bahlam3 (Yaxchilan) reign ends and king Yajaw Te' K'inich (son of Sak Muwaan) (Motul de San José) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersK'inich Janaab Pakal2 was probable brother of the predecessor. AKA Upakal K'inich
742Charlemagne installs.(2020) YT: FOL - Charlemagne
742Charlemagne (Charles the Great) installsWiki: HRE
2Nov743Roman emperor Artabasdos (Ἀρτάβασδος) with Nikephoros (Νικηφόρος) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperors
4Feb744Mayan king Yax Mayuy Chan Chaak (Naranjo) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
15Aug746Mayan king K'ak' Yipiiy Chan Chaak (Naranjo) reign begins and king Ak-Sak-Teles (Chiapa de Corzo) reign begins and king Joy Bahlam0 (Chiapa de Corzo) reign ends and king Joy Bahlam0 (Chiapa de Corzo) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersK'ak' Yipiiy Chan Chaak 's Monuments: Stela 20
748Mayan king K'ak' Yipiiy Chan Chaak (Naranjo) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
749Japanese Emperor Shōmu (聖武天皇) [Obito (Ameshirushi Kunioshiharuki Toyosakurahiko no Sumera Mikoto) reign ends and Empress Kōken (孝謙天皇) [Abe (Yamatoneko no Sumera Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japanreigned twice
18Jan749Mayan king K'ak' Joplaj Chan K'awiil (Copán) reign ends and king K'ak' Yipyaj Chan K'awiil (Copán) reign begins 31 day later. and king Yopaat Bahlam2 (Yaxchilan) reign occursWiki: Maya rulersK'ak' Yipyaj Chan K'awiil AKA Smoke Shell, Smoke Squirrel
750Mayan king Ich'aak Bahlam2 (Seibal) reign ends and K’ahk Chan (Pusilha) reign ends and K’ahk Kalav (Pusilha) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
751Mayan king K'inich Kan Bahlam3 (Palenque dynasty) reign occurs and king Great Serpent (La Amelia) reign occursWiki: Maya rulersAjaw B'ot AKA Ruler D, Ah-Bolon-Abta. Bolon K'awiil2 AKA Ruler 9. Great Serpent AKA Ruler 8, Ruler Z
22Mar752Pope St Zachary (ZACHARIAS) (Zacharias) papacy ends and Antipope Stephen (STEPHANUS) (Stephanus) (Roman) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesPreviously known as Stephen2. Uninstalled three days after his election, having never received episcopal consecration. Some lists still include him. The Vatican sanctioned his addition in the sixteenth century; removed in 1961. He is no longer considered a pope by the Catholic Church.
25Mar752Antipope Stephen (STEPHANUS) (Stephanus) papacy ends and Pope Stephen2 (STEPHANVS Secundus) (Stephanus) (Roman) papacy begins 1 day later.Wiki: List of PopesSometimes called Stephen3. The Donation of Pepin. Brother of Paul1.
752Mayan king Yaxun Bahlam4 (Yaxchilan) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersYaxun Bahlam4 AKA Bird Jaguar4
754Mayan king Aj Sak Maax (Sak tz'i) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
8Nov755Mayan king K'ahk' Ukalaw Chan Chaak (Naranjo) reign begins and king Lamaw Ek' (Motul de San José) reign begins and king Yajaw Te' K'inich (son of Sak Muwaan) (Motul de San José) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersK'ahk' Ukalaw Chan Chaak 's Monuments: Stelae 6, 11, 13, 19, 33, 36
756Emperor 肅宗 [Suzong] of Tang reign begins and 玄宗 [Xuanzong] of Tang reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
26Apr757Pope Stephen2 (STEPHANVS Secundus) (Stephanus) papacy ends and Pope St Paul1 (PAVLVS) (Paulus) (Roman) papacy begins 33 days later.Wiki: List of PopesBrother of Stephen2.
26Nov757Mayan king Tajal Chan Ahk (Cancuén) reign begins and king It zam K'an Ahk2 (Piedras Negras) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersTajal Chan Ahk, built the city palace in 770.
758Japanese Emperor Junnin (淳仁天皇) [Ōi) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
758Japanese Empress Kōken (孝謙天皇) [Abe (Yamatoneko no Sumera Mikoto) reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
758Japanese Emperor Oka (岡宮天皇) [Prince Kusakabe ((草壁皇子))Wiki: List of emperors of JapanCrown Prince who never acceded to the throne. Husband of Empress Genmei. Father of Emperor Monmu and Empress Genshō.
10Mar758Mayan king Yo'nal Ahk3 (Piedras Negras) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersYo'nal Ahk3 AKA Ruler 5
759Japanese Emperor Sudōjinkei (崇道尽敬皇帝) (Prince Toneri ((舎人親王))Wiki: List of emperors of JapanFather of Emperor Junnin
760Mayan king Ch'iyel (Sacul) reign begins and king Chanal Balam (Tamarindito) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
761Mayan king K'ak' Yipyaj Chan K'awiil (Copán) reign ends and king Ets'nab-Chaak (Machaquila) reign ends and king K'awiil Chan K'inich (Dos Pilas) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersK'ak' Yipyaj Chan K'awiil, or January 763
762Emperor 肅宗 [Suzong] of Tang reign ends and 代宗 [Daizong] of Tang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
762Mayan king K'inich Tuun Chapat (Toniná) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersK'inich Tuun Chapat AKA Ruler 6; Ruler 8
2Jul763Mayan king Yax Pasaj Chan Yopaat (Copán) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersYax Pasaj Chan Yopaat AKA Yax Pac, Rising Sun
764Japanese Emperor Junnin (淳仁天皇) [Ōi) dethroned by Empress Shōtoku (称徳天皇) [Abe (Yamatoneko no Sumera Mikoto), beginning her second reign.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
4Mar764Mayan king K'inich K'uk' Bahlam2 (Palenque dynasty) reign begins and king Chanal Balam (Tamarindito) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersK'inich K'uk' Bahlam2 AKA Bahlum K'uk'2, Mahk'ina K'uk'
766Mayan king 28th Ruler (Tikal) reign begins and king Yik'in Chan K'awiil (Tikal) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersLittle is known about this 28th ruler.
28Jun767Pope St Paul1 (PAVLVS) (Paulus) papacy ends and Pope Stephen3 (STEPHANVS Tertius) (Stephanus) (Greek) papacy begins 406 days later.Wiki: List of PopesSometimes called Stephen4. He summoned the Lateran Council (769).
14Feb767Mayan king Ha' K'in Xook (Piedras Negras) reign begins and king Yo'nal Ahk3 (Piedras Negras) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersHa' K'in Xook AKA Ruler 6
768Charlemagne becomes King of Francs.(2020) YT: FOL - Charlemagne
25Dec768Mayan king Yax Nuun Ayiin2 (Tikal) reign begins and king 28th Ruler (Tikal) reign ends and king K’ahk Kalav (Pusilha) reign ends and king K’awiil Chan (Pusilha) reign begins and king Yaxun Bahlam4 (Yaxchilan) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersYax Nuun Ayiin2 AKA Ruler C, Chitam
769Mayan king It zamnaaj Bahlam4 (Yaxchilan) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersIt zamnaaj Bahlam4 AKA Shield Jaguar4
770Japanese Emperor Kōnin (光仁天皇) [Shirakabe (Amemune Takatsugi no Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
770Japanese Empress Shōtoku (称徳天皇) [Abe (Yamatoneko no Sumera Mikoto) reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
770Japanese Emperor Kasuga (春日宮天皇) [Prince Shiki ((志貴皇子))Wiki: List of emperors of JapanFather of Emperor Kōnin
770Mayan king Tan Te' K'inich (Aguateca) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersTan Te' K'inich, son of Ucha'an K'an B'alam
771Mayan king Bolon K'awiil2 (La Amelia) reign begins and king Ajaw B'ot (Seibal) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersAjaw B'ot AKA Ruler D, Ah-Bolon-Abta. Bolon K'awiil2 AKA Ruler 9
24Jan772Pope Stephen3 (STEPHANVS Tertius) (Stephanus) papacy ends and Pope Adrian1 (HADRIANVS) (Hadrianus) (Roman) papacy begins 8 days later.Wiki: List of PopesPope during the Second Council of Nicaea (787), the seventh ecumenical council accepted by the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches.
772Mayan king Aj Sak Maax (Sak tz'i) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
775Mayan king Chak-Bahlam (Machaquila) reign occursWiki: Maya rulersChak-Bahlam 's Monuments: Stela 18
14Sep775Roman emperor Constantine5 (Κωνσταντῖνος) reign ends and Leo4 the Khazar (Λέων) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsLeo4 inherited the throne after his father Constantine5 was uninstalled byCarbuncle
776Mayan king Ak-Sak-Teles (Chiapa de Corzo) reign ends and Yahav Chan Muwaahn2 (Chiapa de Corzo) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
779Emperor 代宗 [Daizong] of Tang reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
779Mayan king Lamaw Ek' (Motul de San José) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
8Sep780Roman emperor Leo4 the Khazar (Λέων) reign ends and Constantine6 (Κωνσταντῖνος) & Irene of Athens (Εἰρήνη) reigns beginWiki: List of Roman emperorsConstantine6 inherited the throne after his father Leo4 was uninstalled by Tuberculosis. But he was a minor, so his mother Irene was regent.
780Emperor 德宗 [Dezong] of Tang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
24Mar780Mayan king Aj Yaxjal B’aak (Ixtutz) reign occurs and king Ha' K'in Xook (Piedras Negras) reign ends and king K'ahk' Ukalaw Chan Chaak (Naranjo) reign ends and king Ruling family (Cobá) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
781Japanese Emperor Kōnin (光仁天皇) [Shirakabe (Amemune Takatsugi no Mikoto) reign ends and Kanmu (桓武天皇) [Yamabe (Yamatoneko Amatsu Hitsugi Iyaderi no Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
31May781Mayan king K'inich Yat Ahk2 (Piedras Negras) reign begins and king Parrot Chaak (La Mar) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersTook the throne almost a year following the death of Ha' K'in Xook. Despite this time gap, there is no evidence anyone was ruling Piedras Negras in the interim. He was later captured by K'inich Tatbu Skull4 of Yaxchilan. AKA Ruler 7
783Mayan king K'inich K'uk' Bahlam2 (Palenque dynasty) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
4Feb784Mayan king It zamnaaj K'awiil (Naranjo) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersIt zamnaaj K'awiil was victorious against Yaxha. AKA Shield God K, Shield - Monuments: Stelae 7, 8, 10, 12, 14, 35
785Mayan king Sky Xul (Quiriguá) reign begins and K'ak' Tiliw Chan Yopaat (Cauac Sky or Kawak Sky) (Quiriguá) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
786Mayan king Under Cancuén rule (Machaquila) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
787Mayan king Ruler 8 (Toniná) reign begins and Yeht' K'inich (Sak tz'i) reign occursWiki: Maya rulers
787The last of seven ecumenical councils was held.EWTN - Great Schism All of which still are recognized as valid by Vatican City's religion.
789Mayan king Bolon K'awiil2 (La Amelia) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
790Mayan king Ch'iyel (Sacul) reign ends and Eight Skull (Ixkun) reign ends and Rabbit God K (Ixkun) reign begins and Yahav Chan Muwaahn2 (Chiapa de Corzo) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
793Vikings invade(2017) YT: FOL - History of England
793Vikings invade(20??) YT: A Great British Timeline (link 404s)
793Mayan king Tum Yohl K'inich (Caracol) reign occursWiki: Maya rulers
794Japanese make Heian Palace in Kyoto the capital.(2016) YT: BW - history of japanBefore this, it was moved to the current emperor's hometown whenever the emperor passed on.
794Nara period ends and Heian period begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
794Mayan king Nuun Ujol K'inich (Tikal) reign begins and king Yax Nuun Ayiin2 (Tikal) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersNuun Ujol K'inich, nuun Ujol K'inich's Monuments: Lintel of Temple 3
26Dec795Pope Adrian1 (HADRIANVS) (Hadrianus) papacy ends and Pope St Leo3 (LEO Tertius) (Leo) (Roman) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesCrowned Charlemagne emperor on Christmas Day, 800, thereby initiating what would become the Holy Roman Empire, requiring the imprimatur of the pope for its ruler's legitimacy.
795Mayan king Sky Xul (Quiriguá) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
796Mayan king Jats' Tokal Ek' Hiix (Sak tz'i) reign occursWiki: Maya rulers
Aug797Roman emperor Constantine6 (Κωνσταντῖνος) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsIrene seized the throne by blinding & uninstalling her son Constantine6. First Byzantine empress regnant.
798Mayan king K'inich Joy K'awiil (Caracol) reign occursWiki: Maya rulers
13Nov799Mayan king Janaab Pakal3 (Palenque dynasty) reign begins and king K'inich Lakamtuun (Yaxha) reign occurs and king Tajal Chan Ahk (Cancuén) reign ends and king Under Cancuén rule (Machaquila) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersJanaab Pakal3 AKA 6 Cimi Pakal
800Viking age begins.(2017) YT: LF - Nordic Germanic
800Japanese Emperor Sudō (崇道天皇) [Prince Sawara ((早良親王))Wiki: List of emperors of JapanDeposed Crown Prince
800Rasaratna Samuccaya identifies Zinc as a metal.Wiki: Zinc
28Jun800Mayan king Ochk'in Kaloomte' Aj Ho' Baak (Machaquila) reign begins and king Jade Sky (Quiriguá) reign begins and king It zamnaaj Bahlam4 (Yaxchilan) reign ends and king K’awiil Chan (Pusilha) reign ends and king Kan Maax (Cancuén) reign occurs and king Rabbit God K (Ixkun) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersOchk'in Kaloomte' Aj Ho' Baak 's Monuments: Stela 2
800Charlemagne unites much of Europe, and crowned Emperor of Rome.(2020) YT: FOL - CharlemagneThis makes Charlemagne sorta the successor to Romulus Augustus, the previous Roman emperor.
800Charlemagne crowned king of HRE(2019) YT: FOL - Byzantines
25Dec800Charlemagne (Charles1 the Great) was crowned HREmperor by Pope Leo3 in Rome, Italy - beginning his reign and the Carolingian dynastyWiki: HRECharlemagne (Charles the Great), King of the Franks, the Lombards. Carolingian dynasty were Frankish emperors
802Japanese Emperor finally completes conquering of Honshu island.(2016) YT: BW - history of japanNapoleon would call this their Manifest Destiny, if he studied Japanese history.
31Oct802Roman emperor Irene of Athens (Εἰρήνη) reign ends and Nikephoros1 (Νικηφόρος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsNikephoros1 led a Halloween rebellion against Irene
1May802Mayan king Lachan K'awiil Ajaw Bot (La Amelia) reign begins and king Tan Te' K'inich (Aguateca) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersLachan K'awiil Ajaw Bot, in 802, conducted a ritual supervised by king Tan Te' K'inich of Aguateca.
804Kukai (Japan) visits China, and brings back a a better Buddism - Zen Buddism.(2016) YT: BW - history of japanHe also revamps the Japanese alphabets - does he introduce Hiragana and Katakana at this point?
804Mayan king Lachan K'awiil Ajaw Bot (La Amelia) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersAfter 804
805Emperor 順宗 [Shunzong] of Tang reign begins and 德宗 [Dezong] of Tang reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
806Japanese Emperor Kanmu (桓武天皇) [Yamabe (Yamatoneko Amatsu Hitsugi Iyaderi no Mikoto) reign ends and Heizei (平城天皇) [Ate (Yamatoneko Ameoshikuni Takahiko no Mikoto) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
806Emperor 憲宗 [Xianzong] of Tang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
806Mayan king Ruler 8 (Toniná) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersAfter 806
808Mayan king K'inich Tatb'u Jol4 (Yaxchilan) reign occurs and king K'inich Yat Ahk2 (Piedras Negras) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersK'inich Tatb'u Jol4 was the last known ruler of Yaxchilan.
809Japanese Emperor Heizei (平城天皇) [Ate (Yamatoneko Ameoshikuni Takahiko no Mikoto) reign ends and Saga (嵯峨天皇) [Kamino) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
810Vikings occupy Scotland(2017) YT: FOL - History of England
810Mayan king Yax Pasaj Chan Yopaat (Copán) reign ends and king Jade Sky (Quiriguá) reign ends and It zamnaaj K'awiil (Naranjo) reign ends and K'inich Toob'il Yoaat (Caracol) reign begins and Nuun Ujol K'inich (Tikal) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersYax Pasaj Chan Yopaat, or January 763
26Jul811Roman emperor Nikephoros1 (Νικηφόρος) reign ends and Staurakios (Σταυράκιος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsStaurakios uninstalled his father Nikephoros1 after the Battle of Pliska
2Oct811Roman emperor Staurakios (Σταυράκιος) reign ends and Michael1 Rangabe (Μιχαὴλ Ῥαγγαβέ) with Theophylact (Θεοφύλακτος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsStaurakios was uninstalled by Gangrene. Rangabe was son-in-law of Nikephoros1, appointed his 18y son Theophylact as co-emperor on 25 December 811
22Jun813Roman emperor Michael1 Rangabe (Μιχαὴλ Ῥαγγαβέ) with Theophylact (Θεοφύλακτος) reign ends, and Leo5 the Armenian (Λέων) with Constantine (Κωνσταντῖνος) reign begins on 11 July.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsLeo5 led a rebellion against Rangabe & Theophylact, exiling them to monasteries - Rangabe on Prote Island, Theophylact on Plate Island. Leo5 appointed his son Symbatios as co-emperor under the name Constantine on Christmas 813.
11Sep813Louis1, the Pious HRE reign begins.Wiki: HRELouis1, the Pious, son of Charles1. King of the Franks, Italy, Aquitaine
814Charlemagne uninstalls.(2020) YT: FOL - Charlemagne
28Jan814Charlemagne (Charles the Great) reign ends when he uninstallsWiki: HRE
814Mayan king Waxaklajuun Ub'aah K'awiil (Naranjo) reign occursWiki: Maya rulersWaxaklajuun Ub'aah K'awiil 's Monuments: Stela 32 of Ucanal
815Arsenic discovered.Wiki: Arsenic
2Apr815Mayan king Sihyaj K'in Ich’aak2 (Machaquila) reign begins and king Ochk'in Kaloomte' Aj Ho' Baak (Machaquila) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersSihyaj K'in Ich’aak2's Monuments: Stelae 3, 4
12Jun816Pope St Leo3 (LEO Tertius) (Leo) papacy ends and Pope Stephen4 (STEPHANVS Quartus) (Roman (Byzantine)) papacy begins 10 days later.Wiki: List of PopesFirst pope installed in Rome after breaking away from the Roman Empire. Sometimes called Stephen5.
5Oct816Louis1 was crowned HREmperor by Pope Stephen4 in Reims, FranceWiki: HRE
24Jan817Pope Stephen4 (STEPHANVS Quartus) papacy ends and Pope St Paschal1 (PASCHALIS) (Italian) papacy begins 1 day later.Wiki: List of PopesSon of Bonosus and Episcopa Theodora. Credited with finding the body of Saint Cecilia in the Catacomb of Callixtus, building the basilica of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere and the church of Santa Maria in Domnica.
25Dec820Roman emperor Leo5 the Armenian (Λέων) with Constantine (Κωνσταντῖνος) reign ends and Michael2 (Μιχαὴλ) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsMichael2 was chosen after he and conspirators uninstalled Leo5. Constantine uninstalled in exile in monastery on Prote Island at a later date
820Emperor 憲宗 [Xianzong] of Tang reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
821Roman emperor Theophilos (Θεόφιλος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsOnly son of Michael2.
821Emperor 穆宗 [Muzong] of Tang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
822Emir Abd al-Rahman 2 (Cordoba) installs.(2019) YT: VOTP - Viking Attack
6Feb822Mayan king Ukit Took (Copán) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersLast known ruler of Copán, and the only who doesn't appear on the mentioned Altar Q. The city collapsed suddenly, possibly under an epidemic. AKA Yax Pac, Yax Pasah, 18 Rabbit - Monuments: Altar L (unfinished)
823Japanese Emperor Saga (嵯峨天皇) [Kamino) reign ends and Junna (淳和天皇) [Ōtomo) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
5Apr823Lothair1 reign begins with his HREmperor coronation by Pope Paschal1 in Rome, ItalyWiki: HRELothair1, son of Louis1. King of Italy, Middle Francia
11Feb824Pope St Paschal1 (PASCHALIS) papacy ends and Pope Eugene2 (EVGENIVS Secundus) (Italian) papacy begins 87 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
824Emperor 穆宗 [Muzong] of Tang reign ends and 敬宗 [Jingzong] of Tang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
3Mar824Mayan king Juun Tsak-Took (Machaquila) reign begins and king Sihyaj K'in Ich’aak2 (Machaquila) reign ends and king Ti-Chaak (Machaquila) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersJuun Tsak-Took's Monuments: Stelae 5, 6, 7, 8
826Emperor 文宗 [Wenzong] of Tang reign begins and 敬宗 [Jingzong] of Tang reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
27Aug827Pope Eugene2 (EVGENIVS Secundus) papacy ends and Pope Valentine (VALENTINVS) (Italian) papacy begins 4 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
10Oct827Pope Valentine (VALENTINVS) papacy ends and Pope Gregory4 (GREGORIVS Quartus) (Italian) papacy begins 71 day later.Wiki: List of PopesRebuilt the atrium of St Peter’s Basilica and in the newly decorated chapel transferred the body of Gregory1.
2Oct829Roman emperor Michael2 (Μιχαὴλ) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperors
830Mayan king Wat'ul Chatel (Seibal) reign begins and king K'inich Toob'il Yoaat (Caracol) reign ends and king Ukit Took (Copán) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersWat'ul Chatel AKA Aj B'olon Haab'tal
833Japanese Emperor Junna (淳和天皇) [Ōtomo) reign ends and Ninmyō (仁明天皇) [Masara) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
835Mayan king K'an3 (Caracol) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
837Mayan king Uh Chapat (Toniná) reign occursWiki: Maya rulersUh Chapat AKA Ruler 9
840Emperor 武宗 [Wuzong] of Tang reign begins and 文宗 [Wenzong] of Tang reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
840Mayan king Juun Tsak-Took (Machaquila) reign ends and Ti-Chaak (Machaquila) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
20Jun840Louis1, the Pious HRE reign ends.Wiki: HRE
20Jan842Roman emperor Theophilos (Θεόφιλος) reign ends and Michael3 (Μιχαὴλ) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsMichael3 was son of Theophilos, who uninstalled from an unknown disease.
843Kenneth MacAlpin united the Scoti and Picts micropowers to found the Kingdom of Alba(2019) YT: OSP - Scotland
844Vikings attack and plunder Seville (Spain) during the Umayyad Caliphate's control.(2019) YT: VOTP - Viking AttackVikings first landed at Lisbon, clashed with Muslims 3 times in 30 days, then moved down the coast to undefended Seville. "It was a Wednesday." A general Muslim call-to-arms was called, to run the Vikings out of these undefended lands, which Vikings had apparently never attacked before. People rallied at Cordoba under Abd al-Rahman 2, and they mass-uninstalled Vikings until the Vikings realized they were mostly uninstalled, and then the Viking leader was uninstalled, and the Vikings retreated. Total of 40 days of mass-uninstall.
25Jan844Pope Gregory4 (GREGORIVS Quartus) papacy ends and Pope Sergius2 (SERGIVS Secundus) (Italian) papacy begins.Wiki: List of Popes
15Jun844Louis2 was crowned HREmperor by Pope Leo4 in Rome, ItalyWiki: HRE
846Emperor 武宗 [Wuzong] of Tang reign ends and 宣宗 [Xuanzong] of Tang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
27Jan847Pope Sergius2 (SERGIVS Secundus) papacy ends and Pope St Leo4 (LEO Quartus) (Lombard) papacy begins 73 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
849Mayan king Dark Sun (Tikal) reign occurs and king Chan Pet (La Amelia) reign occurs and king Jewel K'awiil (Tikal) reign occurs and king K'an3 (Caracol) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersDark Sun's Monuments: Stela 24; Altar 7; Lintel 2 of Temple 3
850Japanese Emperor Ninmyō (仁明天皇) [Masara) reign ends and Montoku (文徳天皇) [Michiyasu) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
852Emir Abd al-Rahman 2 (Cordoba) installs.(2019) YT: VOTP - Viking Attack
17Jul855Pope St Leo4 (LEO Quartus) papacy ends and Pope Benedict3 (BENEDICTVS Tertius) (Italian) papacy begins 74 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
29Sep855Lothair1 reign ends and Louis2 HRE reign begins.Wiki: HRELouis2, son of Lothair1. King of Italy
17Apr858Pope Benedict3 (BENEDICTVS Tertius) papacy ends and Pope St Nicholas1 ((Nicholas the Great) (NICOLAVS MAGNVS) (Italian) papacy begins 7 days later.Wiki: List of PopesEncouraged missionary activity.
858Japanese Emperor Montoku (文徳天皇) [Michiyasu) reign ends and Seiwa (清和天皇) [Korehito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
859Emperor 懿宗 [Yizong] of Tang reign begins and 宣宗 [Xuanzong] of Tang reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
859Mayan king Ruler13 (Caracol) reign occursWiki: Maya rulers
860Mayan king K'uhul It'sat (Seibal) reign occursWiki: Maya rulers
861Pope Nicholas1 and Patriarch Photius excommunicated each other when both attempted to exert control over the emerging church in Bulgaria.EWTN - Great Schism Church relations between Rome and Constantinople were restored, but the root of the problem, papal primacy, was never solved between then and 1054.
864Mayan king K'ab' Chan Te'3 (Sak tz'i) reign occursWiki: Maya rulers
23Sep867Roman emperor Michael3 (Μιχαὴλ) reign ends and Basil1 the Macedonian (Βασίλειος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsPrevious co-emperor, full emperor upon uninstall of predecessor.
13Nov867Pope St Nicholas1 ((Nicholas the Great) (NICOLAVS MAGNVS) papacy ends and Pope Adrian2 (HADRIANVS Secundus) (Italian) papacy begins 31 day later.Wiki: List of PopesPope during the Council of Constantinople4 (869), the eighth ecumenical council of the Catholic Church.
869Mayan king Jasaw Chan K'awiil2 (Tikal) reign begins and king K’ak’upakal K’awiil, possibly ruler or a high-ranked official (Chichen It zá) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersJasaw Chan K'awiil2 AKA Stella 11 Ruler
871King of Wessex Alfred the Great reign beginsWiki: English monarchs
14Dec872Pope Adrian2 (HADRIANVS Secundus) papacy ends and Pope John8 (IOANNES Octavus) (Italian) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesFirst pope to be uninstalled by political rivals.
873Emperor 懿宗 [Yizong] of Tang reign ends and 僖宗 [Xizong] of Tang reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
874Vikings settle Iceland(2020) YT: GN - Portugal
876Japanese Emperor Seiwa (清和天皇) [Korehito) reign ends and Yōzei (陽成天皇) [Sadaakira) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
12Aug875Louis2 reign ends and Charles2, the Bald reign begins with his HREmperor coronation by Pope John8 in Rome, Italy , 139 days later.Wiki: HRECharles2, the Bald, son of Louis1, younger brother of Lothair1. King of West Francia, King of Italy
6Oct877Charles2, the Bald HRE reign ends.Wiki: HRE
880Mayan king K'ap Sak Nik (Seibal) reign occursWiki: Maya rulers
881黃齊 [Emperor Qi] reign begins and Huang Chao reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
12Feb881Charles3, the Fat reign begins with his HREmperor coronation by Pope John8 in Rome, ItalyWiki: HRECharles3, the Fat, grandson of Louis1. King of West Francia, King of East Francia, King of Italy
16Dec882Pope John8 (IOANNES Octavus) papacy ends and Pope Marinus1 (MARINVS) (Italian) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesErroneously also known as Martin2.
15May884Pope Marinus1 (MARINVS) papacy ends and Pope St Adrian3 (HADRIANVS Tertius) (Italian) papacy begins 2 days later.Wiki: List of PopesFeast day 8 July. Adrian1 was possibly his ancestor.
884Japanese Emperor Yōzei (陽成天皇) [Sadaakira) reign ends and Kōkō (光孝天皇) [Tokiyasu) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
884黃齊 [Emperor Qi] reign ends and Huang Chao reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
15Sep885Pope St Adrian3 (HADRIANVS Tertius) papacy ends and Pope Stephen5 (STEPHANVS Quintus) (Italian) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesSometimes called Stephen6.
29Aug886Roman emperor Basil1 the Macedonian (Βασίλειος) reign ends and Leo6 the Wise (Λέων ὁ Σοφός) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsLeo6 was son of Basil1 (potentially in reality the son of Michael3), co-emperor since 870.
886King of the Anglo-Saxons Alfred the Great becomes King of the Anglo-Saxons.Wiki: English monarchsHouse of Wessex. Married to Ealhswith of Gainsborough 868 5 children. Son of Æthelwulf of Wessex Treaty of Wedmore
887Charles the Fat overthrown.(2020) YT: FOL - Charlemagne
887Japanese Emperor Kōkō (光孝天皇) [Tokiyasu) reign ends and Uda (宇多天皇) [Sadami) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
888Emperor 昭宗 [Zhaozong] of Tang reign begins and 僖宗 [Xizong] of Tang reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
13Jan888Charles3, the Fat reign ends the Carolingian dynasty.Wiki: HRE
889Mayan king Wat'ul Chatel (Seibal) reign ends and king Jasaw Chan K'awiil2 (Tikal) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulersafter 889
890Mayan king K’ak’upakal K’awiil, possibly ruler or a high-ranked official (Chichen It zá) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
4Sep891Pope Stephen5 (STEPHANVS Quintus) papacy ends and Pope Formosus (FORMOSVS) (Italian) papacy begins 32 days later.Wiki: List of PopesIn early 897 posthumously ordered to be uninstalled following the Cadaver Synod. His body was reburied with full Christian honors in 897.
21Feb891Guy3 of Spoleto was crowned HREmperor by Pope Stephen5 in Rome, Italy and Guy1 reign begins and Widonid dynasty begins.Wiki: HREGuy1, great-great-grandson of Charles1. King of Italy, Duke of Spoleto
30Apr892Lambert2 of Spoleto was crowned HREmperor by Pope Formosus in Ravenna, Italy and Lambert1 HRE reign begins.Wiki: HRELambert1, son of Guy1. King of Italy, Duke of Spoleto
12Dec894Guy1 HRE reign ends.Wiki: HRE
4Apr896Pope Formosus (FORMOSVS) papacy ends and Pope Boniface6 (BONIFATIVS Sextus) (Italian) papacy begins 7 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
26Apr896Pope Boniface6 (BONIFATIVS Sextus) papacy ends and Pope Stephen6 (STEPHANVS) (Italian) papacy begins 26 days later.Wiki: List of PopesSometimes called Stephen7. Held the infamous Cadaver Synod.
22Feb896Arnulph reign begins and Arnulf of Carinthia was crowned HREmperor by Pope Formosus in Rome, Italy and Carolingian dynasty begins.Wiki: HREArnulph, nephew of Charles3. King of Italy, East Francia
Nov897Pope Romanus (ROMANVS) papacy ends and Pope Theodore2 (THEODORVS Secundus) papacy ends 50 days later. (Greek)Wiki: List of Popes
14Aug897Pope Stephen6 (STEPHANVS) papacy ends and Pope Romanus (ROMANVS) (Italian) papacy begins.Wiki: List of Popes
20Dec897Pope Theodore2 (THEODORVS Secundus) papacy ends and Pope John9 (IOANNES Nonus) papacy begins 49 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
897Japanese Emperor Uda (宇多天皇) [Sadami) reign ends and Daigo (醍醐天皇) [Atsuhito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
897Chinese Emperor 馬殷 [Ma Yin] reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
15Oct898Lambert1 reign ends and Widonid dynasty ends.Wiki: HRE
26Oct899King of the Anglo-Saxons Alfred the Great (King of Wessex from 871) reign ends and Edward the Elder reign beginsWiki: English monarchsMarried to (1) Ecgwynn 893 2 children(2) Ælfflæd 900 8 children(3) Eadgifu of Kent 919 4 children. Son of Alfred
8Dec899Arnulph reign ends and Carolingian dynasty ends.Wiki: HRE
5Jan900Pope John9 (IOANNES Nonus) papacy ends and Pope Benedict4 (BENEDICTVS Quartus) (Italian) papacy begins 27 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
900By this point, almost all of Sappho's works have been lost, and memory of her is reduced to quotations by later authors.History.com: Romantics
900Mexico's Classic period ends and their Postclassic period beginsSFGate - Olmecs to Toltecs
900sCrucible steel, formed by slowly heating and cooling pure iron and carbon (typically in the form of charcoal) in a crucible, was produced in Merv (Alexandria).Wiki: Steel
900sMandarin oranges originate in southeastern China.Harvest To Table - Orange Types
901Mayan king Ruler 10 (Toniná) reign occursWiki: Maya rulers
22Feb901Louis3 was crowned HREmperor by Pope Benedict4 in Rome, Italy and Louis3, the Blind reign begins, 7 days later. and Bosonid dynasty begins.Wiki: HRELouis3, the Blind, grandson of Louis2. King of Italy, Provence, was crowned HREmperor by Pope Benedict4 in Rome, Italy, or the 22nd
30Jul903Pope Benedict4 (BENEDICTVS Quartus) was deposed and uninstalled, and Pope Leo5 (LEO Quintus) (Italian) papacy begins.Wiki: List of Popes
Oct903Antipope Christopher (CHRISTOFORO) (Italian) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesIn opposition to Leo5.
Dec903Pope Leo5 (LEO Quintus) papacy ends and Pope Sergius3 (SERGIVS Tertius) (Italian) papacy begins 59 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
Jan904Antipope Christopher (CHRISTOFORO) papacy ends.Wiki: List of Popes"Saeculum obscurum" begins. The first pope to be depicted with the Papal Tiara.
904Chinese Emperor 錢鏐 [Qian Liu] reign begins and 楊行密 [Yang Xingmi] reign begins and 景宗 [Jingzong] of Tang reign begins and 昭宗 [Zhaozong] of Tang reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
905Chinese Emperor 楊行密 [Yang Xingmi] reign ends and 楊渥 [Yang Wo] reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
21Jul905Louis3, the Blind reign ends the Bosonid dynasty.Wiki: HRE
907Ten Kingdoms (十國) period begins and Tang dynasty (唐朝) dynasty ends and Ma Chu (馬楚) dynasty begins and Later Liang (後梁) dynasty begins and Former Shu (前蜀) dynasty begins and Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (五代十國) dynasty begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
909閩 [Min] dynasty begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
909Mayan king Aj Took (La Amelia) reign occursWiki: Maya rulersAj Took, last known ruler of the city.
14Apr911Pope Sergius3 (SERGIVS Tertius) papacy ends and Pope Anastasius3 (ANASTASIVS Tertius) (Italian) papacy begins.Wiki: List of Popes
11May912Roman emperor Leo6 the Wise (Λέων ὁ Σοφός) reign ends and Alexander (Ἀλέξανδρος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsAlexander was another son of Basil1, co-emperor since 879.
6Jun913Roman emperor Alexander (Ἀλέξανδρος) reign ends and Constantine7 (Κωνσταντῖνος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsAlexander uninstalled from exhaustion after a game oftzykanion. Constantine7 was son of Leo6, co-emperor since 908.
Jun913Pope Anastasius3 (ANASTASIVS Tertius) papacy ends and Pope Lando (LANDO) (Italian) papacy begins 37 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
5Feb914Pope Lando (LANDO) papacy ends and Pope John10 (IOANNES Decimus) (Italian) papacy begins 23 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
Dec915Berengar1 reign begins and Unruoching dynasty begins.Wiki: HREBerengar1, grandson of Louis1. King of Italy, Margrave of Friuli. Berengar was crowned HREmperor by Pope John10 in Rome, Italy
916Liao (遼朝) dynasty begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
917Southern Han (南漢) dynasty begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
17Dec920Roman emperor Romanos1 Lekapenos (Ῥωμανὸς Λεκαπηνός) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsRegent for the young Constantine7, crowned himself senior emperor during Constantine7's minority. Proclaimed his three sons Christopher, Stephen and Constantine as co-emperors. Was overthrown by Stephen in 944, who briefly ruled as senior emperor (for a few weeks) until he himself was overthrown by Constantine7.
20May921Roman emperor Christopher Lekapenos (Χριστόφορος Λακαπηνός) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSon of and co-regent with Romanos1
921Ibn Fadlan writes of the funeral rituals of the Viking Rus.(2020) YT: VOTP - Ibn FadlanHe describes them: tall like trees. They wear cloaks that leave one arm bare. Women wear a small fine metal box tied to their breasts, with a ring with a knife tied to her breasts too. Husband buys the wife a neckring for every 10k durams he's earned. They don't wash their hands or clean themselves after pooping or sex. Except for in the morning, where a female slave brings to the eldest male fresh water, which he washes himself and spits and blows his nose into - then she takes this to the next eldest male, who does the same, through the household. They practice basically shintoism, leaving offerings to wood with a face carved or painted on it - sometimes a whole cow, and when wolves came to eat the cow, they would feel their spiritual lord was satisfied. Thiefs were vertically uninstalled from trees until the elements wore the bones bare. Funerals - poor people get a simple boat burial like LOTR with simple funeral garb, while rich people had their wealth split in 3: 1/3 to household, 1/3 to funeral garb, and 1/3 to the alcohol to celebrate their life/uninstall. "They are addicted to alcohol" writes Ibn Fadlan, "they drink it night and day. Sometimes, one of them uninstalls, cup in hand." At uninstall, a poor person's slave uninstalls to be cremated with them - for rich people with several slaves, one of them would volunteer.
923Later Tang (後唐) dynasty begins and Later Liang (後梁) dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
924Roman emperor Stephen Lekapenos (Στέφανος Λακαπηνός) and Constantine Lekapenos (Κωνσταντίνος Λακαπηνός) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSons of and co-regents with Romanos1
924Jingnan (荊南) dynasty begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
7Apr924Berengar1 reign ends and Unruoching dynasty ends and the First HRE Interregnum begins.Wiki: HRESeveral rulers were crowned King of the Romans (king of Germany) but not emperor, although they styled themselves thus, among whom were: Conrad1 and Henry the Fowler in the 10th century
17Jul924King of the Anglo-Saxons Edward the Elder reign ends and Ælfweard lasts 16 days, and Æthelstan reign beginsWiki: English monarchsÆlfweard is Disputed. Son of Edward the Elder. Æthelstan Son of Edward the Elder
925Former Shu (前蜀) dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
927King of the Anglo-Saxons Æthelstan becomes King of the Whole of BritainWiki: English monarchsSon of Edward the Elder
28May928Pope John10 (IOANNES Decimus) papacy ends and Pope Leo6 (LEO Sextus) (Italian) papacy begins.Wiki: List of Popes
Dec928Pope Leo6 (LEO Sextus) papacy ends and Pope Stephen7 (STEPHANVS Septimus) (Italian) papacy begins 65 days later.Wiki: List of PopesSometimes called Stephen8.
930Japanese Emperor Daigo (醍醐天皇) [Atsuhito) reign ends and Suzaku (朱雀天皇) [Yutaakira) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
930Mayan king Ak-Holtun-Bahlam1 (Chichen It zá) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
13Feb931Pope Stephen7 (STEPHANVS Septimus) papacy ends and Pope John11 (IOANNES Undecimus) (Italian) papacy begins 30 days later.Wiki: List of PopesProbably, according to the Liber Pontificalis and Liutprand of Cremona, the son of Pope Sergius3, and not of Alberic1 of Spoleto, who was Marozia's husband.
Aug931Roman emperor Christopher Lekapenos (Χριστόφορος Λακαπηνός) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperors
931Islam starts.EWTN - Great Schism
934Later Shu (後蜀) dynasty begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
Dec935Pope John11 (IOANNES Undecimus) papacy ends and Pope Leo7 (LEO Septimus) (Italian) papacy begins 34 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
936Later Jin (後晉) dynasty begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
7Aug936Otto1, the Great HRE reign begins.Wiki: HREOtto1, the Great, king of Italy, Germany, Duke of Saxony
937Southern Tang (南唐) dynasty begins and Later Tang (後唐) dynasty ends and Former Dali Kingdom (前大理) dynasty begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
13Jul939Pope Leo7 (LEO Septimus) papacy ends and Pope Stephen8 (STEPHANVS Octavus) (Italian) papacy begins 1 day later.Wiki: List of PopesSometimes called Stephen9.
27Oct939Rex totius Britanniae (King of the Whole of Britain) Æthelstan reign ends and Edmund1 reign beginsWiki: English monarchsMarried to (1) Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury 2 sons(2) Æthelflæd of Damerham 944. Son of Edward the Elder
30Oct942Pope Stephen8 (STEPHANVS Octavus) papacy ends and Pope Marinus2 (MARINVS Secundus) (Italian) papacy begins.Wiki: List of Popes
943Yin dynasty begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
16Dec944Roman emperor Romanos1 Lekapenos (Ῥωμανὸς Λεκαπηνός) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsUninstalled In a monastery as a monk after having been overthrown.
945Roman emperor Stephen Lekapenos (Στέφανος Λακαπηνός) and Constantine Lekapenos (Κωνσταντίνος Λακαπηνός) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsUninstalled in exile as monks - Stephen on Easter 963 on Lesbos, and Constantine in 946-948 on Samothrace trying to escape exile and reclaim imperial power
945Yin dynasty ends and 閩 [Min] dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1May946Pope Marinus2 (MARINVS Secundus) papacy ends and Pope Agapetus2 (AGAPETVS Secundus) (Italian) papacy begins 9 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
26May946Rex totius Britanniae (King of the Whole of Britain) Edmund1 reign ends and Eadred reign beginsWiki: English monarchsEdmund1 uninstalled in a brawl at Pucklechurch. Eadred, son of Edward the Elder
946Japanese Emperor Suzaku (朱雀天皇) [Yutaakira) reign ends and Murakami (村上天皇) [Nariakira) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
947Later Jin (後晉) dynasty ends and Later Han (後漢) dynasty begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
950Erik the Red installs(2019) YT: VotP - Leif EriksonNorse-Icelandic Explorer and landholder
950Mayan king Ak-Holtun-Bahlam1 (Chichen It zá) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
950The Totonacs ruled up to a quarter of a million people.SFGate - Olmecs to ToltecsBetween 25k and 100k residents occupied their capital, Cempoala, 5 miles inland from today's city of Veracruz.
950Toltec civilization rule in Central Mexico begins.SFGate - Olmecs to ToltecsThe capital, Tula (a.k.a. Tollan), in the Valley of Mexico, was home to 40k to 60k people.
951Northern Han (北漢) dynasty begins and Ma Chu (馬楚) dynasty ends and Later Zhou (後周) dynasty begins and Later Han (後漢) dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
952Dongdan (東丹) dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
954Vikings driven out of England(2017) YT: FOL - History of England
8Nov955Pope Agapetus2 (AGAPETVS Secundus) papacy ends and Pope John12 (IOANNES Duodecimus) (Italian) papacy begins 38 days later.Wiki: List of PopesThird pope not to use his personal name (Octavian). Deposed in 963 by Emperor Otto invalidly; end of the "Saeculum obscurum".
23Nov955Rex totius Britanniae (King of the Whole of Britain) Eadred reign ends and Eadwig reign beginsWiki: English monarchsMarried to Ælfgifu. Son of Edmund1
1Oct959Rex totius Britanniae (King of the Whole of Britain) Eadwig reign ends and Edgar the Peaceful reign beginsWiki: English monarchsMarried to (1) Æthelflæd 960 1 son(2) Ælfthryth 964 2 sons. Son of Edmund1
9Nov959Roman emperor Constantine7 (Κωνσταντῖνος) reign ends and Romanos2 (Ῥωμανὸς ὁ Πορφυρογέννητος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsConstantine7 was possibly poisoned by his son Romanos2
26May961Otto2, the Red HRE reign begins.Wiki: HREOtto2, the Red, son of Otto1. King of Italy, Germany
2Feb962Otto1 was crowned HREmperor by Pope John12 in Rome, Italy and the First HRE Interregnum ends and Ottonian dynasty begins.Wiki: HREMany historians consider the HRE to have started here, and to be politically separate from the before the HRE Interregnum. It was officially an elective position, though at times It ran in families, notably the four generations of the Salian dynasty in the 11th century.
15Mar963Roman emperor Romanos2 (Ῥωμανὸς ὁ Πορφυρογέννητος) reign ends, and Nikephoros2 Phokas (Νικηφόρος Φωκᾶς) reign begins 16 AugustWiki: List of Roman emperorsNikephoros2 was chosen by the army after Romanos2's possible poisoning. Acted as senior emperor during the regency of young emperors Basil2 and Constantine8.
6Dec963Pope John12 (IOANNES Duodecimus) papacy ends and Antipope Leo8 (LEO Octavus) (Italian) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesAppointed antipope by Emperor Otto in 963 in opposition to John12 and Benedict5. His pontificate after the deposition of Benedict5 is considered legitimate by the modern Catholic Church.
963Jingnan (荊南) dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
26Feb964Antipope Leo8 (LEO Octavus) papacy ends and Pope John12 (IOANNES Duodecimus) (Italian) papacy begins.Wiki: List of Popes
14May964Pope John12 (IOANNES Duodecimus) papacy ends and Pope Benedict5 (BENEDICTVS Quintus) (Italian) papacy begins 8 days later.Wiki: List of PopesElected by the people of Rome, in opposition to Leo8 who was appointed by Emperor Otto; he accepted his own deposition in 964 leaving Leo8 as the sole pope.
23Jun964Pope Benedict5 (BENEDICTVS Quintus) papacy ends and Pope Leo8 (LEO Octavus) (Italian) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesHis pontificate from 963 to 964 is considered illegitimate by today's Catholic Church. An appointee of Emperor Otto1, his pontificate occurred during the period known as the Saeculum obscurum.
1Mar965Pope Leo8 (LEO Octavus) papacy ends and Pope John13 (IOANNES Tertius Decimus) (Italian) papacy begins 214 days later.Wiki: List of PopesChronicled after his uninstall as "the Good".
966Polish Slavic micropowers unite under Mieszko, (house Piast.) duke of the Polans(2017) YT: PI - History of Poland
965Later Shu (後蜀) dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
966MIeszko (Poland) baptized Catholic(2017) YT: PI - History of Poland
967Japanese Emperor Murakami (村上天皇) [Nariakira) reign ends and Reizei (冷泉天皇) [Norihira) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
25Dec967Otto2 was crowned HREmperor by Pope John13 in Rome, ItalyWiki: HRE
11Dec969Roman emperor Nikephoros2 Phokas (Νικηφόρος Φωκᾶς) reign ends and John1 Tzimiskes (Ἰωάννης Τζιμισκής) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsJohn1 was nephew of Nikephoros2 Phokas (whom he uninstalled), succeeded as senior emperor and regent for the young emperors Basil2 and Constantine8
969Japanese Emperor Reizei (冷泉天皇) [Norihira) reign ends and En'yū (円融天皇) [Morihira) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
970Leif Erikson installs(2019) YT: VotP - Leif Erikson
971Southern Han (南漢) dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
6Sep972Pope John13 (IOANNES Tertius Decimus) papacy ends and Pope Benedict6 (BENEDICTVS Sextus) (Lombard) papacy begins 135 days later.Wiki: List of PopesDeposed and uninstalled.
7May973Otto1, the Great HRE reign ends.Wiki: HRE
8Jun974Pope Benedict6 (BENEDICTVS Sextus) papacy ends and Antipope Boniface7 (BONFATIUS Septinus) (Francone Ferucci) (Italian) papacy begins 22 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
Jul974Antipope Boniface7 (BONFATIUS Septinus) papacy ends and Pope Benedict7 (BENEDICTVS Septimus) (Italian) papacy begins 92 days later.Wiki: List of PopesIn opposition to Benedict6 and Benedict7.
8Jul975Rex totius Britanniae (King of the Whole of Britain) Edgar the Peaceful reign ends and Edward the Martyr reign beginsWiki: English monarchsForcefully uninstalled in Corfe Castle . Son of Edgar the Peaceful
10Jan976Roman emperor John1 Tzimiskes (Ἰωάννης Τζιμισκής) reign ends and Basil2 (Βασίλειος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsJohn1 was poisoned by Imperial chamberlain Basil Lekapenos. Basil2 was the eldest son of Romanos2.
976Southern Tang (南唐) dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
978Wuyue (吳越) dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
18Mar978Rex totius Britanniae (King of the Whole of Britain) Edward the Martyr reign ends and Æthelred the Unready first reign beginsWiki: English monarchsMarried to (1) Ælfgifu of York 991 9 children(2) Emma of Normandy 1002 3 children. Son of Edgar the Peaceful
979Ten Kingdoms (十國) dynasty ends and Northern Han (北漢) dynasty ends and Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (五代十國) dynasty ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
982Emperor 聖宗 [Shengzong] of Liao reign begins and 景宗 [Jingzong] of Liao reign ends and 劉繼元 [Liu Jiyuan] reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
10Jul983Pope Benedict7 (BENEDICTVS Septimus) papacy ends and Pope John14 (IOANNES Quartus Decimus) (Italian) papacy begins 143 days later.Wiki: List of PopesFourth pope not to use his personal name (Pietro Canepanova).
25Dec983Otto2, the Red reign ends and Otto3 reign begins, 18 days later.Wiki: HREOtto3, son of Otto2. King of Italy, Germany
20Aug984Pope John14 (IOANNES Quartus Decimus) papacy ends and Antipope Boniface7 (BONFATIUS Septinus) (Italian) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesIn opposition to John14 and John15
984Japanese Emperor En'yū (円融天皇) [Morihira) reign ends and Kazan (花山天皇) [Morosada) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
985Vikings settle Greenland(2020) YT: GN - Portugal
20Jul985Antipope Boniface7 (BONFATIUS Septinus) papacy ends and Pope John15 (IOANNES Quintus Decimus) (Italian) papacy begins 31 day later.Wiki: List of PopesThe first pope to formally canonize a saint.
985Chinese Emperor Duan Suying reign begins and Duan Sushun reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
986Japanese Emperor Kazan (花山天皇) [Morosada) reign ends and Ichijō (一条天皇) [Kanehito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
992Boleslaw the Brave (Poland) succeeds Mieszko (Poland), expands territories southward(2017) YT: PI - History of Poland
1Apr996Pope John15 (IOANNES Quintus Decimus) papacy ends and Pope Gregory5 (GREGORIVS Quintus) (German) papacy begins 32 days later.Wiki: List of PopesThe first official German pope and fifth not to use his personal name (Bruno). Henceforth, this decision became tradition among future popes.
21May996Otto3 was crowned HREmperor by Pope Gregory5 in Monza, ItalyWiki: HRE
Apr997Antipope John16 (IOANNES Sextus Decimus) (Greek) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesIn opposition to Gregory5
997Emperor 真宗 [Zhenzong] of Song reign begins and 太宗 [Taizong] of Song reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
Feb998Antipope John16 (IOANNES Sextus Decimus) papacy endsWiki: List of Popes
18Feb999Pope Gregory5 (GREGORIVS Quintus) papacy ends and Pope Sylvester2 (SILVESTER Secundus) (French (Occitan/Gerbert)) papacy begins 43 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
999Leif Erikson discovers America(2019) YT: VotP - Leif EriksonKing Olaf Trigvassen sent Leif to spread Christianity to Greenland that summer. He got lost in a storm and landed somewhere new, found a shipwrecked crew, and took care of them. He spread Christianity and King Olaf. Erik the Red was slow to accept Christianity, but his wife Fjofthild(?) loved it and built a church, then refused to sleep with him until he converted. He got madder.
1000?Vikings settle Vinland in far-east Canada?(2020) YT: GN - Portugal
1000Japanese age of Samurai begins.(2016) YT: BW - history of japanRich people hire samurai, poor people do without.
1000Bitter oranges are brought to the Mediterranean.Harvest To Table - Orange TypesOriginated in India, they were named after the Sanskrit word "naranga" which means "fragrant". (Thus the Spanish word for the fruit, "naranja" as well. But the Latin name became "aurantium" and then "arancia in Italian. This fruit's pigmentation was a unique combination of red and yellow, and in English the color "orange" was named after the fruit.)
1000Mayan king Ah Ulil (Izamal) reign occursWiki: Maya rulers
1000sEarly chalk on blackboard was in use in Indian schools as mentioned in Alberunis Indica Tarikh Al-Hind.Wiki: BlackboardThey used black tablets for the children in the schools, and wrote upon them along the long side, not the broadside, writing with a white material from the left to the right.
1000sJapanese power subtly shifts from the emperor to the shogun.(2012) YT: OSP - Meiji RestorationThe emperor still held all the symbolic power, but the shogun had all the local daimyo (micropower leaders) who had all the samurai.
1000sSteel was produced in Song China using two techniques.Wiki: SteelOne was a berganesque method that produced inferior, inhomogeneous steel, and the other was a precursor to the modern Bessemer process that used partial decarbonization via repeated forging under a cold blast.
1002England king uninstalls Denmark's king's sister(2017) YT: FOL - History of England
7Jun1002Otto3 reign ends and Henry2 reign begins, 135 days later.Wiki: HREHenry2, second cousin of Otto3. King of Italy, Germany, Duke of Bavaria, Duke of Carinthia
1003Erik the Red uninstalls(2019) YT: VotP - Leif Erikson
12May1003Pope Sylvester2 (SILVESTER Secundus) papacy ends and Pope John17 (IOANNES Septimus Decimus) (Siccone Secchi) (Italian) papacy begins 4 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
6Nov1003Pope John17 (IOANNES Septimus Decimus) (Siccone Secchi) papacy ends and Pope John18 (IOANNES Duodevicesimus) (Giovanni Fasano) (Italian) papacy begins 49 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
18Jul1009Pope John18 (IOANNES Duodevicesimus) (Giovanni Fasano) papacy ends and Pope Sergius4 (SERGIVS Quartus) (Pietro Martino Boccadiporco O.S.B) (Italian) papacy begins 13 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
1009Chinese Emperor Duan Suying reign ends and Duan Sulian reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1010Boleslaw (Poland) establishes Metropolitan See in Gniezno, forming the Catholic capital in Poland(2017) YT: PI - History of Poland
1011Japanese Emperor Ichijō (一条天皇) [Kanehito) reign ends and Sanjō (三条天皇) [Okisada/Iyasada) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
12May1012Pope Sergius4 (SERGIVS Quartus) (Pietro Martino Boccadiporco O.S.B) papacy ends and Pope Benedict8 (BENEDICTVS Octavus) (Teofilatto di Tuscolo) (Italian) papacy begins 6 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
12Jun1012Antipope Gregory6 (GREGORIVS Sextus) (Gregorio) (Italian) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesIn opposition to Benedict8
31Dec1012Antipope Gregory6 (GREGORIVS Sextus) (Gregorio) papacy endsWiki: List of Popes
25Dec1013Rex totius Britanniae (King of the Whole of Britain) Æthelred the Unready first reign ends and Sweyn Forkbeard reign beginsWiki: English monarchsHouse of Denmark (Knýtlinga) - England came under the control of Sweyn Forkbeard, a Danish king, after an invasion in 1013, during which Æthelred abandoned the throne and went into exile in Normandy.. Married to Married to (1) Gunhild of Wenden 990 7 children(2) Sigrid the Haughty 1000 1 daughter. Right of conquest (great-grandson of a king of Northumbria)
1014Emperor Byzantine defeated Bulgaria(2017) YT: Kurgesagt - Parasites
3Feb1014Rex totius Britanniae (King of the Whole of Britain) Sweyn Forkbeard reign ends and Æthelred the Unready second reign beginsWiki: English monarchsHouse of Wessex (restored, first time) - Following the death of Sweyn Forkbeard, Æthelred the Unready returned from exile and was again proclaimed king on 3 February 1014. His son succeeded him after being chosen king by the citizens of London and a part of the Witan, despite ongoing Danish efforts to wrest the crown from the West Saxons.. Married to (1) Ælfgifu of York 991 9 children(2) Emma of Normandy 1002 3 children. Son of Edgar the Peaceful
14Feb1014Henry2 was crowned HREmperor by Pope Benedict8 in Rome, ItalyWiki: HRE
1016Japanese Emperor Sanjō (三条天皇) [Okisada/Iyasada) reign ends and Go-Ichijō (後一条天皇) [Atsuhira) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
23Apr1016Rex totius Britanniae (King of the Whole of Britain) Æthelred the Unready second reign ends, Edmund Ironside reign lasts 178 days, and Canute Cnut the Great reign begins 43 days later.Wiki: English monarchsEdmund House of Denmark (restored) - Following the decisive Battle of Assandun on 18 October 1016, King Edmund signed a treaty with Cnut (Canute) under which all of England except for Wessex would be controlled by Cnut.[42] Upon Edmund's death just over a month later on 30 November, Cnut ruled the whole kingdom as its sole king for nineteen years. Married to (1) Ælfgifu of Northampton 2 sons(2) Emma of Normandy 1017 2 children. Son of Sweyn Treaty of Deerhurst. Married to Edith of East Anglia 2 children. Son of Æthelred
1020Leif Erikson uninstalls(2019) YT: VotP - Leif Erikson
1022Emperor 真宗 [Zhenzong] of Song reign ends and 仁宗 [Renzong] of Song reign begins and Duan Sulong reign begins and Duan Sulian reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
9Apr1024Pope Benedict8 (BENEDICTVS Octavus) (Teofilatto di Tuscolo) papacy ends and Pope John19 (IOANNES Undevicesimus) (Romano di Tuscolo) (Italian) papacy begins 35 days later.Wiki: List of PopesBrother of Benedict8.
1024Henry2 reign ends and Conrad2, the Elder reign begins, 57 days later. and Ottonian dynasty ends.Wiki: HREConrad2, the Elder, great-great-grandson of Otto1. King of Burgundy, Italy, Germany
1025Boleslaw (Poland) officially crowned king due to consolidation of power. Then uninstalls.(2017) YT: PI - History of Poland
1025Polish monarchs lose general control of the country(2017) YT: PI - History of PolandDescends to local micropower control?
15Dec1025Roman emperor Basil2 (Βασίλειος) reign ends and Constantine8 (Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Πορφυρογέννητος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSecond son of Romanos2, Constantine8 had been co-emperor since 962.
1026Chinese Emperor Duan Suzhen reign begins and Duan Sulong reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1027Conrad2 was crowned HREmperor by Pope John14 in Rome, Italy and Salian dynasty begins.Wiki: HRE
15Nov1028Roman emperor Constantine8 (Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Πορφυρογέννητος) reign ends and Zoe Porphyrogenita (Ζωὴ ἡ Πορφυρογέννητη) & Romanos3 Argyros (Ῥωμανὸς Ἀργυρός) reigns beginWiki: List of Roman emperorsZoe was a daughter of Constantine8, succeeded on her father's uninstall along with her sister Theodora. Her three husbands, Romanos3 (1028-1034, chosen by Constantine8), Michael4 (1034-1041) and Constantine9 (1042-1050) ruled alongside her.
14Apr1028Henry3, the Black HRE reign begins.Wiki: HREHenry3, the Black, son of Conrad2. King of Burgundy, Italy, Germany, Duke of Bavaria, Duke of Swabia, Duke of Carinthia, Margrave of Meissen
1031Emperor 興宗 [Xingzong] of Liao reign begins and 聖宗 [Shengzong] of Liao reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
6Oct1032Pope John19 (IOANNES Undevicesimus) (Romano di Tuscolo) papacy ends and Pope Benedict9 (BENEDICTVS Nonus) (Teofilatto di Tuscolo) (Italian) papacy begins 15 days later.Wiki: List of PopesItalian; first term.
1032Chinese Emperor 李元昊 [Lǐ Yuánhào] reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
11Apr1034Roman emperor Romanos3 Argyros (Ῥωμανὸς Ἀργυρός) reign ends and Michael4 the Paphlagonian (Μιχαὴλ ὁ Παφλαγών) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsMichael4 succeeded Romanos3 as Zoe's husband and emperor.
12Nov1035Rex totius Britanniae (King of the Whole of Britain) Canute Cnut the Great reign ends and Harold Harefoot reign beginsWiki: English monarchsMarried to Ælfgifu? 1 son?. Son of Cnut the Great
1036Japanese Emperor Go-Ichijō (後一条天皇) [Atsuhira) reign ends and Go-Suzaku (後朱雀天皇) [Atsunaga/Atsuyoshi) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1038Western Xia (西夏) reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsChinese convention: use "Western Xia" + temple name (or use personal name). The Tangut names for about half of the Western Xia eras are known from Tangut texts or monumental inscriptions, or from Western Xia coins.
4Jun1039Conrad2, the Elder HRE reign ends.Wiki: HRE
1040Macbeth uninstalls Duncan (Scotland) in the "honorable combat" of a duel.(2019) YT: OSP - Scotland
17Mar1040Rex totius Britanniae (King of the Whole of Britain) Harold Harefoot reign ends and Harthacnut reign beginsWiki: English monarchsSon of Cnut the Great
10Dec1041Roman emperor Michael4 the Paphlagonian (Μιχαὴλ ὁ Παφλαγών) reign ends and Michael5 Kalaphates (Μιχαὴλ ὁ Καλαφάτης) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsNephew and adopted son of Michael4, who uninstalled after a long illness.
1041Chinese Emperor Duan Suzhen reign ends and Duan Suxing reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1042Edward the Confessor (England)(2017) YT: FOL - History of England
19Apr1042Roman emperor Michael5 Kalaphates (Μιχαὴλ ὁ Καλαφάτης) reign ends and Theodora Porphyrogenita (Θεοδώρα ἡ Πορφυρογέννητος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsMichael5 was uninstalled by disassembly after attempting to sideline Zoe and her sister Theodora - who was raised to co-empress.
8Jun1042Rex totius Britanniae (King of the Whole of Britain) Harthacnut reign ends and Edward the Confessor reign beginsWiki: English monarchsHouse of Wessex (restored, second time) After Harthacnut, there was a brief Saxon Restoration between 1042 and 1066.. Married to Edith of Wessex 23 January 1045. Son of Æthelred
11Jun1042Roman emperor Constantine9 Monomachos (Κωνσταντῖνος Μονομάχος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsZoe's third husband
31Dec1044Pope Benedict9 (BENEDICTVS Nonus) (Teofilatto di Tuscolo) papacy ends and Pope Sylvester3 (SILVESTER Tertius) (Giovanni dei Crescenzi Ottaviani) (Italian) papacy begins 13 days later.Wiki: List of PopesValidity of election questioned; considered antipope; deposed at the Council of Sutri.
1044Chinese Emperor Duan Suxing reign ends and Duan Silian reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
10Mar1045Pope Sylvester3 (SILVESTER Tertius) (Giovanni dei Crescenzi Ottaviani) papacy ends and Pope Benedict9 (BENEDICTVS Nonus) (Teofilatto di Tuscolo) (Italian) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesSecond term; deposed at the Council of Sutri.
1May1045Pope Benedict9 (BENEDICTVS Nonus) (Teofilatto di Tuscolo) papacy ends and Pope Gregory6 (GREGORIVS Sextus) (Giovanni Graziano Pierleoni) (Italian) papacy begins 4 days later.Wiki: List of PopesDeposed at the Council of Sutri.
1045Japanese Emperor Go-Suzaku (後朱雀天皇) [Atsunaga/Atsuyoshi) reign ends and Go-Reizei (後冷泉天皇) [Chikahito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
20Dec1046Pope Gregory6 (GREGORIVS Sextus) (Giovanni Graziano Pierleoni) papacy ends and Pope Clement2 (CLEMENS Secundus) (Suidger von Morsleben-Hornburg) (German) papacy begins 4 days later.Wiki: List of PopesAppointed by King Henry3 at the Council of Sutri; crowned Henry3 as emperor.
25Dec1046Henry3 was crowned HREmperor by Pope Clement2 in Rome, ItalyWiki: HRE
9Oct1047Pope Clement2 (CLEMENS Secundus) (Suidger von Morsleben-Hornburg) papacy ends and Pope Benedict9 (BENEDICTVS Nonus) (Teofilatto di Tuscolo) (Italian) papacy begins 30 days later.Wiki: List of PopesThird term; deposed and excommunicated.
1047Mayan king Ak-Holtun-Bahlam2 (Chichen It zá) reign ends and Poshek1x Soi (Chichen It zá) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
17Jul1048Pope Clement2 (CLEMENS Secundus) (Suidger von Morsleben-Hornburg) papacy ends and Pope Benedict9 (BENEDICTVS Nonus) (Teofilatto di Tuscolo) (German) papacy begins 30 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
17Jul1048Pope Damasus2 (DAMASVS Secundus) (Poppo de Curagnoni) papacy begins and Pope Benedict9 (BENEDICTVS Nonus) (Teofilatto di Tuscolo) papacy ends 252 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
9Aug1048Pope Damasus2 (DAMASVS Secundus) (Poppo de Curagnoni) papacy ends and Pope St Leo9 (LEO Nonus) (Bruno von Egisheim-Dagsburg) (German) papacy begins 187 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
1048Chinese Emperor 李諒祚 [Lǐ Liàngzuò] reign begins and 李元昊 [Lǐ Yuánhào] reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
Jun1050Roman emperor Zoe Porphyrogenita (Ζωὴ ἡ Πορφυρογέννητη) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperors
1054An unknown star goes supernova, creating the Crab Nebula.(2020) YT: FC - Betelgeuse
1054The closest supernova to Earth, light finally reaches Earth from 6500 light years away.(2020) YT: LPA - BetelgeuseRecorded by Chinese scholars as a "brilliant guest star" that stayed bright for almost a full year, it was visible during the daytime, and could be read by at night.
1054Mutual excommunications of Leo9 and Patriarch of Constantinople Michael1 Cerularius began the East–West Schism.Wiki: List of Popes
1054Great Schism of 1054EWTN - Great Schism Pope Leo9 sent an emissary, Cardinal Humbert, from Rome to Constantinople. While it is commonly accepted that the separation of Vatican City and Constantinople into two Christian Churches was the result of centuries of conflict.
19Apr1054Pope St Leo9 (LEO Nonus) (Bruno von Egisheim-Dagsburg) papacy ends.Wiki: List of Popes
17Jul1054Henry4 HRE reign begins.Wiki: HREHenry4, son of Henry3. King of Burgundy, Italy, Germany, Duke of Bavaria
11Jan1055Roman emperor Constantine9 Monomachos (Κωνσταντῖνος Μονομάχος) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsUninstalled after illness.
18Apr1055Pope Victor2 (VICTOR Secundus) (Gebhard2 von Calw-Dollnstein-Hirschberg) (German) papacy begins 359 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
1055Emperor 道宗 [Daozong] of Liao reign begins and 興宗 [Xingzong] of Liao reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
31Aug1056Roman emperor Theodora Porphyrogenita (Θεοδώρα ἡ Πορφυρογέννητος) reign ends, and Michael6 Bringas (Μιχαὴλ Βρίγγας) reign begins in September.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsTheodoran uninstalled after sudden illness, after choosing Michael6 as her successor.
5Oct1056Henry3, the Black HRE reign ends.Wiki: HRE
1057Malcom Kenmore, son of Duncan (Scotland) uninstalls Macbeth in a revenge duel.(2019) YT: OSP - ScotlandThe method of open debate as to who's best fit to rule Scotland almost always escalated to constant civil wars.
5Jun1057Roman emperor Michael6 Bringas (Μιχαὴλ Βρίγγας) reign ends, and Isaac1 Komnenos (Ἰσαάκιος Κομνηνός) reign begins 31 August.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsMichael6 uninstalled in 1059, confined to a monastery after having been deposed by Isaac1.
28Jul1057Pope Victor2 (VICTOR Secundus) (Gebhard2 von Calw-Dollnstein-Hirschberg) papacy ends and Pope Stephen9 (STEPHANVS Nonus (Decimus)) (Frederich O.S.B) (German) papacy begins 5 days later.Wiki: List of PopesSometimes called Stephen10.
1058Casimir the Restorer (Poland) restores monarch control, "modernizing" Poland into feudalism with knights and lords and castles, securing borders(2017) YT: PI - History of Poland
29Mar1058Pope Stephen9 (STEPHANVS Nonus (Decimus)) (Frederich O.S.B) papacy ends and Antipope Benedict10 (BENEDICTVS Decimus) (Giovanni Mincio di Tuscolo) (Italian) papacy begins 6 days later.Wiki: List of PopesIn opposition to Nicholas2.
6Dec1058Pope Nicholas2 (NICOLAVS Secundus) (Gerald de Bourgogne) (French) papacy begins and Antipope Benedict10 (BENEDICTVS Decimus) (Giovanni Mincio di Tuscolo) papacy ends 49 days later.Wiki: List of PopesIn 1059 the College of Cardinals was designated the sole body of pope electors in the document In nomine Domini. (Papal conclave).
24Nov1059Roman emperor Isaac1 Komnenos (Ἰσαάκιος Κομνηνός) reign ends and Constantine10 Doukas (Κωνσταντῖνος Δούκας) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsConstantine10 was chosen successor of Isaac I Komnenos, who voluntarily abdicated and uninstalled in 1061.
1060Roman emperor Konstantios Doukas (Κωνστάντιος Δούκας) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsUninstalled in the Battle of Dyrrhachium on 18 October 1081, having been recalled as a general by Alexios1.
27Jul1061Pope Nicholas2 (NICOLAVS Secundus) (Gerald de Bourgogne) papacy ends and Pope Alexander2 (ALEXANDER Secundus) (Anselmo da Baggio) (Italian) papacy begins 65 days later.Wiki: List of PopesAuthorized the Norman conquest of England in 1066.
30Sep1061Antipope Honorius2 (HONORIVS Secundus) (Pietro Candalus) (Italian) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesIn opposition to Pope Alexander2
1063Emperor 英宗 [Yingzong] of Song reign begins and 仁宗 [Renzong] of Song reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
5Jan1066Rex totius Britanniae (King of the Whole of Britain) Edward the Confessor reign ends, Harold Godwinson reign lasts 282 days, and Edgar Ætheling reign lasts 64 days, and William1 the Conqueror reign begins 8 days later. Wiki: English monarchsHarold Married to (1) Edith Swannesha 5 children(2) Ealdgyth 1064 2 sons. House of Godwin. Supposedly named heir by Edward the Confessor, also elected by the Witenagemot. Uninstalled in the Battle of Hastings. Edgar Grandson of Edmund Ironside. House of Wessex. Elected by the Witenagemot. Title disputed, disputed claimant. William1 House of Normandy - After King Harold was killed at the Battle of Hastings, the Witan elected Edgar Ætheling as king, but by then the Normans controlled the country and Edgar never ruled. He submitted to King William the Conqueror.. Married to Married to Matilda of Flanders Normandy 1053 9 children. Supposedly named heir in 1052 by Edward the Confessor First cousin once removed of Edward the Confessor Right of conquest
1066Omen of Harold2 comet later determined to be Halley's Comet.Wiki: Halley's CometHarold2 uninstalls later this year. It's a good omen for William the Conqueror. Comet can be seen on the Bayeux Tapestry. Halley's came within 0.1 AU (9,295,581 mi), was as large as Venus and 1/4 as bright as the Moon.
1066Norman Britain starts(20??) YT: A Great British Timeline (link 404s)
1066Hadrada invades England. Howard (England) wins. William of Normandy invades and defeats Howard(2017) YT: FOL - History of England
1066Norman invasion causes the British throne to hold French territories, so the England monarch has to respect the French one(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
22May1067Roman emperor Constantine10 Doukas (Κωνσταντῖνος Δούκας) reign ends and Michael7 Doukas (Μιχαὴλ Δούκας) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperors
1067Emperor 英宗 [Yingzong] of Song reign ends and 神宗 [Shenzong] of Song reign begins and 李諒祚 [Lǐ Liàngzuò] reign ends and 李秉常 [Lǐ Bǐngcháng] reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1Jan1068Roman emperor Andronikos Doukas (Ἀνδρόνικος Δούκας) reign begins and Romanos4 Diogenes (Ῥωμανὸς Διογένης) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsMarried to Constantine10's widow and senior emperor as guardian of her sons by Constantine10
1068Japanese Emperor Go-Reizei (後冷泉天皇) [Chikahito) reign ends and Go-Sanjō (後三条天皇) [Takahito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
15Apr1071Bari, the last Byzantine stronghold in southern Italy, is surrendered to Robert Guiscard.Imgur: 4/15 in history
24Oct1071Roman emperor Romanos4 Diogenes (Ῥωμανὸς Διογένης) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsUninstalled after having been deposed, blinded and exiled
21Apr1073Pope Alexander2 (ALEXANDER Secundus) (Anselmo da Baggio) papacy ends and Pope St Gregory7 (GREGORIVS Septimus) (Ildebrando Aldobrandeschi di Soana O.S.B) (Lombard) papacy begins 1 day later.Wiki: List of PopesInitiated the Gregorian Reforms. Restricted the use of the papal title to the bishop of Rome.] Political struggle with Emperor Henry4, who had to go to Canossa (1077).
1072Antipope Honorius2 (HONORIVS Secundus) (Pietro Candalus) papacy endsWiki: List of Popes
1073Japanese Emperor Go-Sanjō (後三条天皇) [Takahito) reign ends and Shirakawa (白河天皇) [Sadahito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1074Roman emperor Andronikos Doukas (Ἀνδρόνικος Δούκας) reign ends and Constantine Doukas (Κωνσταντίνος Δούκας) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsConstantine Doukas was later raised to co-emperor again under Alexios1
1075Chinese Emperor Duan Silian reign ends and Duan Lianyi reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
31Mar1078Roman emperor Constantine Doukas (Κωνσταντίνος Δούκας) & Konstantios Doukas (Κωνστάντιος Δούκας) & Michael7 Doukas (Μιχαὴλ Δούκας) reigns end and Nikephoros3 Botaneiates (Νικηφόρος Βοτανειάτης) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsNikephoros3 led a rebellion on these 3.
25Jun1080Antipope Clement3 (CLEMENS Tertius) (Pietro Cadnalus) (Italian) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesIn opposition to Pope Gregory7, Pope Victor3, Pope Urban2 and Pope Paschal2.
1080Chinese Emperor Duan Shouhui reign begins and Duan Lianyi reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
4Apr1081Roman emperor Nikephoros3 Botaneiates (Νικηφόρος Βοτανειάτης) reign ends and Alexios1 Komnenos (Ἀλέξιος Κομνηνός) & Constantine Doukas (Κωνσταντίνος Δούκας) (second co-emperorship) reigns beginWiki: List of Roman emperorsAlexios1, nephew of Isaac I Komnenos, led a rebellion against Nikephoros3, who uninstalled after having been deposed and exiled to a monastery. Alexios1 appointed Constantine Doukas (a previous co-emperor under Michael7) as co-emperor in 1081 - then replaced Constantine with his own son John2 in 1087.
1081Chinese Emperor Duan Zhengming reign begins and Duan Shouhui reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
31Mar1084Henry4 was crowned HREmperor by Antipope Clement3 in Rome, ItalyWiki: HRE
25May1085Pope St Gregory7 (GREGORIVS Septimus) (Ildebrando Aldobrandeschi di Soana O.S.B) papacy ends and Pope Bl. Victor3 (VICTOR Tertius) (Dauferio Epifani Del Zotto O.S.B) (Lombard) papacy begins 364 days later.Wiki: List of Popes Called the Synod of Benevento (1087) condemning lay investiture.
1085Emperor 神宗 [Shenzong] of Song reign ends and 哲宗 [Zhezong] of Song reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1086Chinese Emperor 李秉常 [Lǐ Bǐngcháng] reign ends and 李乾順 [Lǐ Qiánshùn] reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1087Roman emperor Constantine Doukas (Κωνσταντίνος Δούκας) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperors
9Sep1087Rex totius Britanniae (King of the Whole of Britain) William1 the Conqueror reign ends and William2 Rufus reign begins 17 days later.Wiki: English monarchsSon of William1. Granted the Kingdom of England over elder brother Robert Curthose.
16Sep1087Pope Bl. Victor3 (VICTOR Tertius) (Dauferio Epifani Del Zotto O.S.B) papacy ends and Pope Bl. Urban2 (VRBANVS Secundus) (Odon de Lagery O.S.B) (French) papacy begins 178 days later.Wiki: List of PopesPreached and started the First Crusade.
1087Japanese Emperor Shirakawa (白河天皇) [Sadahito) reign ends and Horikawa (堀河天皇) [Taruhito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1094Duan Zhengming reign ends the Former Dali Kingdom (前大理).Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1096Rhineland Massacres (crusade)(Reference Missing)
1096Duan Zhengchun reign begins the 後大理 (Later Dali Kingdom).Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1099The Dukes of Normandy, Flanders, and Boullion, and Count of Toulouse lay siege Jerusalem(2018) YT: BB - Siege of Jerusalem
29Jul1099Pope Bl. Urban2 (VRBANVS Secundus) (Odon de Lagery O.S.B) papacy ends and Pope Paschal2 (PASCHALIS Secundus) (Rainero Ranieri O.S.B) (Lombard) papacy begins 15 days later.Wiki: List of Popes Ordered the building of the basilica of Santi Quattro Coronati.
6Jan1099Henry5 HRE reign begins.Wiki: HREHenry5, son of Henry4. King of Italy, Germany, Burgundy
8Sep1100Antipope Clement3 (CLEMENS Tertius) (Pietro Cadnalus) papacy ends and Antipope Theodoric (THEODORICVS) (Teodorico) (Lombard) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesIn opposition to Paschal2
1100Emperor 徽宗 [Huizong] of Song reign begins and 哲宗 [Zhezong] of Song reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1100Katanas start showing up.(2016) YT: OSP - Grass cutter
2Aug1100Rex totius Britanniae (King of the Whole of Britain) William2 Rufus reign ends and Henry1 Beauclerc reign begins 3 days later.Wiki: English monarchsWilliam2 Uninstalled by arrow in New Forest. Henry1 Married to (1) Matilda of Scotland Westminster Abbey 11 November 1100 2 children(2) Adeliza of Louvain Windsor Castle 29 January 1121. Son of William1 Seizure of the Crown (from Robert Curthose)
1100Mayan king Hunac Ceel (Cocom dynasty) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersHunac Ceel, general who conquered the city and founded a new ruling family. 1100s
1100sCentral Eurasean Steppes become warmer and start growing more food.(2019) YT: FH - MongolsThis leads to the growth and success of China as a population center - like any complex devices, humans live close to our energy sources.
Jan1101Antipope Theodoric (THEODORICVS) (Teodorico) papacy ends and Antipope Adalbert (ADALBERTVS) (Adalberto O.S.B) (Lombard) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesIn opposition to Paschal2
1101Emperor 道宗 [Daozong] of Liao reign ends and Tianzuo of Liao reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
Feb1102Antipope Adalbert (ADALBERTVS) (Adalberto O.S.B) papacy ends (German)Wiki: List of PopesIn opposition to Paschal2.
8Nov1105Antipope Sylvester4 (SILVESTER Quartus) (Maguinulf) papacy begins.Wiki: List of Popes
7Aug1106Henry4 HRE reign ends.Wiki: HRE
1107Japanese Emperor Horikawa (堀河天皇) [Taruhito) reign ends and Toba (鳥羽天皇) [Munehito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1108Chinese Emperor Duan Zhengyan reign begins and Duan Zhengchun reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
11Apr1111Antipope Sylvester4 (SILVESTER Quartus) (Maguinulf) papacy endsWiki: List of Popes
13Apr1111Henry5 was crowned HREmperor by Pope Paschal2 in Rome, ItalyWiki: HRE
1115太祖 [Tàizǔ] of Jin reign begins the 金朝 (Jin dynasty).Wiki: Chinese monarchs
21Jan1118Pope Paschal2 (PASCHALIS Secundus) (Rainero Ranieri O.S.B) papacy ends and Pope Gelasius2 (GELASIVS Secundus) (Giovanni Caetani O.S.B) (Italian) papacy begins 3 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
10Mar1118Antipope Gregory8 (GREGORIVS Octavus) (Maurice Baurdain) (French (Occitan)) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesIn opposition to Gelasius2 and Callixtus2.
15Aug1118Roman emperor Alexios1 Komnenos (Ἀλέξιος Κομνηνός) reign ends and John2 Komnenos (Ἰωάννης Κομνηνός) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSon of Alexios1 & co-emperor since 1087, John2 appointed his son Alexios0 co-emperor in 1122
29Jan1119Pope Gelasius2 (GELASIVS Secundus) (Giovanni Caetani O.S.B) papacy ends and Pope Callixtus2 (CALLISTVS Secundus) (Guy) (French) papacy begins 4 days later.Wiki: List of PopesOpened the First Council of the Lateran in 1123.
20Apr1121Antipope Gregory8 (GREGORIVS Octavus) (Maurice Baurdain) papacy endsWiki: List of Popes
1122Roman emperor Alexios0 Komnenos (Ἀλέξιος Κομνηνός) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSon of John2, appointed co-emperor in 1122
1122 蕭普賢女 [Xiao Puxiannü] and 耶律淳 [Yelü Chun] of N. Liao reigns begins the Northern Liao (北遼) period.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1123Japanese Emperor Toba (鳥羽天皇) [Munehito) reign ends and Sutoku (崇徳天皇) [Akihito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1123Emperor 蕭普賢女 [Xiao Puxiannü] of N. Liao reign ends the Northern Liao (北遼) period, and 太祖 [Tàizǔ] of Jin reign ends and 太宗 [Tàizōng] of Jin reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
13Dec1124Pope Callixtus2 (CALLISTVS Secundus) (Guy) papacy ends and Pope Honorius2 (HONORIVS Secundus) (Lamberto Scannabecchi da Fiagnano Can.Reg) papacy begins 8 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
16Dec1124Antipope Celestine2 (COELESTINVS Secundus) (Teobaldo Boccapecora) (French) papacy occurs.Wiki: List of PopesBegan & ended on the same day. In opposition to Honorius2.
1124耶律大石 [Yēlǜ Dàshí] (or 耶律達實 [Yēlǜ Dáshí]) reign begins the 西遼 (Western Liao) period.Wiki: Chinese monarchs"Dashi" might be the Chinese title "Taishi", meaning "vizier"; or, it could mean "Stone" in Turkish, as the Chinese transliteration suggests."
1125Tianzuo of Liao reign ends the 遼朝 (Liao dynasty), and 徽宗 [Huizong] of Song reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
23May1125Henry5 reign ends and Lothair2 reign begins, 99 days later. and Salian dynasty ends.Wiki: HRELothair2, great-great-great-great-great-great-grandnephew of Otto1. King of Italy, Germany, Burgundy, Duke of Saxony. From the end of the Salian dynasty through the middle 15th century, the emperors drew from many different German dynasties, and it was rare for the throne to pass from father to son.
1126Emperor 欽宗 [Qinzong] of Song reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1127欽宗 [Qinzong] of Song reign ends the 北宋 (Northern Song) period, and 高宗 [Gaozong] of Song reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
13Feb1130Pope Honorius2 (HONORIVS Secundus) (Lamberto Scannabecchi da Fiagnano Can.Reg) papacy ends and Pope Innocent2 (INNOCENTIVS Secundus) (Gregorio Papareschi Can.Reg) (Italian) papacy begins 1 day later.Wiki: List of PopesCanon regular of Lateran. Convened the Second Council of the Lateran, 1139.
14Feb1130Antipope Anacletus2 (ANACLETUS Secundus) (Pietro Pierleoni O.S.B) (Italian) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesIn opposition to Innocent2.
4Jun1133Lothair3 was crowned HREmperor by Pope Innocent2 in Rome, Italy and Supplinburg dynasty begins.Wiki: HRE
1134Emperor 太宗 [Tàizōng] of Jin reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1135Emperor 熙宗 [Xīzōng] of Jin reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1135Rabbi Maimodenes (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) (Spain) installs.MIT: AllanC - MaimonidesJewish philosopher, physician and jurist. He codified Jewish law in the Mishneh Torah.
1Dec1135Rex totius Britanniae (King of the Whole of Britain) Henry1 Beauclerc reign ends and Stephen of Blois reign begins 21 day later.Wiki: English monarchsHouse of Blois. Married to Matilda of Boulogne Westminster 1125 6 children. Grandson of William1 Appointment / usurpation
4Dec1137Lothair2 reign ends and Supplinburg dynasty ends.Wiki: HRE
25Jan1138Antipope Anacletus2 (ANACLETUS Secundus) (Pietro Pierleoni O.S.B) papacy ends and Antipope Victor4 (VICTOR Quartus) (Gregorio Conti) papacy lasts 2 days. 57 days later. (Italian)Wiki: List of PopesIn Opposition to Pope Innocent2
23Mar1138Antipope Victor4 (VICTOR Quartus) (Gregorio Conti) papacy lasts 2 days.Wiki: List of Popes
1139Chinese Emperor 李仁孝 [Lǐ Rénxiào] reign begins and 李乾順 [Lǐ Qiánshùn] reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
7Apr1141"Domina Anglorum (""Lady of the English""). Empress Matilda reign lasts for 208 days."Wiki: English monarchsDisputed claimants - Matilda was declared heir presumptive by her father, Henry1, after the death of her brother on the White Ship, and acknowledged as such by the barons. Upon Henry1's death, the throne was seized by Matilda's cousin, Stephen of Blois. During the ensuing Anarchy, Matilda controlled England for a few months in 1141—the first woman to do so—but was never crowned and is rarely listed as a monarch of England.[e]. Married to (1) Henry V of the Holy Roman Empire Mainz 6 January 1114(2) Geoffrey V of Anjou Le Mans Cathedral 22 May 1128 3 sons. Daughter of Henry1 Seizure of the Crown. Uninstalled 9/10/1167
1142Roman emperor Alexios0 Komnenos (Ἀλέξιος Κομνηνός) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsUninstalled by fever
1142Japanese Emperor Sutoku (崇徳天皇) [Akihito) reign ends and Konoe (近衛天皇) [Narihito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
8Apr1143Roman emperor John2 Komnenos (Ἰωάννης Κομνηνός) reign ends and Manuel1 Komnenos (Μανουὴλ Κομνηνός) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsManuel1 was son of John2, who accidentally cut himself on a poisoned arrow.
24Sep1143Pope Innocent2 (INNOCENTIVS Secundus) (Gregorio Papareschi Can.Reg) papacy ends and Pope Celestine2 (COELESTINVS Secundus) (Guido Guelfuccio de Castello) (Italian) papacy begins 2 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
8Mar1144Pope Celestine2 (COELESTINVS Secundus) (Guido Guelfuccio de Castello) papacy ends and Pope Lucius2 (LUCIVS Secundus) (Gherardo Caccianemici dall'Orso Can.Reg) (Italian) papacy begins 4 days later.Wiki: List of PopesCanon Regular of S. Frediano di Lucca.
1144Chinese Emperor 蕭塔不煙 [Xiāo Tǎbùyān] reign begins and 耶律大石 [Yēlǜ Dàshí] or 耶律達實 [Yēlǜ Dáshí] reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1145Eadwine the Monk's comet later determined to be Halley's Comet.Wiki: Halley's CometFan tail simiar to the 1986 reappearance.
15Feb1145Pope Lucius2 (LUCIVS Secundus) (Gherardo Caccianemici dall'Orso Can.Reg) papacy ends and Pope Bl. Eugene3 (EVGENIVS Tertius) (Pietro dei Paganelli di Montemagno O.Cist) (Italian) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesMember of the Order of Cistercians. Announced the Second Crusade.
1147Chinese Emperor Duan Zhengyan reign ends and Duan Zhengxing reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1149Emperor 熙宗 [Xīzōng] of Jin reign ends and 煬王 [King Prince Yáng] of Jin reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1150Chinese Emperor 蕭塔不煙 [Xiāo Tǎbùyān] reign ends and 耶律夷列 [Yēlǜ Yíliè] reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
4Mar1152Frederick1 Barbarossa HRE reign begins.Wiki: HREFrederick1 Barbarossa, great-grandson of Henry4. King of Germany, Italy, Burgundy
8Jul1153Pope Bl. Eugene3 (EVGENIVS Tertius) (Pietro dei Paganelli di Montemagno O.Cist) papacy ends and Pope Anastasius4 (ANASTASIVS Quartus) (Corrado Demitri della Suburra) (Italian) papacy begins 4 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
1154Norman Britain ends.(20??) YT: A Great British Timeline (link 404s)
25Oct1154Rex totius Britanniae (King of the Whole of Britain) Stephen of Blois reign ends and Henry2 Curtmantle reign begins 55 days later.Wiki: English monarchsHouse of Anjou/Plantagenet (Angevin kings of England). Married to Eleanor of Aquitaine Bordeaux Cathedral 18 May 1152 8 children. Grandson of Henry1 Treaty of Wallingford
3Dec1154Pope Anastasius4 (ANASTASIVS Quartus) (Corrado Demitri della Suburra) papacy ends and Pope Adrian4 (HADRIANVS Quartus) (Nicholas Breakspear Can.Reg) (English (Anglo-Saxon)) papacy begins 1 day later.Wiki: List of PopesThe only English (Anglo-Saxon) pope; purportedly granted Ireland to Henry2, King of England. Canon Regular of St Rufus Monastery.
1155Japanese Emperor Konoe (近衛天皇) [Narihito) reign ends and Go-Shirakawa (後白河天皇) [Masahito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
18Jun1155Frederick1 was crowned HREmperor by Pope Adrian4 in Rome, Italy and Staufen dynasty begins.Wiki: HRE
1158Japanese Emperor Go-Shirakawa (後白河天皇) [Masahito) reign ends and Nijō (二条天皇) [Morihito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1Sep1159Pope Adrian4 (HADRIANVS Quartus) (Nicholas Breakspear Can.Reg) papacy ends and Pope Alexander3 (ALEXANDER Tertius) (Rolando Bandinelli) (Italian) papacy begins 6 days later.Wiki: List of PopesConvened the Third Council of the Lateran, 1179.
7Sep1159Antipope Victor4 (VICTOR Quartus) (Ottaviano dei Crescenzi Ottaviani di Monticelli) (Italian) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesIn opposition to Pope Alexander3.
1160Pope Innocent3 installs(2020) YT: Shad - Medieval Education
1161Emperor 煬王 [King Prince Yáng] of Jin reign ends and 世宗 [Shìzōng] of Jin reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1162Temujin, son of Yesugei, installs.(2019) YT: FH - MongolsYesugei was the ruler of Akamec Mongol, one of 5 micropower confederations in the region.
1162Emperor 高宗 [Gaozong] of Song reign ends and 孝宗 [Xiaozong] of Song reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
20Apr1164Antipope Victor4 (VICTOR Quartus) (Ottaviano dei Crescenzi Ottaviani di Monticelli) papacy ends and Antipope Paschal3 (PASCALIS Tertius) (Guido di Crema) (Italian) papacy begins 8 days later.Wiki: List of PopesIn opposition to Alexander3.
1164Chinese Emperor 耶律普速完 [Yēlǜ Pǔsùwán] reign begins and 耶律夷列 [Yēlǜ Yíliè] reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1165Japanese Emperor Nijō (二条天皇) [Morihito) reign ends and Rokujō (六条天皇) [Yorihito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
22Sep1168Antipope Paschal3 (PASCALIS Tertius) (Guido di Crema) papacy ends and Antipope Callixtus3 (CALLIXTVS Tertius) (Giovanni di Struma O.S.B) (Italian) papacy begins 8 days later.Wiki: List of PopesIn opposition to Alexander3.
1168Japanese Emperor Rokujō (六条天皇) [Yorihito) reign ends and Takakura (高倉天皇) [Norihito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
15Aug1169Henry6 HRE reign begins.Wiki: HREHenry6, son of Frederick1. King of Germany, Italy, Burgundy, Co-King of Sicily
1171Yesugei poisoned by a rival Mongol faction - the Tartar Mongol - and Temujin falls from noble to normie harsh Mongol life, as the micropower falls into a power vacuum.(2019) YT: FH - Mongols
1171Chinese Emperor Duan Zhixing reign begins and Duan Zhengxing reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1175Gerard of Cremona translated Almagest (Μαθηματικὴ Σύνταξις [Mathematike Syntax]) from Arabic into LatinAntiquitatem.com: Hour's dividersHe translated this at the famous school of Toledo, winning great significance in European scientific circles.
29Aug1178Antipope Callixtus3 (CALLIXTVS Tertius) (Giovanni di Struma O.S.B) papacy ends and Antipope Innocent3 (INNOCENTIVS Tertius) (Lando di Sezze (or Lanzo)) (Italian) papacy begins 396 days later.Wiki: List of PopesIn opposition to Alexander3.
1178Chinese Emperor 耶律直魯古 [Yēlǜ Zhílǔgǔ] reign begins and 耶律普速完 [Yēlǜ Pǔsùwán] reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1178Temujin marries Borte, but she's quickly abducted by the Merkits Mongol.(2019) YT: FH - MongolsSo Temujin calls on one of his dad's blood brothers, Toghrul Khan, who gives 20k troops to Temujin and his own blood brother, Jamukah. They raid the Merkits Mongol and easily get Borte back. Temujin ran his army as a meritocracy, which clashed with Jamukah's perference for traditional family-based ranks.
Jan1180Antipope Innocent3 (INNOCENTIVS Tertius) (Lando di Sezze (or Lanzo)) papacy endsWiki: List of Popes
24Sep1180Roman emperor Manuel1 Komnenos (Μανουὴλ Κομνηνός) reign ends and Alexios2 Komnenos (Ἀλέξιος Κομνηνός) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsAlexios2 was son of Manuel1
1180Japanese Emperor Takakura (高倉天皇) [Norihito) reign ends and Antoku (安徳天皇) [Tokihito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1180Rabbi Maimodenes writes his 8 levels of Charity.MIT: AllanC - MaimonidesGeneralized, in order:
  1. Support a friend or colleague with financial aid, help them find a job, etc.
  2. Donate to a large charity, where you don't know who will benefit. Only do this if charities are trustable.
  3. Secretly donate to people you know, without their knowledge. Do this if charities are corrupt.
  4. Donate to people in a way that lets the recipient keep their anonymity and avoid the shame of begging.
  5. Donate directly to a beggar, before the beggar begs.
  6. Donate directly to a beggar, after the beggar begs.
  7. Donate insufficiently to a beggar, after the beggar begs, then give thoughts and prayers.
  8. Donate unwillingly. (Be stolen from?)
30Aug1181Pope Alexander3 (ALEXANDER Tertius) (Rolando Bandinelli) papacy ends and Pope Lucius3 (LUCIVS Tertius) (Ubaldo Allucignoli) (Italian) papacy begins 2 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
Oct1183Roman emperor Alexios2 Komnenos (Ἀλέξιος Κομνηνός) reign ends and Andronikos1 Komnenos (Ἀνδρόνικος Κομνηνός) with John Komnenos (Ἰωάννης Κομνηνός) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsAlexios2 was deposed and uninstalled by his nephew Andronikos1, also nephew of John2 (son of his brother Isaac). Appointed his son John as co-emperor that November.
1183Japanese Emperor Go-Toba (後鳥羽天皇) [Takahira) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
12Sep1185Roman emperor Andronikos1 Komnenos (Ἀνδρόνικος Κομνηνός) with John Komnenos (Ἰωάννης Κομνηνός) reign ends and Isaac2 Angelos (Ἰσαάκιος Ἄγγελος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsAndronikos1 and his son John were overthrown and lynched in a popular rebellion.
25Nov1185Pope Lucius3 (LUCIVS Tertius) (Ubaldo Allucignoli) papacy ends and Pope Urban3 (VRBANVS Tertius) (Uberto Crivelli) (Italian) papacy begins.Wiki: List of Popes
1185Kamakura period begins and Antoku (安徳天皇) [Tokihito) reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1185Heian period ends and Kamakura period begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1187Jamukah battles and wins against his blood brother, Temujin (Mongol).(2019) YT: FH - MongolsToghrul Khan and Jamukah band together to defend against Temujin's new and well-organized fighting force. Jamukah is titled "Gur Khan" or Universal Ruler, but went on to be defeated massively. Jamukah's own troops brought Jamukah to Temujin - Temujin had the troops put to uninstall, then offered Jamukah another chance - Jamukah turned it down and received an honorable uninstall.
20Oct1187Pope Urban3 (VRBANVS Tertius) (Uberto Crivelli) papacy ends and Pope Gregory8 (GREGORIVS Octavus) (Alberto de Morra Can.Reg) (Italian) papacy begins 1 day later.Wiki: List of PopesCanon Regular Premostratense. Proposed the Third Crusade.
17Dec1187Pope Gregory8 (GREGORIVS Octavus) (Alberto de Morra Can.Reg) papacy ends and Pope Clement3 (CLEMENS Tertius) (Paolo Scolari) (Italian) papacy begins 2 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
1189Emperor 孝宗 [Xiaozong] of Song reign ends and 光宗 [Guangzong] of Song reign begins and 世宗 [Shìzōng] of Jin reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
6Jul1189Rex totius Britanniae (King of the Whole of Britain) Henry2 Curtmantle reign ends and Richard1 the Lionheart reign begins 59 days later.Wiki: English monarchsMarried to Berengaria of Navarre Limassol 12 May 1191. Son of Henry2,
1190Emperor 章宗 [Zhāngzōng] of Jin reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
10Jun1190Frederick1 Barbarossa HRE reign ends.Wiki: HRE
20Mar1191Pope Clement3 (CLEMENS Tertius) (Paolo Scolari) papacy ends and Pope Celestine3 (COELESTINVS Tertius) (Giacinto Bobone Orsini) (Italian) papacy begins 10 days later.Wiki: List of PopesMotto: Perfice gressus meos in semitis tuis (Going in Thy path)
14Apr1191Henry6 was crowned HREmperor by Pope Celestine3 in Rome, ItalyWiki: HRE
1192Japanese Samurai form a military government, the Shogunate at about Miura (near Tokyo).(2016) YT: BW - history of japan
1193Chinese Emperor 李純佑 [Lǐ Chúnyòu] reign begins and 李仁孝 [Lǐ Rénxiào] reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1194Emperor 寧宗 [Ningzong] of Song reign begins and 光宗 [Guangzong] of Song reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1194Mayan king Canek (Chichen It zá) reign occursWiki: Maya rulers
1195Pope Innocent4 installs(2019) YT: VOTP - GüyükLater becomes 180th pope.
1195Roman emperor Isaac2 Angelos (Ἰσαάκιος Ἄγγελος) reign ends and Alexios3 Angelos (Ἀλέξιος Ἄγγελος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsAlexios3 led a rebellion against his younger brother, Isaac2.
1197Temujin (Mongol) recruited by Jin dynasty to fight the Tartar Mongol.(2019) YT: FH - Mongols
28Sep1197Henry6 reign ends and Staufen dynasty ends.Wiki: HRE
8Jan1198Pope Celestine3 (COELESTINVS Tertius) (Giacinto Bobone Orsini) papacy ends and Pope Innocent3 (INNOCENTIVS Tertius) (Lotario dei Conti di Segni) (Italian) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesConvened the Fourth Council of the Lateran, 1215. Initiated the Fourth Crusade but later distanced himself from it and threatened participants with excommunication when it became clear that the leadership abandoned a focus on conquest of the Holy Land and instead intended to sack Christian cities. Endorsed the Franciscan Order.
1198Japanese Emperor Go-Toba (後鳥羽天皇) [Takahira) reign ends and Tsuchimikado (土御門天皇) [Tamehito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
9Jun1198Otto4 reign begins and Welf dynasty begins.Wiki: HREOtto4, great-grandson of Lothair2. King of Germany, Italy, Burgundy
6Apr1199Rex totius Britanniae (King of the Whole of Britain) Richard1 the Lionheart gets shot by a quarrel at Châlus and John Lackland reign begins 51 day later.Wiki: English monarchsMarried to (1) Isabel of Gloucester Marlborough Castle 29 August 1189(2) Isabella of Angoulême Bordeaux Cathedral 24 August 1200 5 children. Son of Henry2 Nomination Proximity of blood
1199John (England) lost Normandy, signs Magna Carta(2017) YT: FOL - History of England
1199Pope Innocent3 banned unauthorized versions and translations of the Bible.(2020) YT: Shad - Medieval EducationOnly Latin was allowed.
1200Oxford and Cambridge were founded.(2017) YT: FOL - History of England
1200Chinese Emperor Duan Zhixing reign ends and Duan Zhilian reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1200Inca Kingdom of Cuzco begins with king Manco Cápac1 and the Hurín dynasty.VanDiverInca: Inca Empire
1200Toltec civilization rule in Central Mexico ends.SFGate - Olmecs to Toltecs
1200sScotland gains the Scots language from the Norman French.(2019) YT: OSP - Scotland
1200sCodex Regius supposedly written, though it wouldn't show up for another 400 years.(2016) YT: OSP - Poetic EddaOne of the few sources of information about the ancient land and micropowers, may be missing some important things.
1200sMayan king Hunac Ceel (Cocom dynasty) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
18Jul1203Roman emperor Alexios3 Angelos (Ἀλέξιος Ἄγγελος) reign ends and Isaac2 Angelos (Ἰσαάκιος Ἄγγελος) second) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsIsaac2 was restored to the throne by the Fourth Crusade (alongside his son Alexios4). Alexios3 uninstalled in captivity in the Empire of Nicaea
1Aug1203Roman emperor Alexios4 Angelos (Ἀλέξιος Ἄγγελος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsRaised to the throne by the Fourth Crusade alongside his father Isaac2
1204Constantinople falls.(2019) YT: FOL - ByzantinesIt gets back up again.
27Jan1204Roman emperor Alexios4 Angelos (Ἀλέξιος Ἄγγελος) reign & Isaac2 Angelos (Ἰσαάκιος Ἄγγελος) second) reign ends, and Alexios5 Doukas (Ἀλέξιος Δούκας ὁ Μούρτζουφλος) reign begins on 5 February.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSon-in-law of Alexios3, Alexios5 led a coup in the Imperial Palace, uninstalling the other 2.
13Apr1204Roman emperor Alexios5 Doukas (Ἀλέξιος Δούκας ὁ Μούρτζουφλος) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsCaptured by crusaders of the newly founded Latin Empire and publicly uninstalled
1204Chinese Emperor Duan Zhixiang reign begins and Duan Zhilian reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1204Rabbi Maimodenes uninstalls.MIT: AllanC - Maimonides
1204Sacking of Constantinople by the Latin Crusaders and Nicean Emperor Theodore1 Laskaris reign begins.Wiki: NicaeaThe Eastern Roman Empire, the remnant of the ancient Roman Empire which ruled most of the Greek-speaking world for over 1100 years, had been fatally weakened since this.
1205Roman emperor Theodore1 Laskaris (Θεόδωρος Λάσκαρις) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsHis brother Constantine Laskaris was elected emperor by the citizens of Constantinople on the day the city fell to the Crusaders; he later fled to Nicaea, where Theodore organized the Greek resistance to the Latins. Proclaimed emperor after Constantine's uninstall in 1205, Theodore was crowned only in 1208.
1206Güyük Khan installs(2019) YT: VOTP - GüyükThird Great Khan (leader) of the Mongol Empire.
1206Temujin completes subduing or uniting the other Mongol and is renamed "Ghengis Khan", the 'actual' universal ruler.(2019) YT: FH - MongolsGhengis Khan mobilizes the Mongol and turns border raids into swarms.
1206李純佑 [Lǐ Chúnyòu] reign ends and 李安全 [Lǐ Ānquán] reign begins, and Genghis Khan reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1208Emperor 章宗 [Zhāngzōng] of Jin reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1209Cambridge University founded in the city bridging the river Cam(Reference Missing)
1209Emperor 紹王 [King Prince Shào] of Jin reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
21Oct1209Otto4 was crowned HREmperor by Pope Innocent3 in Rome, Italy and was crowned HREmperor 17 days later.Wiki: HRE
1210Japanese Emperor Tsuchimikado (土御門天皇) [Tamehito) reign ends and Juntoku (順徳天皇) [Morihira/Morinari) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1211Ghengis Khan completes rading the Western Shah to the south of Mongolia, makes the emperor a vassal, and turns sights on the Jin dynasty.(2019) YT: FH - MongolsThe Jin had long treated the Mongol as vassals, so when they returned, the Mongol went full Bugs Life on them. Ghengis spit on the ground and rode his horse away from negotiations, as a declaration of war. As war proceeded, messengers who were supposed to negotiate instead became traitors, leading to numerous swift victories. The Mongol quickly learned siege warfare and gunfare from their Jin prisoners.
1211Chinese Emperor 耶律直魯古 [Yēlǜ Zhílǔgǔ] reign ends and 李遵頊 [Lǐ Zūnxū] reign begins and 李安全 [Lǐ Ānquán] reign ends and 屈出律 [Qūchūlǜ] reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
5Dec1212Stupor Mundi Frederick2 HRE reign begins.Wiki: HREFrederick2 was son of Henry6. King of Germany, Italy, Sicily, Jerusalem
1213Emperor 紹王 [King Prince Shào] of Jin reign ends and 宣宗 [Xuānzōng] of Jin reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1214Ghengis Khan's Mongol besiege and defeat Beijing, forcing the Jin to pay tribute instead of receive it.(2019) YT: FH - MongolsGhengis heads home, and one of his generals takes the Liaodong empire as well.
1215Lateran Council called by Pope Innocent3.Wiki: Expulsion Jews SpainThis council agreed to harsh anti-Jewish measures, reflecting the intensification of Christian anti-Judaism in medieval Europe in the 1100s and 1200s.
22Nov1215Otto4 HRE reign ends the Welf dynasty.Wiki: HRE
16Jul1216Pope Innocent3 (INNOCENTIVS Tertius) (Lotario dei Conti di Segni) papacy ends and Pope Honorius3 (HONORIVS (Tertius) (Cencio Savelli) (Italian) papacy begins 2 days later.Wiki: List of PopesInitiated the Fifth Crusade. Approved several religious and tertiary orders.
1216Pope Innocent3 uninstalls(2020) YT: Shad - Medieval Education
2Jun1216Rex Anglie (King of the English) Louis the Lion reign begins and John Lackland reign ends 139 days later, and Henry3 of Winchester reign begins 9 days after that.Wiki: English monarchsLouis Married to Blanche of Castile Port-Mort 23 May 1200 13 children. Right of conquest Offered by the Barons. Henry3 House of Plantagenet. Married to Eleanor of Provence Canterbury Cathedral 14 January 1236 5 children. Son of John,
20Sep1217Rex Anglie (King of the English) Louis the Lion reign endsWiki: English monarchs
1218Ghengis Khan sent an envoy to the Horasmin empire in Persia. While the envoy promised trade and diplomacy, the Shah Ala Ad-Din Muhammad2 mass-uninstalled all 450 envoys instead of "negotiating with barbarians."(2019) YT: FH - MongolsGhengis Khan invaded the Horasmin empire in a rage over this.
1218Chinese Emperor 屈出律 [Qūchūlǜ] reign ends the 西遼 (Western Liao) dynasty.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1220Shah Ala Ad-Din Muhammad2 (Horasmin) uninstalls from illness while fleeing the Mongol micropowers.(2019) YT: FH - MongolsHis son rallies 30k troops, defeats a rookie Mongol general, and became famous by making the Mongol seem not invincible. Taking Horasmin had caused his empire to fall into civil wars. Ghengis Khan had 2 generals push on to the Caucasus mountains, while others quelled rebellions.
1220Stupor Mundi Frederick2 was crowned HREmperor by Pope Honorius3 in Rome, Italy and Staufen dynasty begins.Wiki: HRE
15Dec1221Roman emperor Theodore1 Laskaris (Θεόδωρος Λάσκαρις) reign ends in November, and John3 Doukas Vatatzes (Ἰωάννης Δούκας Βατάτζης) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsJohn3 was son-in-law of Theodore1
1221Japanese Emperor Juntoku (順徳天皇) [Morihira/Morinari) reign ends, Emperor Chūkyō (仲恭天皇) [Kanehira/Kanenari) reign occurs, and Go-Horikawa (後堀河天皇) [Yutahito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1222Comet that may have inspired Ghengis Khan later determined to be Halley's Comet.Wiki: Halley's Comet
1222Nicean Emperor Theodore1 Laskaris reign ends and Nicean Emperor John3 Ducas Vatatzes reign begins.Wiki: Nicaea
1223Chinese Emperor 李遵頊 [Lǐ Zūnxū] reign ends and 李德旺 [Lǐ Déwàng] reign begins and 宣宗 [Xuānzōng] of Jin reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1224Emperor 理宗 [Lizong] of Song reign begins and 寧宗 [Ningzong] of Song reign ends and 哀宗 [Āizōng] of Jin reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1225Roman alphabet introduced to Sweden.(2020) YT: Langfocus - SwedishThis marks the beginning of the Old Swedish peroid.
1225Mayan king Bahlam Kitze (Q'umarkaj) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
1226Chinese Emperor 李晛 [Lǐ Xiàn] reign begins and 李德旺 [Lǐ Déwàng] reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
18Mar1227Pope Honorius3 (HONORIVS (Tertius) (Cencio Savelli) papacy ends and Pope Gregory9 (GREGORIVS Nonus) (Ugolino dei Conti di Segni, O.F.S) (Italian) papacy begins 1 day later.Wiki: List of PopesInitiated the inquisition in France and endorsed the Northern Crusades.
1227Ghengis Khan, on campaign against the rebelling Jin dynasty, falls off his horse, and soon uninstalls at 65.(2019) YT: FH - MongolsThe empire was split into 3, with the 3 eldest sons Jokei('s son Battu), Chagatai, and Tolu each getting a Khanate, and the youngest Ogadai being the supreme Khan over the empire.
1227Chinese Western Xia (西夏) reign ends and Genghis Khan reign ends and 李晛 [Lǐ Xiàn] reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1228Chinese Emperor Tolui reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1229Ögedei Khan reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1230sInca king Manco Cápac1 reign ends and king Sinchi Roca reign beigns.VanDiverInca: Inca Empire
1232Ogadai Khan's Mongol retake Jin dynasty as tributaries, and took the new Jin dynasty's capital "KaiFang".(2019) YT: FH - Mongols
1232Japanese Emperor Go-Horikawa (後堀河天皇) [Yutahito) reign ends and Shijō (四条天皇) [Mitsuhito/Toshihito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1234哀宗 [Āizōng] of Jin reign ends the 金朝 (Jin dynasty), and Mo of Jin reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1238Chinese Emperor Duan Zhixiang reign ends and Duan Xiangxing reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1241Battu Khan wins decisive victory against Hungary.(2019) YT: FH - MongolsThis spread the word of the military dominance of the Mongol.
1241?Ogadai Khan uninstalls with no clear heir, so all Khans have to return home to Karakoram have a "CurlTie" to decide who will succeed.(2019) YT: FH - MongolsBattu Khan had to abandon his crusade across Europe to go back home and vote. Ogadai's wife Teranga rules as regent.
22Aug1241Pope Gregory9 (GREGORIVS Nonus) (Ugolino dei Conti di Segni, O.F.S) papacy ends and Pope Celestine4 (COELESTINVS Quartus) (Goffredo Castiglioni) (Italian) papacy begins 64 days later.Wiki: List of PopesUninstalled before coronation.
10Nov1241Pope Celestine4 (COELESTINVS Quartus) (Goffredo Castiglioni) papacy ends.Wiki: List of Popes
1241Ögedei Khan reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1242Japanese Emperor Shijō (四条天皇) [Mitsuhito/Toshihito) reign ends and Go-Saga (後嵯峨天皇) [Kunihito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
25Jun1243Pope Innocent4 (INNOCENTIVS Quartus) (Sinibaldo Fieschi) (Italian) papacy begins.Wiki: List of Popes
1245Pope Innocent4 convened the First Council of Lyons.Wiki: List of Popes
1245Stupor Mundi Frederick2 is deposed by Pope Innocent4, starting the Second HRE Interregnum.Wiki: HRE
1246Japanese Emperor Go-Saga (後嵯峨天皇) [Kunihito) reign ends and Go-Fukakusa ((Go-Ninmyō) (後深草天皇) [Hisahito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1246Güyük Khan reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1246Güyük Khan writes letter to Pope Innocent4(2019) YT: VOTP - GüyükIt was an invitation to serve at the court of the Khan. Word of the glory and horrors of the Khanate had spread as far west as the Vatican, and the ears of the then Pope, Innocent4. Franciscan friar John Of Plano Carpini was dispatched with a letter from his holiness, calling on Güyük to act peacefully towards Christian lands and convert himself to Christianity.This was the great Khan's reply.
1248Güyük Khan reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1248Güyük Khan uninstalls(2019) YT: VOTP - Güyük
1250Mayan king Bahlam Kitze (Q'umarkaj) reign ends and K'ok'oja (Q'umarkaj) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
13Dec1250Stupor Mundi Frederick2 reign ends the Staufen dynasty.Wiki: HREFrederick was King of Germany and other lands, but hadn't been HREmperor for 5 years when he uninstalled. Following him, several rulers (Conrad4, Rudolf1, Adolf, Albert1, etc) were crowned King of the Romans (king of Germany) and merely cosplayed as HREmperor.
1251Möngke Khan reign begins and Duan Xingzhi reign begins and Duan Xiangxing reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1252Pope Innocent4 issued the bull Ad extirpanda.Wiki: List of PopesThis permitted the torture of heretics.
1253後大理 (Later Dali Kingdom) reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1254Pope Innocent4 uninstalls(2019) YT: VOTP - Güyük
7Dec1254Pope Innocent4 (INNOCENTIVS Quartus) (Sinibaldo Fieschi) papacy ends and Pope Alexander4 (ALEXANDER Quartus) (Rinaldo dei Conti di Jenne) (Italian) papacy begins 5 days later.Wiki: List of PopesEstablished an Inquisition in France.
3Nov1254Roman emperor John3 Doukas Vatatzes (Ἰωάννης Δούκας Βατάτζης) reign ends and Theodore2 Laskaris (Θεόδωρος Λάσκαρις) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsTheodore2 was son of John3
1254Chinese Emperor Duan Xingzhi reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1254Nicean Emperor John3 Ducas Vatatzes reign ends and Nicean Emperor Theodore2 Laskaris reign begins.Wiki: Nicaea
18Aug1258Roman emperor Theodore2 Laskaris (Θεόδωρος Λάσκαρις) reign ends and John4 Laskaris (Ἰωάννης Λάσκαρις) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsJohn4 was son of Theodore2, who uninstalled from Epilepsy
1258Nicean Emperor Theodore2 Laskaris reign ends and Nicean Emperor John4 Laskaris reign begins.Wiki: Nicaea
1259Mongol finally defeat the Goryeo after years of campaigns.(2019) YT: FH - Mongols
1Jan1259Roman emperor Michael8 Palaiologos (Μιχαὴλ Παλαιολόγος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSenior emperor and regent of John4 Laskaris, grandnephew of John3 by marriage and great-grandson of Alexios3
1259Möngke Khan reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1259Nicean Emperor Michael8 Palaeologus reign begins.Wiki: Nicaeaco-emperor, restored Byzantine Empire
1260sInca king Sinchi Roca reign ends and king Lloque Yupanqui reign beigns.VanDiverInca: Inca Empire
1260Roger Bacon (Franciscan monk) first writes about gunpowder.(2015) YT: PTA - Evol FirearmsGunpowder was merely a pyrotechnic novelty.
1260Kublai Khan reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1260Kublai Khan sends Polo brothers back to Venice to get oil and scholars.(2019) YT: OSP - Marco Polo
1260Japanese Emperor Go-Fukakusa ((Go-Ninmyō) (後深草天皇) [Hisahito) reign ends and Kameyama (亀山天皇) [Tsunehito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1261Nicean Emperor John4 Laskaris reign ends and Nicean Emperor Michael8 Palaeologus reign ends.Wiki: Nicaea
25May1261Pope Alexander4 (ALEXANDER Quartus) (Rinaldo dei Conti di Jenne) papacy ends and Pope Urban4 (VRBANVS Quartus) (Jacques Pantaléon) (French) papacy begins 96 days later.Wiki: List of PopesInstituted the feast of Corpus Christi (1264).
25Dec1261Roman emperor John4 Laskaris (Ἰωάννης Λάσκαρις) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsBlinded and imprisoned by successor in 1261, uninstalled in captivity
2Oct1264Pope Urban4 (VRBANVS Quartus) (Jacques Pantaléon) papacy ends and Pope Clement4 (CLEMENS (Quartus) (Gui Faucoi) (French) papacy begins 126 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
1264Emperor 理宗 [Lizong] of Song reign ends and 度宗 [Duzong] of Song reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1266Mongols have invaded China and head for Japan.(2016) YT: BW - history of japan
29Nov1268Pope Clement4 (CLEMENS (Quartus) (Gui Faucoi) papacy ends and First Papal Interregnum begins.Wiki: List of PopesAlmost three-year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
1269Polo brothers reach Venice and meet Marco Polo.(2019) YT: OSP - Marco Polo
1271Polo trio leaves Italy for Beijing (Khanbaliq).(2019) YT: OSP - Marco Polo
1Sep1271First Papal Interregnum ends.Wiki: List of Popes
1271元朝 (Yuan dynasty) reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsChinese convention: for rulers before Kublai Khan use given name (e.g. Temüjin) or Khan names, use "Yuan" + temple name or posthumous name after
16Nov1272Rex Anglie (King of the English) Henry3 of Winchester reign ends and Edward1 Longshanks reign begins 4 days later.Wiki: English monarchsMarried to (1) Eleanor of Castile Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas 18 October 1254 16 children(2) Margaret of France Canterbury 10 September 1299 3 children. Son of Henry3,
1273Rudolf1 is elected King of Germany.Wiki: HRETo many, this marks the end of the Second HRE Interregnum.
1274Mongols invade Japan, but uninstall in a tornado.(2016) YT: BW - history of japan
3Jun1274Pope Bl. Gregory10 (GREGORIVS Decimus) (Tebaldo Visconti, O.F.S) (Italian) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesConvened the Second Council of Lyons (1274). Responsible for regulation all papal conclaves until the 20th century.
1274Japanese Emperor Kameyama (亀山天皇) [Tsunehito) reign ends and Go-Uda (後宇多天皇) [Yohito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1274Emperor 度宗 [Duzong] of Song reign ends and Gong of Song reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1275Marco Polo reaches Beijing (Khanbaliq).(2019) YT: OSP - Marco Polo
1275Mayan king E Tz'ikin (Q'umarkaj) reign begins and K'ok'oja (Q'umarkaj) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
10Jan1276Pope Bl. Gregory10 (GREGORIVS Decimus) (Tebaldo Visconti, O.F.S) papacy ends and Pope Bl. Innocent5 (INNOCENTIVS Quintus) (Pierre de Tarentaise, O.P) (French) papacy begins 11 day later.Wiki: List of PopesMember of the Dominican Order.
22Jun1276Pope Bl. Innocent5 (INNOCENTIVS Quintus) (Pierre de Tarentaise, O.P) papacy ends and Pope Adrian5 (HADRIANVS Quintus) (Ottobuono Fieschi) (Italian) papacy begins 19 days later.Wiki: List of PopesAnnulled Gregory10's papal bull on the regulations of papal conclaves.
18Aug1276Pope Adrian5 (HADRIANVS Quintus) (Ottobuono Fieschi) papacy ends and Pope John21 (IOANNES Vicesimus Primus) (Pedro Julião (a.k.a. Petrus Hispanus and Pedro Hispano)) (Portuguese) papacy begins 21 day later.Wiki: List of PopesDue to a confusion over the numbering of popes named John in the 13th century, the ordinal "20" was skipped.
1276Emperor 端宗 [Duanzong] of Song reign begins and Gong of Song reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
20May1277Pope John21 (IOANNES Vicesimus Primus) (Pedro Julião (a.k.a. Petrus Hispanus and Pedro Hispano)) papacy ends and Pope Nicholas3 (NICOLAVS (Tertius) (Giovanni Gaetano Orsini) (Italian) papacy begins 189 days later.Wiki: List of PopesPlanned the Sicilian Vespers.
1278Emperor 端宗 [Duanzong] of Song reign ends and 宋帝昺 [Sòng Dì Bǐng] reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1279Emperor 宋帝昺 [Sòng Dì Bǐng] reign ends the 宋朝 (Song dynasty).Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1294Kublai Khan reign ends and Temür Khan reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsTimur and Temür are the same Mongolian word, but Temür avoids confusion with Timur the lame (Tamerlane).
1287Japanese Emperor Go-Uda (後宇多天皇) [Yohito) reign ends and Fushimi (伏見天皇) [Hirohito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
22Aug1280Pope Nicholas3 (NICOLAVS (Tertius) (Giovanni Gaetano Orsini) papacy ends and Pope Martin4 (MARTINVS Quartus) (Simon de Brion) (French) papacy begins 184 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
1281Mongols invade Japan, but uninstall in a tornado, again.(2016) YT: BW - history of japan
11Dec1282Roman emperor Michael8 Palaiologos (Μιχαὴλ Παλαιολόγος) reign ends and Andronikos2 Palaiologos (Ἀνδρόνικος Παλαιολόγος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsAndronikos2 was son of Michael8
1283Edward1 (England) (House York) conquers Wales, makes his son the first prince(2017) YT: FOL - History of England
28Mar1285Pope Martin4 (MARTINVS Quartus) (Simon de Brion) papacy ends and Pope Honorius4 (HONORIVS Quartus) (Giacomo Savelli) (Italian) papacy begins 5 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
1286King of Scotland uninstalls without a clear heir, and instead of the 13 cousins starting a civil war, they ask Edward1 (England) to mediate the succession.(2019) YT: OSP - ScotlandEdward put the most-controllable cousin on the throne, and when the cousin got tired of paying tribute and "licking heel", Edward1 took control of the Scottish throne himself.
3Apr1287Pope Honorius4 (HONORIVS Quartus) (Giacomo Savelli) papacy ends and Pope Nicholas4 (NICOLAVS Quartus) (Girolamo Masci, O.F.M) (Italian) papacy begins 325 days later.Wiki: List of Popes
1288Poland holds off Mongols from invading Europe(2017) YT: PI - History of Poland
1290sInca king Lloque Yupanqui reign ends and king Mayta Cápac reign beigns.VanDiverInca: Inca Empire
4Apr1292Pope Nicholas4 (NICOLAVS Quartus) (Girolamo Masci, O.F.M) papacy ends and Second Papal Interregnum begins.Wiki: List of PopesTwo-year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
1293Kingdom of Majapahit begins.(2019) YT: EH - Majapahit
5Jul1294Second Papal Interregnum ends and Pope St Celestine5 (COELESTINVS Quintus) (Pietro Angelerio, O.S.B) (Italian) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesOne of the few popes who abdicated voluntarily. Founded the Celestines. Resigned from office and rumored to have been uninstalled in prison by Boniface8.
13Dec1294Pope St Celestine5 (COELESTINVS Quintus) (Pietro Angelerio, O.S.B) papacy ends and Pope Boniface8 (BONIFATIVS Octavus) (Benedetto Caetani) (Italian) papacy begins 11 day later.Wiki: List of PopesFormalized the Jubilee in 1300. Issued Unam Sanctam (1302) which proclaimed papal supremacy and pushing it to its historical extreme.
1295Marco Polo leaves Beijing (Khanbaliq) for Italy.(2019) YT: OSP - Marco Polo
1295Roman emperor Michael9 Palaiologos (Μιχαήλ Παλαιολόγος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSon of Andronikos2,) reigned alongside him as co-emperor with full imperial style
1297Denis (Portugal) and Ferdinand4 (Castille) sign the Treaty of Alcanices sets the border of Portugal.(2020) YT: GN - Portugal
1297William Wallace leads the Scottish Rebellion to a victory over the English at the Battle of Stirling Bridge.(2019) YT: OSP - Scotland
1297?Marco Polo is in jail during a trade war with Siciliy(?), telling tales of his journeys to a fan fiction writer who's also in jail, and who embelleshes the tale even further.(2019) YT: OSP - Marco Polo
1298William Wallace leads the Scottish Rebellion to a bad loss to the English at Falkirk.(2019) YT: OSP - Scotland
1298Japanese Emperor Fushimi (伏見天皇) [Hirohito) reign ends and Go-Fushimi (後伏見天皇) [Tanehito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1299Sultan Osman1 ĠĀZĪ (the Warrior) reign begins the Rise of the Ottoman EmpireWiki: List of Ottoman sultansSon of Ertuğrul Bey and an unknown woman.
1300Jews who lived under the Muslim caliphates of Al-Andalus were tolerated.Wiki: Expulsion Jews SpainThe good times of Spain of the three religions had coincided with a phase of territorial, demographic, and economic expansion, in which Jews and Christians did not compete in the labor market: both the former and the latter had contributed to the general prosperity and shared their benefits.
1300Travels of Marco Polo published.(2019) YT: OSP - Marco Polo
1300Pope Boniface8 declares a Jubilee Year (Leviticus), and painted lane lines to separate traffic between foot and cart traffic.(2020) YT: THG - Lane Markings
1300Mayan king E Tz'ikin (Q'umarkaj) reign ends and Ajkan (Q'umarkaj) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
1300sHur'q invasion of Klingon homeworld Qo'nos.(2015) YT: Trekspertise - Borg HistoryStar Trek
1300sOcampa devistated by the highly-powerful Nacene.(2015) YT: Trekspertise - Borg HistoryStar Trek - Ocampa were a very short-lived race (Kes) and the Nacene were incredibly powerful (Caretaker).
1300sKingdom of Srivijaya ends.(2019) YT: EH - Majapahit
1300sThe period of relative tolerance of Spaniards towards the Jews ended, passing into a phase of increasing conflict.Wiki: Expulsion Jews Spain
1300sDaisugi technique developed in Kitayama region, Japan.(2021) Imgur: KitayamaThis was the solution to a seedling shortage - instead of harvesting a tree, prune it like a giant bonsai, so it produces a 2nd layer of trees. Prune those to be straight trees, and harvest when ready.
1300sTea ceremonies become popular in Japan.Wiki: DaisugiDaisugi logs were used in the construction of tea rooms and tokonoma alcoves (art appreciation pantries). The Kitayama region of Kyoto became especially known for its daisugi forests.
1301Comet may have been seen by Giotto di Bondone later determined to be Halley's Comet.Wiki: Halley's Comet
1301Japanese Emperor Go-Fushimi (後伏見天皇) [Tanehito) reign ends and Go-Nijō (後二条天皇) [Kuniharu) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
11Oct1303Pope Boniface8 (BONIFATIVS Octavus) (Benedetto Caetani) papacy ends and Pope Bl. Benedict11 (BENEDICTVS Undecimus) (Niccolò Boccasini, O.P) (Italian) papacy begins 11 day later.Wiki: List of PopesMotto: Illustra faciem Tuam super servum Tuum (Let Your Face shine upon Your servant) Member of the Dominican Order. Reverted Boniface8's Unam Sanctam."
1304William Wallace uninstalled by English, quartered, and displayed around Scotland.(2019) YT: OSP - Scotland
7Jul1304Pope Bl. Benedict11 (BENEDICTVS Undecimus) (Niccolò Boccasini, O.P) papacy ends and Pope Clement5 (CLEMENS Quintus) (Raymond Bertrand de Gouth) (French) papacy begins 333 days later.Wiki: List of PopesPope at Avignon. Convened the Council of Vienne (1311–1312). Initiated the persecution of the Knights Templar with the bull Pastoralis Praeeminentiae under pressure from King Philip4 of France.
1305Robert the Bruce becomes Guardian of Scotland.(2019) YT: OSP - Scotland
1300sMexica [ma-hee-ka] micropower moves to Tenochtitlan(2018) YT: OSP - QuetzalcoatlAnother entry said they were dropped off here by a foreign micropower leader. Who was it? Timing says maybe Abukari2, but DNA says otherwise?
1306Robert the Bruce (Scotland) loses a battle to Edward(#?)(England)(2019) YT: OSP - Scotland
1307Robert the Bruce (Scotland) wins the battle of Loudon Hill(2019) YT: OSP - Scotland
7Jul1307Rex Anglie (King of the English) Edward1 Longshanks reign ends and Edward2 of Caernarfon reign begins 1 day later.Wiki: English monarchsMarried to Isabella of France Boulogne Cathedral 24 January 1308 4 children. Son of Edward1,
1308Dante's Inferno published.(2019) YT: OSP - Marco Polo
1308Japanese Emperor Go-Nijō (後二条天皇) [Kuniharu) reign ends and Hanazono (花園天皇) [Tomihito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1308Temür Khan reign ends and Külüg Khan reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
27Nov1308Henry7 HRE reign begins.Wiki: HREHenry7, great x11 grandson of Charles2. King of Germany, Italy, Count of Luxemburg
1311Külüg Khan reign ends and Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1312Abukari2's great fleet sails from Mali to the west.(2018) YT: EH - Mansa MusaHe was trying to sail around the world.
29Jun1312Henry7 was crowned HREmperor by Ghibellines cardinals in Rome, Italy and House of Luxembourg begins.Wiki: HRE(Another entry on the same page says Henry7 was crowned by Pope Clement5.)
1313When Abukari2's great fleet didn't return, his regent takes the throne as Musa Keita1.(2018) YT: EH - Mansa MusaHistory remembers him as Mansa Musa.
24Aug1313Henry7 reign ends and House of Luxembourg ends.Wiki: HRE
20Apr1314Pope Clement5 (CLEMENS Quintus) (Raymond Bertrand de Gouth) papacy ends and Third Papal Interregnum begins.Wiki: List of PopesTwo-year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
1314Robert the Bruce (Scotland) uninstalls. Succession again in question, Scotland again descends to civil war.(2019) YT: OSP - ScotlandEngland leaves Scotland to fight itself, and joins the 100yrs Waron the Continent.
1314Robert the Bruce (Scotland) unites Scotland against the English to win the Battle of Bannockburn.(2019) YT: OSP - Scotland
20Oct1314Louis4, the Bavarian reign begins the House of Wittelsbach.Wiki: HRELouis4, the Bavarian, far descendant of Henry4 and great-great-great-great-grandson of Lothair2. King of Germany, Italy, Duke of Bavaria
1316The 100yrs War begins.(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
7Aug1316Third Papal Interregnum ends and Pope John22 (IOANNES Vicesimus Secundus) (Jacques d'Euse/Duèse) (French) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesPope at Avignon. Controversial for his views on the Beatific Vision. Opposed the Franciscan understanding of the poverty of Christ and his apostles, famously leading William of Ockham to write against unlimited papal power
1316Edward3 (England) is the cousin of the previous kings, but the French nobility reject him for another cousin, Philip2/6 (France)(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
1316Edward3 (England) accepted Philip2/6 (France) as king of France because England throne had held French territory since 1066(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
1316England had once held many French lands, but now only had Gascony(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
1318Japanese Emperor Hanazono (花園天皇) [Tomihito) reign ends and Go-Daigo (後醍醐天皇) [Takaharu) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of JapanAfter the Northern Court separated in 1331, he held the Southern Court
12Oct1320Roman emperor Michael9 Palaiologos (Μιχαήλ Παλαιολόγος) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperors
1320sBubonic Plague carried by rats and fleas.Imgur: gIY2hKH (link 404s)
1320sInca king Mayta Cápac reign ends and king Cápac Yupanqui reign beigns.VanDiverInca: Inca Empire
1321The first wave of violence against the Jews on the Iberian Peninsula occurred in the Kingdom of Navarre.Wiki: Expulsion Jews SpainThis was a consequence of the arrival of the Shepherds' Crusade across the Pyrenées.
1321Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan reign ends and Gegeen Khan reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1323Gegeen Khan reign ends and Yesün Temür reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1324Musa Keita1 embarks on the most extravagantHajj of all time.(2018) YT: EH - Mansa MusaHe wanted to put Mali on the map, and show of the epic wealth of the country. One account claims his micropower retinue inclued more than 60k people, with 500 heralds carrying gold staffs, and 12k of these were servile. 600 camels, each with 300 lbs of gold dust. (1oz = $1783.91, 90 tons = 2021 equivalent $5,137,660,800). His wife, with her personal 500 servile retinue. And they packed provisions for the entire trip, an army of pack animals. Musa gave handfuls of gold dust to beggars, built a mosque every Friday on the trip (every 10 miles?), and spending months overpaying for everything he could. He spent so much that the value of gold wouldn't recover for over a decade. He cauesd a financial crisis by buying souviniers. Legend of his spending lasted for centuries in Cairo and eventually got to Europe.
1325Mali's armies take Timbuktu and Gow while Musa Keita1 was on Hajj.(2018) YT: EH - Mansa Musa
1325Mayan king Ajkan (Q'umarkaj) reign ends and K'okaib' (Q'umarkaj) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
1326Musa Keita1 returns from Mecca.(2018) YT: EH - Mansa MusaThe return trip revealed that the original trip was as much an advertisement for talent as much as a display of wealth. He hired countless architects and engineers into his micropower, and brought them to Timbuktu, building numerous buildings when the micropower dispersed back into Mali, including the Djinguereber Mosque, which still stands today. They built some stuff in Gow too. This caused a huge influx of culture and knowledge, along with trade, becoming the sub-Saharan Islamic center.
1326Walter the Milimeter (England) writes about the first milimeter cannon.(2015) YT: PTA - Evol FirearmsOther writings discuss gun and shot as though they're common.
1326Sultan Osman1 ĠĀZĪ (the Warrior) reign ends and Orhan ĠĀZĪ (the Warrior) reign begins.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultansSon of Osman1 and Malhun Hatun.
20Jan1327Rex Anglie (King of the English) Edward2 of Caernarfon reign ends and Edward3 reign begins 5 days later.Wiki: English monarchsMarried to Philippa of Hainault York Minster 25 January 1328 14 children. Son of Edward2,
24May1328Roman emperor Andronikos2 Palaiologos (Ἀνδρόνικος Παλαιολόγος) reign ends and Andronikos3 Palaiologos (Ἀνδρόνικος Παλαιολόγος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSon of Michael9, Andronikos3 was named co-emperor in 1316 and rival emperor since 1321. Deposed his grandfather Andronikos2 in 1328 and) reigned as sole emperor
12May1328Antipope Nicholas5 (NICOLAVS Quintus) (Pietro Rainalducci O.F.M) (Italian) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesIn opposition to John22.
13283 potential heirs had uninstalled (Philip4&5, Louis10, Charles4 - but that's 4), leaving only Isabella, paving the way for her son Edward3 (England) to take the English? throne(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
1328Chinese Yesün Temür reign ends and Ragibagh Khan and Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür reigns begin.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
17Jan1328Louis4 was crowned HREmperor by Senator Sciarra Colonna in Rome, ItalyWiki: HRE
1329Chinese Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür reign occurs and and Khutughtu Khan Kusala reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
25Jul1330Antipope Nicholas5 (NICOLAVS Quintus) (Pietro Rainalducci O.F.M) papacy endsWiki: List of Popes
1330sEnglish nobles felt threatened when the France-Scotland alliance allowed Philip2/6 (France) to offer refuge to David (Scotland)(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
1330sFrench angered when Edward3 (England) gave refuge to Robert of Artois (French throne claimant, mortal enemy of France O_o)(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
1331Japanese Emperor Kōgon (光厳天皇) [Kazuhito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of JapanBegins the Northern Court by separating from Emperor Go-Daigo (後醍醐天皇) [Takaharu).
1332Chinese Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür reign ends and Rinchinbal Khan reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1333Japan's emperor overthrows their Shogunate, taking power.(2016) YT: BW - history of japan
1333Japanese Emperor Kōgon (光厳天皇) [Kazuhito) reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1333Kamakura period ends and the Muromachi & Azuchi–Momoyama period begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1333Chinese Toghon Temür reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsChinese convention: for this sovereign only, use "Yuan" + posthumous name.
4Dec1334Pope John22 (IOANNES Vicesimus Secundus) (Jacques d'Euse/Duèse) papacy ends and Pope Benedict12 (BENEDICTVS Duodecimus) (Jacques Fournier, O.Cist) (French) papacy begins 16 days later.Wiki: List of PopesPope at Avignon. Member of the Order of Cistercians. Known for issuing the Apostolic constitution Benedictus Deus (1336). A careful pope who reformed monastic orders and opposed nepotism.
1336Japan's Shogunate overthrows their emperor, taking power back.(2016) YT: BW - history of japanShogun moves to Kyoto, where the emperor was, and creates the Ashikaga Shogunate.
1336Japanese Emperor Kōmyō (光明天皇) [Yutahito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of JapanNorthern Court
1337Philip2/6 (France) revokes Edward3's ownership of Gascony(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
1339Japanese Emperor Go-Daigo (後醍醐天皇) [Takaharu) reign ends and Go-Murakami (後村上天皇) [Norinaga/Noriyoshi) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of JapanSouthern Court
1340Edward3 (England) retakes France's throne, makes alliances that lead to retaking the Channel at the battle of Glois(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
1341John of Monfort (heir to Britain) gains English backing over Charles of Glois (France), in the War of British Succession(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
15Jun1341Roman emperor Andronikos3 Palaiologos (Ἀνδρόνικος Παλαιολόγος) reign ends and John5 Palaiologos (Ἰωάννης Παλαιολόγος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsJohn5 was son of Andronikos3, who may have had chronic malaria
25Apr1342Pope Benedict12 (BENEDICTVS Duodecimus) (Jacques Fournier, O.Cist) papacy ends and Pope Clement6 (CLEMENS Sextus) (Pierre Roger, O.S.B) (French) papacy begins 12 days later.Wiki: List of PopesPope at Avignon. Reigned during the Black Death and absolved those who uninstalled of it of their sins.
1346Battle of Crecy(2017) YT: FOL - History of England
1346Edward3 (England) raised a large army and invaded Normandy, devastating the French(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
11Jul1346Charles4 reign begins the House of Luxembourg.Wiki: HRECharles4, grandson of Henry6I. King of Germany, Italy, Bohemia, Burgundy, Count of Luxemburg, King of the Lombards
1347Black Death starts(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
8Feb1347Roman emperor John6 Kantakouzenos (Ἰωάννης Καντακουζηνός) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsMaternal relative of the Palaiologi, declared co-emperor by John5 in 1341 and recognized as senior emperor in 1347 following a civil war. Appointed his son Matthew as co-emperor in 1353
11Oct1347Louis4, the Bavarian reign ends and House of Wittelsbach ends.Wiki: HRE
1348The impact of the Black Death provoked assaults on the Jewish quarters (juderías) of several places, especially Barcelona and other places in the Principality of Catalonia.Wiki: Expulsion Jews SpainIn the Crown of Castile, anti-Jewish violence was closely related to the civil war during the reign of Pedro1, in which the side that supported Enrique de Trastámara (later King Henry2 of Castile) used anti-Judaism as a propaganda weapon, and the pretender accused his stepbrother, Peter of Castile, of favoring the Jews.
1348Japanese Emperor Kōmyō (光明天皇) [Yutahito) reign ends and Sukō (崇光天皇) [Okihito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of JapanNorthern Court
1349Despot Manuel Kantakouzenos reign begins.Wiki: Morea DespotatoHouse of Kantakouzenos. Son of Emperor John6 Kantakouzenos
1350Philip2/6 (France) uninstalls, succeded by John2 (France)(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
1350Black Death ends(?)(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
1350Mayan king K'okaib' (Q'umarkaj) reign ends and K'onache (Q'umarkaj) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
1350sInca king Cápac Yupanqui reign ends the Hurín dynasty, and king Inca Roca's reign beigns the Hanán dynasty.VanDiverInca: Inca Empire
1351Japanese Emperor Sukō (崇光天皇) [Okihito) reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1352Japanese Emperor Go-Kōgon (後光厳天皇) [Iyahito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of JapanNorthern Court
6Dec1352Pope Clement6 (CLEMENS Sextus) (Pierre Roger, O.S.B) papacy ends and Pope Innocent6 (INNOCENTIVS Sextus) (Étienne Aubert) (French) papacy begins 12 days later.Wiki: List of PopesPope at Avignon. Through his exertions the Treaty of Brétigny (1360) was brought about.
1353Roman emperor Matthew Kantakouzenos (Ματθαίος Ασάνης Καντακουζηνός) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsJohn6 appointed co-emperor in 1353
4Dec1354Roman emperor John6 Kantakouzenos (Ἰωάννης Καντακουζηνός) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsDeposed and uninstalled in exile as a monk in the Peloponnese
1355The uninstall-desiring supporters of Enrique de Trastámara carried out the first mass-uninstall of Jews, in Toledo, when they entered the city.Wiki: Expulsion Jews Spain
5Apr1355Charles4 was crowned HREmperor by Pope Innocent6's cardinal in Rome, ItalyWiki: HRE
1356Black Prince (England), son of Edward3 (England), crushed at battle of Poitiers, captures John2 (France), France becomes (Lucy) lawless. England fail to use this event to take Reims(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
1357Roman emperor Matthew Kantakouzenos (Ματθαίος Ασάνης Καντακουζηνός) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsMatthew was defeated in 1357 and later served as the governor of the Morea until his uninstall on the same day as his father
1360Treaty of Brittany signed, expanding England's holdings in France(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
1360sDe Monforts (England) were in Brittany. Charles2 (Navarre) tries and fails to claim Burgundy(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
1360s(?)John2 (France) uninstalls in English prison, succeeded by Charles5 (France)(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
1360s(?)Civil War in Castille(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
1360s(?)Charles5 (France) supported throne claimant Henry of Trastimara, while the Black Prince (England) supported Peter of Castille(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
1360s(?)The Black Prince (England) taxed Gascony too hard in paying for this, causing Charles5 (France) to recall him(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
12Sep1362Pope Innocent6 (INNOCENTIVS Sextus) (Étienne Aubert) papacy ends and Pope Bl. Urban5 (VRBANVS Quintus) (Guillaume (de) Grimoard, O.S.B) (French) papacy begins 16 days later.Wiki: List of PopesPope at Avignon. Reformed areas of education and sent missionary movements across Europe and Asia. His pontificate witnessed the Alexandrian and Savoyard crusades.
1362Sultan Orhan ĠĀZĪ (the Warrior) reign ends and Murad1 SULTÂN-I ÂZAM (the Most Exalted Sultan) HÜDAVENDİGÂR (the Devotee of God) ŞEHÎD (the Martyr) reign begins.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultansSon of Orhan and Nilüfer Hatun. Uninstalled on the battlefield at the Battle of Kosovo on June 15, 1389.
1366The uninstall-desiring supporters of Enrique de Trastámara carried out another mass-uninstall of Jews, in Briviesca, when they occupied the city.Wiki: Expulsion Jews Spain
1366In Burgos, Jews who could not pay the large tribute imposed on them were enslaved and sold.Wiki: Expulsion Jews Spain
1367In Valladolid, Jews were assaulted to the shout of "Long live King Henry!".Wiki: Expulsion Jews SpainThere were no uninstalls, but the synagogues were burned down.
1368Japanese Emperor Go-Murakami (後村上天皇) [Norinaga/Noriyoshi) reign ends and Chōkei (長慶天皇) [Yutanari) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of JapanSouthern Court
1368Chinese Emperor Hóngwǔ reign begins the 明朝 (Ming dynasty), pushing the 元朝 (Yuan dynasty) to become Northern Yuan (北元) dynasty.Wiki: Chinese monarchsRetreat of Yuan emperor Toghon Temür and his court to the Mongolian Plateau after being overthrown by the Ming dynasty in China proper.
1369English ownership of Gascony revoked again(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs WarThe peasants were revolting over this.
1369Henry of Trastimara gains Castille(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
1370Casimir the Great (Poland) uninstalls, succeeded by Lewis (Hungary)(2017) YT: PI - History of PolandThe Jewish refugee micropower moved into Europe as traders, stopping in Poland as the first stop on the trade routes, but eventually spreading into every European country. Almost everywhere else, they were "uninstalled en masse", crusaded against, and expelled. Polish monarchs, in reaction to recently losing territory to the Teutonic Order in the north and HRE in the west, goto the local Counts of Pomerania and Silesia. They work to politically outmaneuver the HREmperors. This leads to a time of prosperity in Poland, which attracted the Jewish micropower back to Poland.
19Dec1370Pope Bl. Urban5 (VRBANVS Quintus) (Guillaume (de) Grimoard, O.S.B) papacy ends and Pope Gregory11 (GREGORIVS Undecimus) (Pierre Roger de Beaufort) (French) papacy begins 11 day later.Wiki: List of PopesPope at Avignon; returns to Rome. The last French pope.
1370Chinese Toghon Temür reign ends and Biligtü Khan Ayushiridara reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1371Japanese Emperor Go-Kōgon (後光厳天皇) [Iyahito) reign ends and Go-En'yū (後円融天皇) [Ohito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of JapanNorthern Court
1373Portugal starts trade relations with England with the Anglo-Portugese Treaty(2020) YT: GN - PortugalPortugese sold tea to England, and the England sold cod to the Portugese
late 1300sApproximate Borg beginning date.(2015) YT: Trekspertise - Borg HistoryStar Trek
1375Mali was included on maps made by European cartographers.(2018) YT: EH - Mansa MusaThis has been attributed to the legends of Musa Keita1's incredible spending, as the country was represented by him inspecting a gold nugget.
1375Mayan king K'onache (Q'umarkaj) reign ends and K'otuja (Q'umarkaj) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
12Aug1376Roman emperor John5 Palaiologos (Ἰωάννης Παλαιολόγος) reign ends and Andronikos4 Palaiologos (Ἀνδρόνικος Παλαιολόγος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsAndronikos4 was co-emperor since 1352, and deposed his father John5 here.
1377Edward3 (England, House York) uninstalls, Richard2 (England, House York) succeeds but deposed.(2017) YT: FOL - History of England
1377Black Prince and Edward3 (England) both uninstall, Richard2 takes throne as infant(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
21Jun1377Rex Anglie (King of the English) Edward3 reign ends and Richard2 reign begins 1 day later.Wiki: English monarchsMarried to (1) Anne of Bohemia 14 January 1382(2) Isabella of Valois Calais 4 November 1396. Grandson of Edward3,
1378Annales Mediolanenses and East Asian resources record a comet later determined to be Halley's Comet.Wiki: Halley's Comet
27Mar1378Pope Gregory11 (GREGORIVS Undecimus) (Pierre Roger de Beaufort) papacy ends and Pope Urban6 (VRBANVS Sextus) (Bartolomeo Prignano) (Italian) papacy begins 12 days later.Wiki: List of PopesWestern Schism. Last pontiff to be elected outside the College of Cardinals.
1378Ferrand Martinez, archdeacon of Écija, begins anti-Semetic preaching in Spain.Wiki: Expulsion Jews Spain
20Sep1378Antipope Clement7 (CLEMENS Septimus) (Robert de Genève) (French) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesIn opposition to Urban6 (1378–89) and Boniface9 (1389–1404)
1378Chinese Biligtü Khan Ayushiridara reign ends and Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
29Nov1378Charles4 HRE reign ends.Wiki: HRE
1Jul1379Roman emperor Andronikos4 Palaiologos (Ἀνδρόνικος Παλαιολόγος) reign ends and John5 Palaiologos (Ἰωάννης Παλαιολόγος)second) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsJohn5 was restored to the throne after overthrowing his son Andronikos4
1380sInca king Inca Roca's reign ends the Hanán dynasty and king Yahuár Huacác reign begins.VanDiverInca: Inca Empire
1380Despot Matthew Kantakouzenos reign begins.Wiki: Morea DespotatoSon of Emperor John6 Kantakouzenos
1381The Peasants' Revolt, also named Wat Tyler's Rebellion or the Great Rising, occurred.Wiki: Peasants' Revolt
1382Japanese Emperor Go-En'yū (後円融天皇) [Ohito) reign ends and Go-Komatsu ((Go-Koko) (後小松天皇) [Motohito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1383Japanese Emperor Chōkei (長慶天皇) [Yutanari) reign ends and Go-Kameyama (後亀山天皇) [Hironari) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of JapanSouthern Court
1383Despots Manuel Kantakouzenos and Matthew Kantakouzenos reigns End ands Theodore1 Palaiologos and Demetrios1 Kantakouzenos reigns BeginWiki: Morea DespotatoHouse of Palaiologos (1383-1460). Son of Emperor John5 Palaiologos
1384Lewis (Hungary) was succeded by his 2nd daughter in Hungary and 3rd daughter Jadigwa [Ya-dig-va] in Poland.(2017) YT: PI - History of PolandThe first daughter uninstalled before inheriting, so everything shifted by one. Jadigwa (Poland) was loved by nobles and crowned king, not queen. Jadigwa (Poland) was engaged to both Wladyslaw (Lithuania) [Vlad-is-lav] the Grand Duke and the Duke of Austria (House Habsburg)
1386Jadigwa (Poland) chose the duke of Wladyslaw (Lithuania) over the duke of Austria.(2017) YT: PI - History of PolandTheir marriage formed the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the largest country in Europe. Poland's much larger population spread into Lithuania's much larger, less-densely populated lands, bringing their languages and cultures
1388Chinese Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür reign ends and Northern Yuan (北元) reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1389Kingdom of Majapahit ends.(2019) YT: EH - Majapahit
1389Truce in Calais(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs WarInternal strife in both France and England stalls the 100yrs War for a decade.
1389Welsh rebelled(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
1389Scotland Invaded England(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
15Oct1389Pope Urban6 (VRBANVS Sextus) (Bartolomeo Prignano) papacy ends and Pope Boniface9 (BONIFATIVS Nonus) (Pietro Tomacelli Cybo) (Italian of Greek descent) papacy begins 18 days later.Wiki: List of PopesWestern Schism.
15Jun1389Sultan Bayezid1 SULTÂN-I RÛM (Sultan of Rome) YILDIRIM (Thunderbolt) reign begins, and Murad1 SULTÂN-I ÂZAM (the Most Exalted Sultan) HÜDAVENDİGÂR (the Devotee of God) ŞEHÎD (the Martyr) reign ends 13 days later.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultansSon of Murad1 and Gülçiçek Hatun. Captured on the battlefield at the Battle of Ankara against Timur(de facto end of reign); Uninstalled in captivity in Akşehir on 8 March 1403.
1398Chinese Emperor Hóngwǔ reign ends and Jiànwén reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
14Apr1390Roman emperor John5 Palaiologos (Ἰωάννης Παλαιολόγος)second) reign ends and John7 Palaiologos (Ἰωάννης Παλαιολόγος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsJohn7, son and co-emperor of Andronikos4, deposed his grandfather John5.
17Sep1390Roman emperor John7 Palaiologos (Ἰωάννης Παλαιολόγος) reign ends and John5 Palaiologos (Ἰωάννης Παλαιολόγος)(third) reign) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsJohn5 was restored to the throne after overthrowing his grandson John7
16Feb1391Roman emperor John5 Palaiologos (Ἰωάννης Παλαιολόγος)(third) reign) reign ends and Manuel2 Palaiologos (Μανουὴλ Παλαιολόγος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSon of John5, Manuel2 was co-emperor since 1373.
1391Massacres of 1391.Wiki: Expulsion Jews SpainBy this point, over half of Spain's Jews had converted to Catholicism as a result of the religious persecution and pogroms. In Seville, before the revolts, there were about 500 Jewish families. Anti-Jewish measures were intensified after this.
Jan1391The first attempted assault on the Jewish quarter was avoided by the municipal authorities.Wiki: Expulsion Jews Spain
Jun1391Hundreds of Jews were uninstalled, their houses ransacked, and the synagogues converted into churches.Wiki: Expulsion Jews SpainThe assaults, fires, looting, and massacres began in June, in Seville, where Ferrand Martinez, archdeacon of Écija, took advantage of the power vacuum created by the uninstall of the archbishop of Seville. Some Jews managed to escape; others, terrified, asked to be baptized.
Aug1391Anti-Jewish violence reached the Crown of Aragon from Seville.Wiki: Expulsion Jews SpainThe great catastrophe for the Jews of the Iberian Peninsula took place with massacres in the juderías of Castile and of the Crown of Aragon. Many of the Jews who survived fled, many to the kingdoms of Navarre, Portugal and France, and North Africa.
1Jun1392Charles6 (France) hears a prophecy from a leper in passing. Startled by a Page dropping a lance, Charles6 starts hacking at his retinue, showing his mental illness.(2019) YT: EC - Joan of Arc 1He would fip back and forth between lucidity and insanity, forgetting his family members and that he was king, sometimes running naked and screaming through the hallways. Meanwhile, 2 factions plotted.
1392Emperor Go-Kameyama (後亀山天皇) [Hironari) reign ends the Northern Court, and Go-Komatsu ((Go-Koko) (後小松天皇) [Motohito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
16Sep1394Antipope Clement7 (CLEMENS Septimus) (Robert de Genève) papacy ends and Antipope Benedict13 (BENEDICTVS Tertius Decimus) (Pedro Martínez de Luna y Pérez de Gotor) (Spanish) papacy begins 12 days later.Wiki: List of PopesIn opposition to Boniface9 (1389–1404), Innocent7 (1404–06), Gregory12 (1406–15), Martin5 (1417–31) and Pisan Antipopes Alexander5 (1409–10) and John23 (1410–15)
1399Henry4 (England, House Lancaster) takes throne(2017) YT: FOL - History of England
1399Henry4 takes throne(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
29Sep1399Rex Anglie (King of the English) Richard2 reign ends and Henry4 of Bolingbroke reign begins 1 day later.Wiki: English monarchsHouse of Lancaster. Married to (1) Mary de Bohun Arundel Castle 27 July 1380 6 children(2) Joanna of Navarre Winchester Cathedral 7 February 1403. Grandson / heir male of Edward3 Usurpation / agnatic
1399Poland continues receiving Jewish refugees, and becomes a center of Jewish learning and culture.(2017) YT: PI - History of PolandBut some Polish towns do still expel members of the Jewish micropower with pitchfork-wielding mobs.
1400Mayan king K'otuja (Q'umarkaj) reign ends and Quq'kumatz (Q'umarkaj) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
1400sThe screw starts being used as a fastener in jousting armor and early firearms.(2020) YT: History Guy - ScrewdriverA screw was used in flint-lock to make the pyrite easy to replace, as it wore out often. Pyrite was used for flint here, apparently.
1400sVoynich Manuscript written.(2015) YT: LEMMiNO - Unsolved Top10
1400sFirst drawings of a soldier firing a gun with a hot iron.(2015) YT: PTA - Evol FirearmsOther drawings showed cannons and handguns side-by-side. The first gun artifacts come from this time as well - a long stick with a short tube, with one end plugged, and a hole. They were packed like muskets. Some drawings show a hoop-support to help aiming. The powder was soon moved to a pan chamber, and smoldering match cord was soon attached to a lever system (called a lock), pulled by a trigger.
20Jul1402Bayezid1 SULTÂN-I RÛM (Sultan of Rome) YILDIRIM (Thunderbolt) reign ends and Emir (Amir) Süleyman Çelebi The First Sultan of Rumelia reign begins the Ottoman InterregnumWiki: List of Ottoman sultansAcquired the title of The Sultan of Rumelia for the European portion of the empire, a short period after the Ottoman defeat of The Battle of Ankara on 20 July 1402 Uninstalled on 17 February 1411.
1402Chinese Emperor Jiànwén reign ends and Yǒnglè reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1403İsa Çelebi & Mehmed Çelebi begin reigns as The Co-Sultans of AnatoliaWiki: List of Ottoman sultansAfter the Battle of Ankara on July 20, 1402, İsa Çelebi defeated Musa Çelebi and began controlling the western part of Anatolian territory of the empire for approximately two years.
1403Roman emperor Andronikos5 Palaiologos (Ἀνδρόνικος Παλαιολόγος) & John7 Palaiologos (Ἰωάννης Παλαιολόγος) reigns beginWiki: List of Roman emperorsJohn7 was restored as co-emperor in 1403, then proclaimed his son Andronikos5 as co-emperor. Their imperial status was purely honorary.
1Oct1404Pope Boniface9 (BONIFATIVS Nonus) (Pietro Tomacelli Cybo) papacy ends and Pope Innocent7 (INNOCENTIVS Septimus) (Cosimo Gentile Migliorati) (Italian) papacy begins 16 days later.Wiki: List of PopesReigned during the Western Schism.
1405İsa Çelebi was defeated by Mehmed Çelebi in the battle of Ulubat, losing authority.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultans
1406İsa Çelebi The Co-Sultan of Anatolia reign ends and Mehmed Çelebi becomes The Sultan of AnatoliaWiki: List of Ottoman sultansMehmed Çelebi became the sole ruler of the Anatolian territory of the Ottoman Empire upon İsa’s uninstall in 1406.
1406James1 (Scotland) sends 12k Scottish troops to France fight the English in the Hundred Years War.(2019) YT: OSP - ScotlandThis left James1 in a great position to consolidate the nation, however he was uninstalled as soon as he returned, and Scotland descended back into civil war. "The king can say whatever he wants in Edinburgh, but unless he personally marches out to Inverness to tell Clan Fraser to pay their taxes, I won't." (And many still didn't.)
6Nov1406Pope Innocent7 (INNOCENTIVS Septimus) (Cosimo Gentile Migliorati) papacy ends and Pope Gregory12 (GREGORIVS Duodecimus) (Angelo Correr) (Italian) papacy begins 24 days later.Wiki: List of PopesReigned during the Western Schism.
20Nov14072 factions in France make a truce.(2019) YT: EC - Joan of Arc 1One side, Armagnacs, led by Louis, duke of Orleans, rich and playboy and physically close with Isabeau (France). Other side was John the Fearless, duke of Burgundy, with large holdings in the English-influenced northern regions, so wanted an England-like society with pastures and cities. Both sides supported different popes too.
1407Roman emperor Andronikos5 Palaiologos (Ἀνδρόνικος Παλαιολόγος) & John7 Palaiologos (Ἰωάννης Παλαιολόγος) reigns endWiki: List of Roman emperorsAndronikos5 was uninstalled here, and John7 the next year.
23Nov1407As Louis of Orleans leaves Isabeau (France) residence, a hooded mob with swords and axes savagely uninstalls him off of his horse, in the middle of the road.(2019) YT: EC - Joan of Arc 1John of Burgundy took credit, saying he deposed an evil and corrupt tyrant who defiled the Queen and plotted against Charles6 with necromancy. Charles6, in madness, pardoned him.
1407Despot Theodore1 Palaiologos reign ends and Theodore2 Palaiologos reign begins.Wiki: Morea DespotatoSon of Emperor Manuel2 Palaiologos
1409Orleans and Burgundy factions of France raid the countrysides.(2019) YT: EC - Joan of Arc 1
30Jun1409Antipope Alexander5 (ALEXANDER Quintus) (Pétros Philárgēs, O.F.M) (Greek) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesWestern Schism. In opposition to Gregory12. Considered a legitimate pope until 1963 and is numbered as such to this day.
3May1410Antipope Alexander5 (ALEXANDER Quintus) (Pétros Philárgēs, O.F.M) papacy ends and Antipope John23 (IOANNES Vicesimus Tertius) (Baldassarre Cossa) (Italian) papacy begins 22 days later.Wiki: List of PopesWestern Schism. In opposition to Gregory12. Convened Council of Constance. Abdicated. Became dean of the College of Cardinals in 1417. Was considered a legitimate pope until 1958.
1410Inca king Yahuár Huacác reign ends and king Viracocha Inca reign begins.VanDiverInca: Inca Empire
10Sep1410Sigismund was crowned HREmperor.Wiki: HRE
1411Castile ordered that Jews wear a red badge sewn onto their clothing.Wiki: Expulsion Jews Spain
17Feb1411Emir (Amir) Süleyman Çelebi The First Sultan of Rumelia reign ends.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultans
18Feb1411Emir (Amir) Süleyman Çelebi The First Sultan of Rumelia reign ends and Musa Çelebi The Second Sultan of Rumelia reign begins.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultansAcquired the title of The Sultan of Rumelia for the European portion of the empire on 18 February 1411, just after the uninstall of Süleyman Çelebi. Uninstalled on 5 July 1413 by Mehmed Çelebi’s forces in the battle of Çamurlu Derbent near Samokov in Bulgaria.
21Jul1411Sigismund HRE reign begins.Wiki: HRESigismund, son of Charles4. King of Germany, Italy, Bohemia, Hungary and Croatia
1412Japanese Emperor Go-Komatsu ((Go-Koko) (後小松天皇) [Motohito) reign ends and Shōkō (称光天皇) [Mihito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
5Jul1413Musa Çelebi The Second Sultan of Rumelia reign ends, and Mehmed Çelebi ends the Ottoman Interregnum by upgrading from The Sultan of Anatolia to Mehmed1 ÇELEBİ (The Affable) KİRİŞÇİ (lit. The Bowstring Maker for his support)Wiki: List of Ottoman sultansSon of Bayezid1 and Devlet Hatun. Acquired the title of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed1 Khan upon Musa’s uninstall.
1413Henry5 (England, House Lancaster) takes throne(2017) YT: FOL - History of England
20Mar1413Rex Anglie (King of the English) Henry4 of Bolingbroke reign ends and Henry5 reign begins 1 day later.Wiki: English monarchsMarried to Catherine of Valois Troyes Cathedral 2 June 1420 1 son. Son of Henry4 Agnatic
1415Due to continuing attacks, around 50k more of Spain's Jews had converted in the past 24 years.Wiki: Expulsion Jews SpainThose who remained decided to convert to avoid expulsion.
1415Henry5 (England) invades France, but he's quickly bogged down and swept up by an Armagnac force.(2019) YT: EC - Joan of Arc 1It was a terrible storm. While the English were tired and diseased, the Armagnac were not, but wore themselves out just getting through the mud to the English. (lol wat). People who fell over drowned in the watery sucking mud. 6 French counts and 90 other Nobles uninstalled in 1 day. The French factions blamed the loss on each other, while the English advanced as the Burgundians put up no interference. (Why did the French have so many nobles? Lead up to their revolution.)
1415More than half of the Jews of the crowns of Castile and Aragon had renounced Mosaic law and had been baptized, including many rabbis and important members of the community.Wiki: Expulsion Jews Spain
1415Henry5 (England) crushes French in battle of Agincourt, uninstalled half of nobility, allowing Burgundians to gain power in France(Reference Missing)
30May1415Antipope John23 (IOANNES Vicesimus Tertius) (Baldassarre Cossa) papacy ends and Fourth Interregnum begins.Wiki: List of Popes
4Jul1415Pope Gregory12 (GREGORIVS Duodecimus) (Angelo Correr) papacy ends and Fourth Interregnum begins.Wiki: List of PopesTwo-year period without a valid pope elected. The Council of Constance called on all three papal claimants to abdicate, but only Gregory12 (Roman) and John23 (Pisan) abdicated. The Council finally excommunicated Benedict13 (Avignon) and elected a new pope.
11Nov1417Fourth Interregnum ends and Pope Martin5 (MARTINVS Quintus) (Oddone Colonna, O.F.S) (Italian) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesHis election effectively ended the Western Schism (1378–1417). Convened the Council of Basel (1431). Initiated the Hussite Wars.
1419First defenstration of Prague.(Reference Missing)
Jul1419Charles8 (France) Dauphin (French for Dolphin aka Prince-heir) was married to an Armagnac, while his mother sides with the Burgundians. They have an initial truce meeting that goes well.(2019) YT: EC - Joan of Arc 1
Jan1419Mustafa Çelebi The Third Sultan of Rumelia reign begins.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultansSon of Bayezid1 Ordered uninstalled by Murad2
Sep1419Charles8 (France) meets with John of Burgundy. An affront is percieved or claimed, and Charles8's (France) bodyguard savagely uninstall John of Burgundy(2019) YT: EC - Joan of Arc 1Charles8 says it was unplanned, but who knows. This leads the heir of Burgundy to ally with the king of England, and so did the French royal family, as their heir apparent was an uninstaller.
Sep1420Charles6 and Isabeau (France) disinherit Charles8 (France) and marry Henry5 to their daughter, naming him heir to France.(2019) YT: EC - Joan of Arc 1This leaves France in turmoil, with a foreigner eventually on the throne.
1420English armies captured Normandy, causing Charles6 (France) to marry his daughter off to Henry5 (England), both agreeing the kids will get the throne. But Charles6's son (France) continues to fight for the throne(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
25Jun1421Sultan Mehmed1 ÇELEBİ (The Affable) KİRİŞÇİ (lit. The Bowstring Maker for his support) reign ends and Murad2 KOCA (The Great) Ghazavat-ı Sultan (Ghazi Sultan) reign begins.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultansSon of Mehmed1 and Emine Hatun; Abdicated of his own free will in favour of his son Mehmed2.
May1422Sultan Mustafa Çelebi The Third Sultan of Rumelia reign ends.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultans
1422Henry6 (England, House Lancaster) takes throne as infant(2017) YT: FOL - History of England
1422Henry5 (England) and Charles6 (France) both uninstall(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs WarHenry6 (England) is king of England but nobody takes French crown
31Aug1422Rex Anglie (King of the English) Henry5 reign ends and Henry6 first reign begins 1 day later.Wiki: English monarchsMarried to Margaret of Anjou Titchfield Abbey 22 April 1445 1 son. Son of Henry5 Agnatic
23May1423Antipope Benedict13 (BENEDICTVS Tertius Decimus) (Pedro Martínez de Luna y Pérez de Gotor) papacy ends and Antipope Clement8 (CLEMENS Octavus) (Gil Sánchez Muñoz y Carbón) (Spanish) papacy begins 28 days later.Wiki: List of PopesWestern Schism. In opposition to Martin5.
20Jun1423Antipope Clement8 (CLEMENS Octavus) (Gil Sánchez Muñoz y Carbón) papacy begins.Wiki: List of Popes
1424The Barcelona Jewry was abolished because it was considered unnecessary— and only the one in Zaragoza remained.Wiki: Expulsion Jews Spain
1424Chinese Emperor Yǒnglè reign ends and Hóngxī reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
21Jul1425Roman emperor Manuel2 Palaiologos (Μανουὴλ Παλαιολόγος) reign ends and John8 Palaiologos (Ἰωάννης Παλαιολόγος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSon of Manuel2, John8 had been co-emperor since 1416
1425Chinese Emperor Hóngxī reign ends and Xuāndé reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1428Joan of Arc (France) in Orleans leads French against England(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
1428Japanese Emperor Shōkō (称光天皇) [Mihito) reign ends and Go-Hanazono (後花園天皇) [Hikohito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1428Despot Constantine Palaiologos reign begins and Thomas Palaiologos reign begins.Wiki: Morea DespotatoSons of Emperor Manuel2 Palaiologos
1429Black Plague breaks out.Imgur: gIY2hKH (link 404s)
26Jul1429Antipope Clement8 (CLEMENS Octavus) (Gil Sánchez Muñoz y Carbón) papacy endsWiki: List of Popes
20Feb1431Pope Martin5 (MARTINVS Quintus) (Oddone Colonna, O.F.S) papacy ends and Pope Eugene4 (EVGENIVS Quartus) (Gabriele Condulmer, O.S.A) (Italian) papacy begins 11 day later.Wiki: List of PopesMember of the Augustinian Order. Nephew of Gregory12. Crowned Emperor Sigismund at Rome in 1433. Transferred the Council of Basel to Ferrara. It was later transferred again, to Florence, because of the Bubonic plague. Issued the bull "Creator Omnium", rescinding any recognition of Portugal's right to conquer those islands, still pagan. He excommunicated anyone who enslaved newly converted Christians, the penalty to stand until the captives were restored to their liberty and possessions
22Feb1431Joan of Arc is on condemnation trial at Rouen Castle for hearing voices she claims to be angels.(2019) YT: EC - Joan of Arc 2Her hometown, Domremy, was in the neutral, unclaimed region during France's civil war, so she felt like she lived in Domremy, not France. But most were Armagnac and supported Charles8 as Dauphin, but it was close to Burgundian territory and frequently raided.
1432Jews in Spain get legal sanction (permission) from the Crown of Castille to practice their religionWiki: Expulsion Jews SpainAfter the critical period of 1391-1415, the pressure on Jews to recuperate their confiscated synagogues and books had decreased, and they were then able to avoid certain obligations such as carrying the red ribbon or attending friars' sermons. Thanks to agreements reached by the procurators (appointed Roman officials) of the aljamas (self-governing communities of Jews or of Moors living in Spain under Spanish rule during the middle ages), gathered in Valladolid (NW Spain), and were able to reconstruct the internal organization of the aljamas.
31May1433Sigismund was crowned HREmperor by Pope Eugenius4 in Rome, ItalyWiki: HRE
1435Burgundians signed peace treaty with France, leaving England on their own in the 100yrs War(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
1435Chinese Emperor Xuāndé reign ends and Yingzong of Ming reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1435Mayan king Quq'kumatz (Q'umarkaj) reign ends and K'iq'ab' (Q'umarkaj) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
9Dec1437Sigismund reign ends and House of Luxembourg ends.Wiki: HRE
1438Inca king Viracocha Inca reign ends the Kingdom of Cuzco, and king Pachacuti (Pachacútec) reign begins the Inca Empire (Tahuantinsuyo).VanDiverInca: Inca EmpireSaid to have constructed Machu Picchu.
5Nov1439Antipope Felix5 (FELIX Quintus) (Amadeus) (French) papacy begins.Wiki: List of PopesIn opposition to Eugene4 and Nicholas5. Also ruled as count of Savoy.
2Feb1440Frederick3, the Peaceful reign begins the House of Habsburg.Wiki: HREFrederick3, the Peaceful, second cousin of Albert2 of Germany, Emperor designate. King of Germany, Italy, Archduke of Austria
1443Despot Theodore2 Palaiologos reign ends.Wiki: Morea Despotato
1444Sultan Murad2 KOCA (The Great) Ghazavat-ı Sultan (Ghazi Sultan) reign ends and Mehmed2 FĀTİḤ (The Conqueror) reign begins.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultansSon of Murad2 and Hüma Hatun. Surrendered the throne to his father after having asked him to return to power, along with rising threats from Janissaries.
1446Sultan Mehmed2 FĀTİḤ (The Conqueror) reign ends and Murad2 KOCA (The Great) reign begins.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultansSecond reign; Forced to return to the throne following a Janissary insurgence.
23Feb1447Pope Eugene4 (EVGENIVS Quartus) (Gabriele Condulmer, O.S.A) papacy ends and Pope Nicholas5 (NICOLAVS Quintus) (Tommaso Parentucelli) (Italian) papacy begins 11 day later.Wiki: List of PopesHeld the Jubilee of 1450. Crowned Emperor Frederick3 at Rome (1452). Issued the bull Dum Diversas allowing Portugal's right to conquer and subjugate Saracens and pagans (1452). Created a library in the Vatican which would eventually become the Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana.
31Oct1448Roman emperor John8 Palaiologos (Ἰωάννης Παλαιολόγος) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperors
6Jan1449Roman emperor Constantine9 Palaiologos (Κωνσταντῖνος Δραγάσης Παλαιολόγος) reign begins.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsSon of Manuel2
7Apr1449Antipope Felix5 (FELIX Quintus) (Amadeus) papacy endsWiki: List of Popes
1449Emperor Yingzong of Ming reign ends and Jǐngtài reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1449Despot Constantine Palaiologos reign ends and Demetrios2 Palaiologos reign begins.Wiki: Morea DespotatoSon of Emperor Manuel2 Palaiologos
1450Modernized French army pushes England out of Normandy(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
1450Mayan king Lajuj No'j (Mixco Viejo) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersLajuj No'j AKA Ichalkan Chi Kumkwat, Ychal Amollac Chicumcuat
3Feb1451Sultan Murad2 KOCA (The Great) reign ends and Mehmed2 KĀYSER-Ī RÛM (Caesar of the Roman Empire) FĀTĪḤ (The Conqueror) second reign begins.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultans
1452Leonardo Da Vinci (Italy?) installs(2015) YT: PTA - Evol Firearms
16Mar1452Frederick3 was crowned HREmperor by Pope Nicholas5 in Rome, ItalyWiki: HRE
1453Hungarian Battle Comet later determined to be Halley's Comet.(2019) YT: PN - Story of Comets 1
1453England pushed out of Gascony(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs War
1453France population was 11 million.(2020) YT: FOL - French Docu
1453100yrs War ends.(2020) YT: FOL - French Docu
1453The fall of Constantinople to the OttomansWiki: Ottoman Greece
1453Sultan Mehmed2 KĀYSER-Ī RÛM FĀTĪḤ conqueres Constantinople, ending the Rise and beginning the Growth of the Ottoman Empire.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultans
29May1453Roman emperor Constantine9 Palaiologos (Κωνσταντῖνος Δραγάσης Παλαιολόγος) reign ends.Wiki: List of Roman emperorsRefused to surrender to the Ottoman sultan Mehmed2 and uninstalled fighting during the final Ottoman attack
1453Roman empire comes to an end with the sacking of Constantinople by Ottoman Turks.(2020) YT: FOL - French Docu
24Mar1455Pope Nicholas5 (NICOLAVS Quintus) (Tommaso Parentucelli) papacy ends and Pope Callixtus3 (CALLISTVS Tertius) (Alfonso de Borja) (Spanish (Valencian);) papacy begins 15 days later.Wiki: List of PopesThe first Spanish (Valencian) pope. Ordered the Feast of the Transfiguration to be celebrated on 6 August. Ordered the retrial of Joan of Arc, in which she was vindicated. Initiated the custom that bells be rung at midday to remind the faithful to pray for the crusaders. The tradition of the Angelus noon bell still exists in most Catholic Churches to this day. Appointed two nephews as cardinals, one of whom became Pope Alexander6.
1456Comet inspiring the Ottoman Empire to invade Hungary later determined to be Halley's Comet.Wiki: Halley's CometBartolomeo Platina of Italy and Srivara of Kashmir both predicted great tragedy would follow this omen, the latter predicting the Sultan's imminent uninstall.
1457Chinese Emperor Jǐngtài reign ends and Yingzong of Ming reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
6Aug1458Pope Callixtus3 (CALLISTVS Tertius) (Alfonso de Borja) papacy ends and Pope Pius2 (PIVS Secundus) (Enea Silvio Piccolomini) (Italian) papacy begins 13 days later.Wiki: List of PopesDisplayed a great interest in urban planning. Founded Pienza near Siena as the ideal city in 1462. Known for his work on the Commentaries.
1460Despots Demetrios2 Palaiologos and Thomas Palaiologos reigns EndWiki: Morea DespotatoThe Despotate of the Morea was the last remnant of the Byzantine Empire to hold out against the Ottomans. Following the Ottoman conquest, the title continued to be used by Thomas Palaiologos and his son Andreas in exile;
4Mar1461Rex Anglie (King of the English) Henry6 first reign ends and Edward4 first reign beginsWiki: English monarchsHouse of York. Married to Elizabeth Woodville Grafton Regis 1 May 1464 10 children. Great-great-grandson / heir general of Edward3 Seizure of the Crown
1463Ottoman–Venetian War startsWiki: Ottoman GreeceThe Maniot Kladas brothers, Krokodelos and Epifani, were leading bands of stratioti on behalf of Venice against the Turks in Southern Peloponnese. They put Vardounia and their lands into Venetian possession, for which Epifani then acted as governor.
15Aug1464Pope Pius2 (PIVS Secundus) (Enea Silvio Piccolomini) papacy ends and Pope Paul2 (PAVLVS Secundus) (Pietro Barbo) (Italian) papacy begins 15 days later.Wiki: List of PopesThe nephew of Eugene4. Built the Palazzo San Marco (now Palazzo Venezia). Approved the introduction of printing in the Papal States.
1464Japanese Emperor Go-Hanazono (後花園天皇) [Hikohito) reign ends and Go-Tsuchimikado (後土御門天皇) [Fusahito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1464 Yingzong of Ming reign ends and Chénghuà reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1465Japan's incel Shogun doesn't have a clear heir, so he convinced his brother to give up monkhood for emperoring. Then the Shogun has a kid anyway.(2016) YT: BW - history of japanOnin War starts over this power battle. But the emperor doesn't care - he's somewhere doing poetry or something.
1465Despot Thomas Palaiologos reign ends and Andreas Palaiologos reign begins.Wiki: Morea DespotatoAfter the death of Andreas in 1502, the title was claimed by the Albanian exile Constantine Arianiti, and by the Greek nobleman Fernando Palaiologos. Son of Thomas
1467Onin War spills into civil war aka Sengoku Jidai.(2016) YT: BW - history of japan
1467Sengoku Jidai (Age of Warring States) begins. Prominent era of Samurai, when every Daimyo wanted to become Shogun(2017) YT: FH - Meiji Restoration
14671.5 century civil war in Japan starts(2012) YT: OSP - Meiji RestorationSeveral daimyo had been trying to steal the title of shogun from the current one.
3Oct1470Rex Anglie (King of the English) Edward4 first reign ends and Henry6 second reign beginsWiki: English monarchsHouse of Lancaster (restored). Married to Margaret of Anjou Titchfield Abbey 22 April 1445 1 son. Son of Henry5 Seizure of the Crown
11Apr1471Rex Anglie (King of the English) Henry6 second reign ends and Edward4 second reign beginsWiki: English monarchsHenry6 was allegedly forcefully uninstalled in the Tower of London on 21 of May. Edward4 House of York (restored). Married to Elizabeth Woodville Grafton Regis 1 May 1464 10 children. Great-great-grandson / heir general of Edward3 Seizure of the Crown
26Jul1471Pope Paul2 (PAVLVS Secundus) (Pietro Barbo) papacy ends and Pope Sixtus4 (XYSTVS Quartus) (Francesco della Rovere, O.F.M) (Italian) papacy begins 14 days later.Wiki: List of PopesCommissioned the Sistine Chapel and created the Vatican Archives. Authorized the Spanish Inquisition targeting converted Jewish Christians in Spain at the request of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain. A patron of the arts, he brought together the group of artists who ushered the Early Renaissance into Rome with the first masterpieces of the city's new artistic age. Noted for his nepotism and involved in the Pazzi conspiracy.
1471Inca king Pachacuti (Pachacútec) reign ends and king Túpac Inca Yupanqui (Tópa Inca) reign begins.VanDiverInca: Inca EmpireThe son of Emperor Pachacuti, the supposed constructor of Choquequirao, also known as the "Sacred Sister of Machu Picchu".
1475100yrs War over.(2016) YT: Jabzy - 100yrs WarFrance is united again, and England only has Calais on the continent.
1475Mayan king K'iq'ab' (Q'umarkaj) reign ends and king Vahxak' i-Kaam (Q'umarkaj) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulers
1479Ottoman–Venetian War ends.Wiki: Ottoman Greece
late 1400sBorg-Vaadwaur contact.(2015) YT: Trekspertise - Borg HistoryStar Trek - The Borg were basically just starting out at this point.
1480Mayan king Lajuj No'j (Mixco Viejo) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
1480Aztec conquest of the Totonacs ends Mexico's Postclassic periodSFGate - Olmecs to ToltecsAfter this, the Totonacs were forced to pay tributes of cloth, fruit, vegetables, honey and even slaves.
1481Sistine Chapel completed(Reference Missing)
3May1481Sultan Mehmed2 KĀYSER-Ī RÛM (Caesar of the Roman Empire) FĀTĪḤ (The Conqueror) reign ends and Bayezid2 VELÎ (The Saint reign begins 13 days later.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultansSon of Mehmed2 and Gülbahar Sultan. Abdicated. Uninstalled near Didymoteicho on 26 May 1512.
20Jun1481Sultan Cem reign begins, and ends within a month.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultansSon of Mehmed2 Acquired the title Cem bin Mehmed Han. Uninstalled in exile.
1483Charles8 (France) becomes king.(2020) YT: FOL - French DocuOne of his first acts was to invade the dutchy of Brittany and marry the Dutchess, to keep the lands out of Hapsburg hands. This cost him his Burgundian lands.
9Apr1483Rex Anglie (King of the English) Edward4 second reign ends, Edward5 lasts 77 days, and Richard3 reign begins 1 day later.Wiki: English monarchsEdward5 Son of Edward4, disappeared mid-1483 in London, allegedly was forcefully uninstalled. Richard3 married to Anne Neville Westminster Abbey 12 July 1472 1 son. Great-great-grandson of Edward3 Titulus Regius
12Aug1484Pope Sixtus4 (XYSTVS Quartus) (Francesco della Rovere, O.F.M) papacy ends and Pope Innocent8 (INNOCENTIVS Octavus) (Giovanni Battista Cybo) (Italian) papacy begins 17 days later.Wiki: List of PopesAppointed Tomás de Torquemada. Endorsed the prosecution of witchcraft in the bull Summis desiderantes affectibus (1484).
1485Tudor Britain begins.(20??) YT: A Great British Timeline (link 404s)
22Aug1485Rex Anglie (King of the English) Richard3 reign ends and Henry7 reign beginsWiki: English monarchsRichard3 Uninstalled in battle at Bosworth Field Henry7 House of Tudor. Married to Elizabeth of York Westminster Abbey 18 January 1486, 8 children. Great-great-great-grandson of Edward3. Right of conquest. Husband of Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward4
16Feb1486Maximilian1 HRE reign begins.Wiki: HREMaximilian1, son of Frederick3. King of Germany, Archduke of Austria
1487Chinese Emperor Chénghuà reign ends and Hóngzhì reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1488Hammer of the Witches written(2020) YT: RE - LiechtensteinThis leads to thousands of witch hunts on several continents.
1490A letter sent by the Catholic Monarchs to the Council of Bilbao stated that under canon law and the laws of the kingdoms, Jews were tolerated and allowed to live in the kingdoms as subjects and vassals.Wiki: Expulsion Jews SpainIn Christian kingdoms, according to Henry Kamen, both Jews and Muslims were treated with contempt and the three communities lived separate existences. In Muslim kingdoms, on the other hand, Christians and Jews were required to pay a tax in order to profess their religion.
1491Henry 8 installs (England)(2015) YT: PTA - Evol Firearms
1492Alhambra Decree begins the Jewish expulsion from Spain.Wiki: Expulsion Jews Spain

As a result of the Alhambra decree and the prior persecution, and in order to eliminate their influence on Spain's large convert population and to ensure its members did not revert to Judaism, over 200k Jews converted to Catholicism and between 40k and 100k were expelled from Spain.

The number of Jews in the Crown of Aragon was reduced to 1/4 its previous number. The famous Jewish community of Gerona, for example, was left with only 24 families. In the Crown of Castile, there were less than 80k.

2Jan1492The Catholic Monarchs conquered the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada.Wiki: Expulsion Jews SpainThe last Muslim king, Muhammad12 of Granada (Spanish: Boabdil), withdrew to Alpujarras, as almost 800 years of Muslim rule were ended by the Reconquista.
25Jul1492Pope Innocent8 (INNOCENTIVS Octavus) (Giovanni Battista Cybo) papacy ends and Pope Alexander6 (ALEXANDER Sextus) (Roderic Llançol i de Borja) (Spanish (Valencian);) papacy begins 17 days later.Wiki: List of PopesNephew of Callixtus3; father to Cesare Borgia and Lucrezia Borgia. Divided the extra-European world between Spain and Portugal in the bull Inter caetera (1493). Considered one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes, partly because he acknowledged fathering several children by his mistresses. As a result, his Italianized Valencian surname, Borgia, became a byword for libertinism and nepotism, which are traditionally considered as characterizing his pontificate
Sep1492Columbus first voyage starts crossing the Atlantic.(2017) YT: LEMMiNO - Bermuda Triangle(Why didn't they go in, like, March or April? Why wait for September? Because the ocean is like a desert with its life underground. Spring is too cold and summer is too hot. Fall is just right. Why not 1491? Because the pope had *just* split the Earth between Spain and Portugal, meaning they wouldn't have to fight over what land they discovered, just don't discover something on the wrong side of the imaginary line.)
15Sep1492Columbus records:(2020) YT: VOTP - ColumbusAnd on this night, they saw a marvelous branch of fire fall from the sky.
17Sep1492Columbus records:(2020) YT: VOTP - ColumbusThe pilots took the north, and found their compasses northwested a full point [i.e. eleven and one-quarter degrees]; and the sailors were fearful and depressed and did not say why.
17Sep1492Columbus saw a strange light. He records and it was like a small wax candle that rose and lifted up; which to few seemed to be an indication of land.(2017) YT: LEMMiNO - Bermuda TriangleThe Pinta had already found land, and a few hours later, a crewman on this ship (the Santa Maria? Notes record the Nina being slower than the Pinta and the Admiral.) saw land. While technically within the Bermuda Triangle
Oct1492Columbus first voyage completes crossing the Atlantic.(2017) YT: LEMMiNO - Bermuda Triangle
1493Columbus finds several islands, naming the first San Salvador after "Our Savior", noting the natives call it "Guanahani".(2020) YT: VOTP - Columbus
  • He named the next Santa Maria, Isabella, Fernandina, Arena Island, and finally Johana (Cuba) and Hispaniola (Named it "Spain-ia" or "Hispana-YOLO").
  • He found no cities or houses, only a few villages and farms whose inhabitants fled as soon as they saw Columbus and crew - parents would abandon their children, and children their parents.
  • He thought Cuba was part of the continent at first, and after examining his records of traveling 322 miles (534 km) from west-to-east along it, believes it's larger than the British Isles - and Hispana is larger than all of Spain (Iberia?).
  • He left some men behind on Haiti to found Town of the Nativity.
  • He found numerous new plants and birds, all flourishing in winter as though it were May.
  • He found Hispaniola breathtaking, with more rivers than he could believe.
  • Also it was like a nudist colony, and iron was foreign, but gold was plentiful - natives paid for leather straps with an equal weight of gold.
  • Plates were like jewelry.
  • Columbus forbade trading to prevent taking all their gold, but was hopeful to make them into Portugese subjects and/or Catholics.
  • The natives believed everything good came "from heaven", including Columbus - they shouted to each other "Come, come, see the men from heaven!"
1493Inca king Túpac Inca Yupanqui (Tópa Inca) reign ends and king Huayná Cápac reign begins.VanDiverInca: Inca EmpireHe was the last Inca Emperor who ruled before the Arrival of the Spaniards.
19Aug1493Frederick3, the Peaceful HRE reign ends.Wiki: HRE
1494"Italian Wars" start.(2020) YT: FOL - French Docu
1494Charles8 (France) makes questionable claim for the throne of Naples (southern half of Italy's boot).(2020) YT: FOL - French DocuLudovico Sforza (Duke, Milan) put him up to it. This makes several Italian states join the League of Venice against him.
6Jul1495Battle of Fornovo between French army and a few Italian states.(2020) YT: FOL - French DocuTechnically France won, but had to fall back and lose all gains.
1498Charles8 (France) succeeded by his cousin, Louis12 (France).(2020) YT: FOL - French Docu
14992nd Italian War starts.(2020) YT: FOL - French Docu
1500Japanese Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado (後土御門天皇) [Fusahito) reign ends and Go-Kashiwabara ((Go-Kanmu) (後柏原天皇) [Katsuhito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1500Mayan king Vahxak' i-Kaam (Q'umarkaj) reign ends, Achi Q'alel (Mixco Viejo) reign occurs, and king Oxib Keh (Q'umarkaj) reign begins.Wiki: Maya rulersearly 1500s
1500sGunsmiths introduce wheel-lock ignition, using flint like a lighter.(2015) YT: PTA - Evol FirearmsOrigins unclear, but Leonardo Da Vinci made many drawings, though a Nuremberg clockmaker is more likely. This used a wind-up key to add tension to the steel wheel, which was released by a trigger, against flint. Guards were more stealthy without the burning match, but devices were expensive and hard to keep working. German gunsmiths, seeking new markets and bulk military orders, rework the design into the Snaphorn, where a flint arm fly forward and strike a steel pan, full of gunpowder.
1500sHorses introduced into North America.130 (2019) YT: HP - Wounded KneeSioux and other micropowers were hunting bison on foot.
1500sBlackboards were used for music education and composition in Europe.Wiki: Blackboard
1500sBajorans begin exploring their home solar system.(2015) YT: Trekspertise - Borg HistoryStar Trek
1500sSpanish and Portuguese explorers bring both bitter and sweet oranges to the Americas.Harvest To Table - Orange Types
1500sMechanical clocks can accurately measure small quantities of time.Antiquitatem.com: Hour's dividersThis pushes the temporal concepts of "minutes" and "seconds" into popular culture.
1500sVatican City's priests went to Mexico with the first Spanish conquistadores.LATimes - Mexico Vatican tiesVatican City's religion was quickly taught to citizens of the conquered nations. Since then, Vatican City's priests sided politically with conservatives throughout Mexico’s colonial history, becoming the richest institution in the country and the biggest landowner.
18Aug1503Pope Alexander6 (ALEXANDER Sextus) (Roderic Llançol i de Borja) papacy ends and Pope Pius3 (PIVS Tertius) (Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini) (Italian) papacy begins 35 days later.Wiki: List of PopesNephew of Pius2. Founded the Piccolomini Library in the Siena Cathedral.
18Oct1503Pope Pius3 (PIVS Tertius) (Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini) papacy ends and Pope Julius2 (IVLIVS Secundus) (Giuliano della Rovere, O.F.M) (Italian) papacy begins 13 days later.Wiki: List of PopesNicknamed the 'Warrior Pope' or the 'Fearsome Pope'. Nephew of Sixtus4; convened the Fifth Council of the Lateran (1512). Took control of all the Papal States for the first time. Became Pope in the context of the Italian Wars, a period in which the major powers of Europe fought for primacy in the Italian peninsula. Established the Vatican Museums and initiated the rebuilding of the St Peter's Basilica. The same year he organized the famous Swiss Guards for his personal protection and commanded a successful campaign in Romagna against local lords. The interests of Julius2 lay also in the New World as he ratified the Treaty of Tordesillas, establishing the first bishoprics in the Americas and beginning the catholicization of Latin America. In 1508, he commissioned the Raphael Rooms and Michelangelo's paintings in the Sistine Chapel. Julius2 was described by Machiavelli in his works as the ideal prince. Pope Julius2 allowed people seeking indulgences to donate money to the Church which would be used for the construction of Saint Peter's Basilica.
15042nd Italian War ends.(2020) YT: FOL - French Docu
1505Chinese Emperor Hóngzhì reign ends and Zhèngdé reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
15083rd Italian War starts.(2020) YT: FOL - French Docu
4Feb1508Maximilian1 was crowned HREmperor.Wiki: HREPope Julius2 allowed Maximilian1 to use the title of Emperor without coronation in Rome, though the title was qualified as Electus Romanorum Imperator (elected Emperor of the Romans). The Emperor was crowned HREmperor in a special ceremony, traditionally performed by the Pope in Rome. Without that coronation, no king, despite exercising all powers, could call himself Emperor. Maximilian's successors adopted the same titulature, usually when they became the sole ruler of the Holy Roman Empire. Maximilian's first successor Charles5 was the last to be crowned Emperor by the Pope in Rome.
21Apr1509Rex Anglie (King of the English) Henry7 reign ends and Henry8 reign begins 1 day later.Wiki: English monarchsMarried to (1) Catherine of Aragon Greenwich 11 June 1509 1 daughter(2) Anne Boleyn Westminster Palace 25 January 1533[h] 1 daughter(3) Jane Seymour Whitehall Palace 30 May 1536 1 son3 further marriages No more children. Son of Henry7 and Elizabeth of York
25Apr1512Sultan Bayezid2 VELÎ (The Saint reign ends and Selim1 YAVUZ (The Strong) Hadim'ul Haramain'ish-Sharifain (Servant of Meccah and Medina) reign begins.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultansConquered Mamluks in 1516–1517. First Ottoman Caliph; Son of Bayezid2 and Gülbahar Hatun.
21Feb1513Pope Julius2 (IVLIVS Secundus) (Giuliano della Rovere, O.F.M) papacy ends and Pope Leo10 (LEO Decimus) (Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici) (Italian) papacy begins 16 days later.Wiki: List of PopesSon of Lorenzo the Magnificent. Closed the Fifth Council of the Lateran. Remembered for granting indulgences to those who donated to rebuild St Peter's Basilica; excommunicated Martin Luther (1521). Extended the Spanish Inquisition into Portugal. Borrowed and spent money without circumspection and was a significant patron of the arts. Under his papacy, progress was made on the rebuilding of St Peter's Basilica and artists such as Raphael decorated the Vatican rooms. Leo also reorganised the Roman University, and promoted the study of literature, poetry and antiquities. The last pope to not have been in priestly orders at the time of his election to the papacy.
1515Louis12 (France) succeded by his cousin Francis1 (France).(2020) YT: FOL - French DocuHe continues the Italian war and takes Milan. Francis1 is considered the quintessential Rennaisance man, delving into languages, physical fitness, philosophy, classical literature, and other topics.
1516Treaty of New York.(2020) YT: FOL - French DocuFrance secures Milan.
15163rd Italian War ends.(2020) YT: FOL - French Docu
1516Sir Thomas Moore (England) writes Utopia(Reference Missing)
1517Martin Luther (HRE) nails his 95 Theses to the door of a church in Vintonburg.(2020) YT: FOL - French Docu
1519Leonardo Da Vinci (Italy?) uninstalls(2015) YT: PTA - Evol Firearms
1519Charles5 (Spain) becomes also king of HRE.(2020) YT: FOL - French Docu This made France surrounded by Hapsburgs on all sides. Francis1 (France) had wanted the HRE throne, and a rivalry emerged.
4Feb1519Maximilian1 reign ends and Charles5 reign begins, 167 days later.Wiki: HRECharles5, grandson of Maximilian1. King of Germany, Italy, Archduke of Austria, King of Spain, Lord of the Netherlands and Duke of Burgundy
1519Texas is part of Spain.(Reference Missing)
1519Hernán Cortés (Spain) arrived on the Gulf Coast.SFGate - Olmecs to ToltecsCortés gained allies in Tenochtitlan's rival cities. Malintzin Marina (Tabasco, translator, aka La Malinche), joined Cortés' micropower as part of a peace offering.
8Nov1519Cortés (Spain) Meets Montezuma (Aztec)(2019) YT: VotP - Cortés MontezumaMontezuma tells their history - they were vassals of a foreign lord, who came here on ships to establish a colony. But the lord didn't return for so long that his colony intermarried with the native micropowers, and had children, so they wouldn't recognize him as their ruler, nor leave with him. And they see a foreign lord as their true soverign. So they took Cortés as the representative of that soverign, and basically gave the city to him. (What motivated Montezuma to supplicate so hard?)
1520sAztec Empire uninstalled by smallpox.Imgur: gIY2hKH (link 404s)
21Sep1520Sultan Selim1 YAVUZ (The Strong) Hadim'ul Haramain'ish-Sharifain (Servant of Meccah and Medina) reign ends and Suleiman1 MÛHTEŠEM (The Magnificent) or KANÛNÎ (The Lawgiver) قانونى [qanunaa "legal"] reign begins 9 days later.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultansSon of Selim1 and Hafsa Sultan; Uninstalled of natural causes in his tent during the Siege of Szigetvár in 1566.
1521Chinese Emperor Zhèngdé reign ends and Jiājìng reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1521Martin Luther (HRE) on trial for translating bible and starting religious revolution(2015) YT: CC - LutherLed to Protestants breaking from the Catholic church being able to take Catholic lands and other assets, leads to why Elizabeth2 (England, House York-Lancaster) is the biggest landowner in England
August1521Hernán Cortés led a micropower of conquistadors in taking Tenochtitlan.SFGate - Olmecs to Toltecs
1Dec1521Pope Leo10 (LEO Decimus) (Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici) papacy ends and Pope Adrian6 (HADRIANVS Sextus) (Aryaen Floriszoon Boeyens) (Dutch) papacy begins 39 days later.Wiki: List of PopesMotto: Patere et sustine (Respect and wait) The only Dutch pope; last non-Italian to be elected pope until John Paul2 in 1978. Tutor of HREmperor Charles5. Came to the papacy in the midst of one of its greatest crises, threatened not only by Lutheranism to the north but also by the advance of the Ottoman Turks to the east. He refused to compromise with Lutheranism theologically, demanding Luther's condemnation as a heretic. However, he is noted for having attempted to reform the Catholic Church administratively in response to the Protestant Reformation. Adrian's remarkable admission that the turmoil of the Church was the fault of the Roman Curia itself was read at the 1522–1523 Diet of Nuremberg. His efforts at reform, however, proved fruitless, as they were resisted by most of his Renaissance ecclesiastical contemporaries, and he did not live long enough to see his efforts through to their conclusion.
14Sep1523Pope Adrian6 (HADRIANVS Sextus) (Aryaen Floriszoon Boeyens) papacy ends and Pope Clement7 (CLEMENS Septimus) (Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici) (Italian) papacy begins 73 days later.Wiki: List of PopesMotto: Candor illæsus (Unharmed candor) Cousin of Leo10. Recognized the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin (Capuchins).
1524Mayan king Oxib Keh (Q'umarkaj) reign ends.Wiki: Maya rulers
1525Battle of Pavia.(2020) YT: FOL - French DocuFrance tries to capture Naples, but is driven back, and Francis1 (France) is captured. After this, Francis1 makes the Alliance of the Lily and the Crescent with Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans won a victory at the Battle of Mohawks, but the French ultimately lost the war.
1525Inca king Huayná Cápac reign ends and the kingdom splits over rival brothers, with king Huascár ruling in the south, and king Atahualpa ruling in the north.VanDiverInca: Inca Empire
1526Japanese Emperor Go-Kashiwabara ((Go-Kanmu) (後柏原天皇) [Katsuhito) reign ends and Go-Nara ((Go-Heizei) (後奈良天皇) [Tomohito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1527Rome sacked by imperial troops.Wiki: List of Popes
1530?Grand Master Albert (Teutonic Order aka Poland) converted from Catholic to Lutheran, dissolved Teutonic State and founded Dutchy of Prussia(2015) YT: CC - LutherAlbert founded first Lutheran church, started taking Catholic assets to it. Now a Duke, Albert founds House of Hohenzollern by marrying other royalty and producing heirs.
24Feb1530Charles5 was crowned HREmperor by Pope Clement7 in Bologna, ItalyWiki: HRE
1530Pope Clement7 forbade the divorce of Henry8Wiki: List of PopesHe also crowned Charles5 as emperor at Bologna.
1531Peter Appian observes a comet later determined to be Halley's Comet.(2019) YT: PN - Story of Comets 1
5Jan1531Ferdinand1 HRE reign begins.Wiki: HREFerdinand1, brother of Charles5. King of Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Archduke of Austria. Austrian House of Habsburg, starting unbroken line of Habsburgs until the 18th century. All successive emperors forwent the traditional coronation, as the Habsburgs dispensed with the requirement that emperors be crowned by the pope before exercising their office.
1531Apparition of Mary in Our Lady of Guadalupe.Guardian - Mexico's religious historyOnce a temple to the Aztec goddess Tonantzin, Vatican City's religion would repurpose this for their deity's mom. This event caused a unique version of Vatican City's religion to firmly take hold in Mexico - emphasizing belief in public but ignoring some of the rituals.
1532Inca king Atahualpa uninstalls his brother Huascár, reuniting the empire.VanDiverInca: Inca EmpireAtahualpa naively accepted Spanish help in reuniting the empire.
1533Inca king Atahualpa reign ends the Inca Empire (Tahuantinsuyo) and Francisco Pizarro Manco (Spain) crowned Manco Inca Yupanqui (Manco Cápac2) as the new Inca ruler.VanDiverInca: Inca Empire
1533Tópa Huallpa founds the Vilcabamba Kingdom (or State) in a valley beyond the Cordillera Vilcabamba, northwest of the Urubamba Valley.VanDiverInca: Inca EmpireManco Cápac2 escaped from Cuzco and founded the fortress of Vilcabamba, where he took refuge and periodically fought the powerful armoured Spanish forces. He was successful in several attempts to resist the Spaniards, including the reclaiming of Cuzco for several days.
1533Pope Clement7 commissioned Michelangelo's painting of The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel.Wiki: List of Popes
1533Pope Clement7 approved Copernicus’ heliocentric universe theory.Wiki: List of Popes
1533Pope Clement7's niece was married to the future Henry2 of France.Wiki: List of Popes
25Sep1534Pope Clement7 (CLEMENS Septimus) (Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici) papacy ends and Pope Paul3 (PAVLVS Tertius) (Alessandro Farnese) (Italian) papacy begins 18 days later.Wiki: List of PopesHis illegitimate son became the first duke of Parma. Decreed the second and final excommunication of King Henry8 of England. Recognized the Order of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits).
1539"Italian Wars" end.(2020) YT: FOL - French Docu
1540Edict of Fontainbleau issued in France.(2020) YT: FOL - French DocuThis declared French Protestants to be (known as..."ugano-huganos"?) or "traitors to god". Thousands uninstalled in the conflict - basically a religious civil war. Before this, Francis1 (France) was open to Protestantism - but eventually soured on it. He funded projects abroad - most famous explorer was Jacques Cartier, who named Canada after the native name for "settlement" (Or "village").
1541The Gustav Vasa Bible printed(2020) YT: Langfocus - SwedishFirst Bible in Swedish, made on a printing press. This marks the beginning of the Modern Swedish period, reducing from 4 cases to 2 and 3 genders to 2, and simplified verb system.
1543Rough Wooing starts(2019) YT: OSP - ScotlandWar between England and Scotland, to get Scotland to stop helping France.
1544Diego de Almagro (Spain) uninstalls Manco Inca Yupanqui (Manco Cápac2).VanDiverInca: Inca Empire
1545Europe returns to Japan - this time to sell, not to invade - they're selling clocks, guns, and Christianity.(2016) YT: BW - history of japanNow Sengoku Jidai, with guns! Puppets control the emperor, and every micropower leader wants to become Shogun.
1545Diego de Almagro (Spain) crowns Sayri Túpac as Inca ruler, to replace Manco Inca Yupanqui (Manco Cápac2).VanDiverInca: Inca Empire
1545Pope Clement7 opened the Council of Trent.Wiki: List of Popes
1546Pope Clement7 appointed Michelangelo to supervise construction of St Peter's Basilica.Wiki: List of Popes
1547Henry8 (England) uninstalls.(2015) YT: PTA - Evol Firearms
28Jan1547Rex Anglie (King of the English) Henry8 reign ends and Edward6 reign beginsWiki: English monarchsSon of Henry8,
1547Francis1 (France) succeded by his son Henry2.(2020) YT: FOL - French Docu
10Nov1549Pope Paul3 (PAVLVS Tertius) (Alessandro Farnese) papacy ends and Pope Julius3 (IVLIVS Tertius) (Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte) (Italian) papacy begins 89 days later.Wiki: List of PopesEstablished the Collegium Germanicum (1552). Reconvened the Council of Trent. The Innocenzo Scandal.
1550Growth of the Ottoman Empire reign ends and Transformation of the Ottoman Empire reign begins.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultans
1551Rough Wooing ends.(2019) YT: OSP - ScotlandScottish don't like English anymore, and this sentiment holds until the Act of Union.
10Jul1553Rex Anglie (King of the English) Edward6 reign ends, Jane reign lasts 10 days, and Bloody Mary1 reign beginsWiki: English monarchsJane Disputed claimant. Married to Guildford Dudley The Strand 21 May 1553. Great-granddaughter of Henry7 and Elizabeth of York Devise for the Succession. Forcefully uninstalled in the Tower of London on 2/12/1554. Mary1 Married to Philip2 of Spain Winchester Cathedral 25 July 1554. Daughter of Henry8, Third Succession Act
25Jul1554Rex Anglie (King of the English) Philip (Spain) married Mary1 of England, somewhat shared rule.Wiki: English monarchs3 other marriages, 7 children. Husband of Mary1 Act for the Marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain
1555Peace of Augsburg.(Reference Missing)
29Mar1555Pope Julius3 (IVLIVS Tertius) (Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte) papacy ends and Pope Marcellus2 (MARCELLVS Secundus) (Marcello Cervini degli Spannochi) (Italian) papacy begins 11 day later.Wiki: List of PopesThe last to use his birth name as the regnal name. Instituted immediate economies in Vatican expenditures. The Missa Papae Marcelli composed in his honour.
1May1555Pope Marcellus2 (MARCELLVS Secundus) (Marcello Cervini degli Spannochi) papacy ends and Pope Paul4 (PAVLVS Quartus) (Giovanni Pietro Carafa, C.R) (Italian) papacy begins 22 days later.Wiki: List of PopesMotto: Dominus mihi adjutor (The Lord is my helper) Member of the Theatines. Established the Roman Ghetto in Cum Nimis Absurdum (1555) and established the Index of Forbidden Books. Ordered Michelangelo to repaint the nudes of The Last Judgment modestly.
27Aug1556Ferdinand1 was crowned HREmperor. and Charles5 HRE reign ends.Wiki: HRE
1557Japanese Emperor Go-Nara ((Go-Heizei) (後奈良天皇) [Tomohito) reign ends and Ōgimachi (正親町天皇) [Michihito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1558Francis2 (France) marries Mary, Queen of Scots.(2020) YT: FOL - French Docu
17Nov1558Rex & Regina Anglie (Queen of the English) Bloody Mary1 & Philip (Spain) reign ends and Elizabeth1 The Virgin Queen reign beginsWiki: English monarchsPhilip Uninstalled 9/13/1598. Elizabethan era. Daughter of Henry8, Third Succession Act
1559Peace of "Catmusaw-cwazee" ends the wars in Italy.(2020) YT: FOL - French DocuCharles5 had already abdicated, re-separating thrones of Spain and the HRE.
1559France population 15 million.(2020) YT: FOL - French Docu
1559Henry2 (France) uninstalls unexpectedly in a jousting accident, succeded by his 15 year old son Francis2 (France).(2020) YT: FOL - French DocuFrancis2 was old enough to rule, but his mother Catherine de Medici, and Mary's uncles from the House of Guise (Giiz) would run it for him.
18Aug1559Pope Paul4 (PAVLVS Quartus) (Giovanni Pietro Carafa, C.R) papacy ends and Pope Pius4 (PIVS Quartus) (Giovanni Angelo Medici) (Italian) papacy begins 130 days later.Wiki: List of PopesReopened and closed the Council of Trent. Ordered public construction to improve the water supply of Rome. Instituted the Tridentine Creed.
1560Francis2 (France) uninstalls unexpectedly, with no heir, succeded by Charles9.(2020) YT: FOL - French DocuHad he sired an heir, the heir would have a claim to both France and Scotland.
1560Imagawa micropower of Japan seek control of Kyoto, but have to go through smaller Oda micropower's territory to get there.(2016) YT: BW - history of japanOda micropower wins.
1560Inca ruler Sayri Túpac reign ends and Titu Cusi Yupanqui reign begins.VanDiverInca: Inca Empire
1562French Wars of Religion start.(2020) YT: FOL - French DocuThis was a series of 8 wars across 36 years - a cycle of outrage, conflict, peace, then outrage at the peace terms. French monarchs tried to compromise, but wound up satisfying neither side. 3 million humans uninstalled in these wars.
1Mar1562Francis, Duke of Guise (Scotland) "uninstalled en masse" 100 "traitors to god" in the city of Basil.(Reference Missing)
22Nov1562Maximilian2 HRE reign begins.Wiki: HREMaximilian2, son of Ferdinand1. King of Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Archduke of Austria
25Jul1564Maximilian2 was crowned HREmperor. and Ferdinand1 HRE reign ends.Wiki: HRE
9Dec1565Pope Pius4 (PIVS Quartus) (Giovanni Angelo Medici) papacy ends and Pope St Pius5 (PIVS Quintus) (Antonio Ghislieri, O.P) (Italian) papacy begins 29 days later.Wiki: List of PopesMotto: Utinam dirigantur viæ meæ ad custodiendas (It binds us to keep) Member of the Dominican Order. Battle of Lepanto (1571); instituted the feast of Our Lady of Victory.
6Sep1566Sultan Suleiman1 MÛHTEŠEM (The Magnificent) or KANÛNÎ (The Lawgiver) قانونى [qanunaa "legal"] reign ends and Selim2 SARI (The Blond) Fatih Cyprus (The Conqueror of Cyprus) Sarhoş (The Drunk) reign begins 23 days later.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultansSon of Suleiman1 and Hürrem Sultan.
1566Chinese Emperor Jiājìng reign ends and Lóngqìng reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1568Oda micropower leader, Oda Nobunaga, invades Kyoto and starts taking over the rest of Japan.(2016) YT: BW - history of japan
1570Inca ruler Sayri Túpac reign begins and Túpac Amaru reign ends.VanDiverInca: Inca Empire
1570Pope Pius5 Excommunicated Queen Elizabeth1 (England).Wiki: List of PopesAlso issued the 1570 Roman Missal.
1571The victory of the Holy League at the Battle of LepantoWiki: Ottoman GreeceBefore and after this, small revolts broke out around Greece, but were soon crushed.
1572Margaret, sister of Charles9, married Henry (heir to Navarre).(2020) YT: FOL - French DocuThis was outrageous because France was so very Catholic, while Henry (Navarre) was Protestant. A leader of the "traitors to god" was at the wedding, and Catherine de Medici ordered his uninstalling, which failed. But French Catholics soon found and uninstalled him, as he lay wounded in his bed. This led to a purge of Protestants in the city - the Bartholomew's Day Massacre, in which 15k humans were uninstalled.
1May1572Pope St Pius5 (PIVS Quintus) (Antonio Ghislieri, O.P) papacy ends and Pope Gregory13 (GREGORIVS Tertius Decimus) (Ugo Boncompagni) (Italian) papacy begins 12 days later.Wiki: List of PopesMotto: Aperuit et clausit (Opened and closed); built the Gregorian Chapel in the Vatican. The first pope to bestow the Immaculate Conception as patroness to the Philippine Islands through the bull Ilius Fulti Præsido (1579). Strengthened diplomatic ties with Asian nations.
1572Chinese Emperor Lóngqìng reign ends and Wànlì reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1572Inca ruler Túpac Amaru reign ends the Vilcabamba Kingdom (or State).VanDiverInca: Inca Empire
1574Charles9 (France) uninstalls of illness at 23, succeded by Henry3.(2020) YT: FOL - French DocuAs fourth son of Henry2, Henry3 wasn't ever going to be king, so the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth had already elected him to be their king. He abdicated on horseback after donning a disguise, and returned to France.
1574The production of steel by the cementation process was described in a treatise published in Prague.Wiki: Steel
22Dec1574Sultan Selim2 SARI (The Blond)Fatih Cyprus (The Conqueror of Cyprus) Sarhoş (The Drunk) reign ends and Murad3 Dindar (The Pious) reign begins.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultansSon of Selim2 and Nurbanu Sultan.
1575Chinese Wall built.(2019) YT: OSP - Marco Polo
27Oct1575Rudolph2 HRE reign begins.Wiki: HRERudolph2, son of Maximilian2. King of Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Archduke of Austria
12Oct1576Rudolph2 was crowned HREmperor. and Maximilian2 HRE reign ends.Wiki: HRE
1582Gregorian calendar developed.Wiki: Gregorain calendarItaly, Spain, Portugal, France, Poland (not Prussia) adopt
1582Pope Gregory13 reformed the calendar.Wiki: List of Popes(While the Juilan calendar upgraded the Roman calendar from a pseudo-lunar calendar into a full solar calendar, the Gregorian calendar fine-tuned the leap years, to more accurately approximate Earth's orbit.)
1582Oda Nobunaga, Oda micropower leader in Japan, politically uninstalled.(2016) YT: BW - history of japanThe political uninstaller was uninstalled by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who continued Oda's work.
1583Holy Roman Empire (Germany) adopts Gregorian calendar.Wiki: Gregorain calendar
Late 1500sOpera invented in Florence, Italy.(2019) YT: OotAoE - Baroque Theorbo
10Apr1585Pope Gregory13 (GREGORIVS Tertius Decimus) (Ugo Boncompagni) papacy ends and Pope Sixtus5 (XYSTVS Quintus) (Felice Peretti di Montalto, O.F.M. Conv) (Italian) papacy begins 14 days later.Wiki: List of PopesMember of the Conventual Franciscan Order. Known for fixing and completing building works to major basilicas in Rome. Limited the College of Cardinals to 70 in number; doubled the number of curial congregations.
1586Simon Stevin (Flemish) (Flanders/Dutch?) mathematician and engineer concieves The Epitaph of Stevinus thought experiment.(2013) YT: udiprod - StevinusThis started with a chain on a triangle (of wood or something). If the chain were not balanced on the triangle, then it would roll off to one side. Now, attach the chain ends so it's a loop - this will create a perpetual motion machine, which cannot be.
1586Japanese Cloistered Emperor 陽光院 [Yōkō] (Prince 誠仁親王 [King Sanehito]) existsWiki: List of emperors of JapanCrown Prince who never acceded to the throne. Father of Emperor Go-Yōzei
1586Japanese Emperor Ōgimachi (正親町天皇) [Michihito) reign ends and Go-Yōzei (後陽成天皇) [Kazuhito/Katahito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
15878th French War of Religion (War of the 3 Henrys) starts.(2020) YT: FOL - French Docu
1589A process similar to the cementation process, for case hardening armor and files, was described in a book published in Naples.Wiki: Steel
late 1500sThe standard formula for military-grade gunpowder was saltpeter, sulfur, and charcoal dust in the ratio 6:1:1."John Brown - Petermen"At this time, the only source of potassium nitrate was from rotting organic matter, especially rotting meat and urine. The saltpeter supplier would send out teams of collectors who would locate promising places to dig (abandoned privies and dungheaps) by tasting the soil before digging it out and carting it off to be boiled, strained and evaporated to produce saltpeter of the required purity. It is said that throughout Europe no privy, stable, or dovecote was safe from saltpeter collectors or "petermen".
1590Toyotomi Hideyoshi completes conquering Honshu and Hokkaido islands, completing the Japanese empire at the time.(2016) YT: BW - history of japanHe then confiscated swords, outlawed owning swords or guns, solidified the caste system, and instituted taxation. Then he announced plans to invade China by invading Korea first.
27Aug1590Pope Sixtus5 (XYSTVS Quintus) (Felice Peretti di Montalto, O.F.M. Conv) papacy ends and Pope Urban7 (VRBANVS Septimus) (Giovanni Battista Castagna) (Italian) papacy begins 19 days later.Wiki: List of PopesSupported by the Spanish. Shortest-papacying pope; uninstalled before coronation. Set the first known worldwide smoking ban, banning smoking in and near all churches.
27Sep1590Pope Urban7 (VRBANVS Septimus) (Giovanni Battista Castagna) papacy ends and Pope Gregory14 (GREGORIVS Quartus Decimus) (Niccolò Sfondrati) (Italian) papacy begins 69 days later.Wiki: List of PopesModified the constitution Effraenatam of Sixtus5 so that the penalty for abortion did not apply until the foetus became animated (1591). Made gambling on papal elections punishable by excommunication.
16Oct1591Pope Gregory14 (GREGORIVS Quartus Decimus) (Niccolò Sfondrati) papacy ends and Pope Innocent9 (INNOCENTIVS Nonus) (Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti) (Italian) papacy begins 13 days later.Wiki: List of PopesSupported the cause of King Philip2 of Spain and the Catholic League against King Henry4 of France in the French Wars of Religion. Prohibited the alienation of church property.
30Dec1591Pope Innocent9 (INNOCENTIVS Nonus) (Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti) papacy ends and Pope Clement8 (CLEMENS Octavus) (Ippolito Aldobrandini) (Italian) papacy begins 31 day later.Wiki: List of PopesInitiated an alliance of European Christian powers to partake in the war with the Ottoman Empire known as The Long War (1595). Convened the Congregatio de Auxiliis which addressed doctrinal disputes between the Dominicans and Jesuits regarding free will and divine grace.
16Jan1595Sultan Murad3 Dindar (The Pious) reign ends and Mehmed3 ADLÎ (The Just) reign begins.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultansSon of Murad3 and Safiye Sultan;
1598Toyotomi Hideyoshi passes on without invading Korea.(2016) YT: BW - history of japanHe instructed his council of 5 elders to have his son become emperor, when the son grew up. But Tokugawa Ieyasu, one of the elders, takes power instead.
1598French Wars of Religion end.(2020) YT: FOL - French Docu
1600Battle of Sekigahara [seki-ga-hara] between Tokugawa Ieyasu and Ishida Mitsunari, over Tokugawa's control of the country.(2016) YT: BW - history of japan
1600sFrench gunsmiths refine Snaphorn into flint-lock by joining cover and flint cock to the same spring, and hiding everything behind the lock plate.(2015) YT: PTA - Evol FirearmsFrance also invents the Cartouche - tear it open and pour a bit of powder into the frisson pan and close it, then pour the rest into the barrel, put the baggy in as padding, add bullet. Then aim and fire. Flint would last 50 shots, and battles often came down to whose flint and powder were better. But there was still a long delay between trigger and actual fire. The unexpected flash in the frisson pan would both cause the shooter to flinch, and visually alert the target. Breach loading was common.
1600sSomeone realized that the best crucible steel came from oregrounds iron of a region north of Stockholm, Sweden.Wiki: SteelThis was the best source of iron for melting in crucibles.
1600sEuropeans begin producing steel with a process starting with the smelting of iron ore into pig iron in a blast furnace.Wiki: SteelOriginally employing charcoal, modern methods use coke, which has proven more economical.
1600Some city near Mexico City (Tenochtitlan?) uses lighter-colored stones as a centerline.(2020) YT: THG - Lane Markings
1600Dionysius the Philosopher (metro bishop) in Thessaly led a short-term revolt.Wiki: Ottoman Greece
1600sCodex Regius first referenced, with information about Norse culture and traditions.(2016) YT: OSP - Poetic EddaA number of short stories, it's one of the few sources of information about the ancient Norse land and micropowers. Some pages have gone missing since this time.
1601The production of steel by the cementation process was in use in Nuremberg.Wiki: Steel
1603Tokugawa Ieyasu wins over Ishida Mitsunari, moves to Edo to form Tokugawa Shogunate.(2016) YT: BW - history of japanEdo (Tokyo) isn't far from Miura, the original home of the Shogunate.
1603Sengoku Jidai (Age of Warring States) ends with the start of the Tokugawa (Ieyasu) Shogunate(2017) YT: FH - Meiji Restoration
24Mar1603Personal union of the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland.Wiki; British Monarchs
24Mar1603Regina Anglie (Queen of the English) Elizabeth1 The Virgin Queen reign ends and James1 reign beginsWiki: English monarchsHouse of Stuart, Stuart period, Jacobean era, and Caroline era. Married to Anne of Denmark Oslo 23 November 1589 7 children. Great-great-grandson / heir general of Henry7 and Elizabeth of York
1603Muromachi period and Azuchi–Momoyama period ends and the Edo period begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1603Tudor Britain ends with Civil War and Revolution(20??) YT: A Great British Timeline (link 404s)
22Dec1603Sultan Mehmed3 ADLÎ (The Just) reign ends and Ahmed1 BAḪTī (The Fortunate) reign begins.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultansSon of Mehmed3 and Handan Sultan.
1604Samuel de Champlain (France) had scouts report to him of an amazing waterfall in the Niagra area.Wiki: Niagara Falls
1604Johannes Kepler observes a supernova later to be named after him.(2020) YT: FC - Betelgeuse
1604Kepler's supernova was the most recent one in our galaxy.(2020) YT: LPA - Betelgeuse
3Mar1605Pope Clement8 (CLEMENS Octavus) (Ippolito Aldobrandini) papacy ends and Pope Leo11 (LEO Undecimus) (Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici) (Italian) papacy begins 29 days later.Wiki: List of PopesThe great-nephew of Leo10. Called "Papa Lampo" (Lightning Pope) for his brief pontificate.
27Apr1605Pope Leo11 (LEO Undecimus) (Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici) papacy ends and Pope Paul5 (PAVLVS Quintus) (Camillo Borghese) (Italian) papacy begins 19 days later.Wiki: List of PopesMotto: Absit nisi in te gloriari (May it be absent, except to glory in you) Known for various building projects which included the facade of St Peter's Basilica. Established the Bank of the Holy Spirit (1605); restored the Aqua Traiana.
1607Johannes Kepler observes a comet later determined to be Halley's Comet.(2019) YT: PN - Story of Comets 1
1609Letter of Magesty gives religious freedom in HRE.(Reference Missing)
1610sSir Basil Brooke produced steel using the cementation process at Coalbrookdale.Wiki: Steel
1610Prussia adopts Gregorian CalendarWiki: Gregorain calendar
1610Galileo sees 4 moons around Jupiter(2019) YT: PN - Barnards Star
1611Japanese Emperor Go-Yōzei (後陽成天皇) [Kazuhito/Katahito) reign ends and Go-Mizunoo (Go-Minoo) (Go-Seiwa) (後水尾天皇) [Kotohito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1611Another short-term revolt occurred in Epirus.Wiki: Ottoman Greece
20Jan1612Rudolph2 reign ends and Matthias reign begins, 145 days later.Wiki: HREMatthias, brother of Rudolf2. King of Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Archduke of Austria
1614The cementation process was introduced to England.Wiki: Steel
1615Tokugawa Ieyasu claims title shogun, ending the 1.5 century Japanese civil war.(2012) YT: OSP - Meiji RestorationHe moves to Edo (Tokyo), starting the Edo period. His Shogunate implemented a strict class structure, confiscated swords from non-samurai, and closed Japan to non-Japanese (except the Dutch).
17Feb1616Emperor 努爾哈赤 [Nurhaci] reign begins the Later Jin (後金) period.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1617Ferdinand2 takes over as HRE and King of Bohemia, revokes Letter of Magesty(2017) YT: FH - 30y war
22Nov1617Sultan Ahmed1 BAḪTī (The Fortunate) reign ends and Mustafa1 DELİ (The Mad) reign begins.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultansSon of Mehmed3 and Halime Sultan; Deposed due to his mental instability in favour of his young nephew Osman2.
23May1618Protestant Bohemians revolt. Second defenstration of Prague, starting the 30-years war, Bohemian part(2017) YT: FH - 30y war
26Feb1618Sultan Mustafa1 DELİ (The Mad) reign ends and Osman2 GENÇ (The Young) ŞEHÎD (The Martyr) شهيد [Sha-hid] reign begins.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultansSon of Ahmed1 and Mahfiruz Hatun; Deposed in a Janissary riot on 19 May 1622; Uninstalled on 20 May 1622 by the Grand Vizier Kara Davud Pasha.
1619Frederick5 elected king of Bohemia(2017) YT: FH - 30y war
28Aug1619Ferdinand2 reign begins and Matthias reign ends, -161 day later.Wiki: HREFerdinand2, cousin of Matthias. King of Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Archduke of Austria
1620Chinese Emperor Wànlì reign ends and Tiānqǐ reign begins the Tàichāng period.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
8Nov1620Battle of White Mountain between Frederick5 and Ferdinand2, ending the Bohemian phase of the 30-year war. Netherlands are Catholic near HRE and threatened(2017) YT: FH - 30y war
1620sMayflower passengers in New England - some uninstall, and infect most of the rest, who also uninstall.Imgur: gIY2hKH (link 404s)
28Jan1621Pope Paul5 (PAVLVS Quintus) (Camillo Borghese) papacy ends and Pope Gregory15 (GREGORIVS Quintus Decimus) (Alessandro Ludovisi) (Italian) papacy begins 12 days later.Wiki: List of PopesEstablished the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith (1622). Issued the bull Aeterni Patris (1621) which imposed conclaves to be by secret ballot. Issued the constitution Omnipotentis Dei against magicians and witches (1623).
20May1622Sultan Osman2 GENÇ (The Young) ŞEHÎD (The Martyr) شهيد [Sha-hid] reign ends and Mustafa1 DELİ (The Mad) reign begins.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultansSecond reign; Returned to the throne after the uninstall by political rivals of his nephew Osman2; Deposed due to his poor mental health and confined until his uninstall in Istanbul on 20 January 1639.
1623Tokugawa Iemitsu comes to power, persecutes Christians, outlaws guns, and locks everyone into caste system(2017) YT: FH - Meiji Restoration
8Jul1623Pope Gregory15 (GREGORIVS Quintus Decimus) (Alessandro Ludovisi) papacy ends and Pope Urban8 (VRBANVS Octavus) (Maffeo Barberini) (Italian) papacy begins 29 days later.Wiki: List of PopesTrial against Galileo Galilei. The last pope to expand papal territory by force of arms. Issued a 1624 bill that made the use of tobacco in holy places punishable by excommunication.
10Sep1623Sultan Mustafa1 DELİ (The Mad) reign ends and Murad4 SAHİB-Î KIRAN The Conqueror of Baghdad ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior) غازى [ghaza, "gaseous"] reign begins.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultansSon of Ahmed1 and Kösem Sultan.
1624Dutch traders first settle the region that would become NYC.(2018) YT: MZ - NYC Evolution
1625Danes are defeated by HRE in 30-years war(2017) YT: FH - 30y war
27Mar1625Rex Anglie (King of the English) James1 reign ends and Charles1 reign beginsWiki: English monarchs
1626Charles1 (England) ordered the collection of urine.John Brown - PetermenHe ordered "his loving subjects [to] carefully and constantly keep and preserve in some convenient vessels or receptacles fit for the purpose, all the urine of man during the whole year, and all the stale of beasts which they can save and gather together whilst their beasts are in their stables and stalls, and that they be careful to use the best means of gathering together and preserving the urine and stale, without mixture of water or other thing put therein. Which our commandment and royal pleasure, being easy to observe, and so necessary for the public service of us and our people, that if any person do be remiss thereof we shall esteem all such persons contemptuous and ill affected both to our person and estate, and are resolved to proceed to the punishment of that offender with what severity we may."
1626Charles (England) abruptly dissolves the Parliament of 1626 before it had granted any subsidies, causing himself to be desperately short of money.BCW Project - Forced LoansHe kept hearing about everyone else's victories and his own failures, and started planning. To fund his war plans, he "pawned" the crown jewels, invented taxes on customs that Parliament hadn't yet said he couldn't, and requested mandatory loans of his wealthier subjects. Nobles and gentry across the kingdom became the loan collectors. The deeply unpopular loans raised more than £250k (2021 equivalent $87.4 million) within a year. 76 famous gentlemen refused and were imprisoned, but not charged with crimes, out of fear that the judges might rule against Charles. This imprisonment was not unheard of but unprecedented.
1627Chinese Emperor Tiānqǐ reign ends and 皇太極 [Hong Taiji] of Ming reign begins the Chóngzhēn period.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
16275 British gentlemen, imprisoned for refusing to loan money to Charles (England), applied for writs of habeus corpus (to have the body).BCW Project - Forced LoansThis called into question the legality of their imprisonment. Judges found in favour of Charles and the five were returned to prison, but the case became a focus of opposition to the King's arbitrary use of his powers. Roger Maynwaring and Robert Sibthorpe (England) preached sermons justifying Charles' actions, by virtue of his Divine Right, and Charles ordered these to be published. George Abbot (Archbishop of Canterbury) was reluctant to license them, but was superseded by William Laud (England) and a commission of bishops.
1628Prince Khurram, 5th son of Emperor Jahangir (India) becomes emperor of India at Agra.History.com: RomanticsHis father had given him the title of Shah Jahan, or "King of the World".
1629Huygens installs(2018) YT: PN - Titan
1629Japanese Emperor Go-Mizunoo (Go-Minoo) (Go-Seiwa) (後水尾天皇) [Kotohito) reign ends and Empress Meishō (明正天皇) [Okiko) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1630Of the land that would become the future USA - 1.023 billion acres (1.6 million sq mi, 4.1 million sq km, 46% of the total land area) was forested.Imgur: Volcano chicken
1630Swedish part of 30-years war starts, with France's funding. This shows a shift from a religious conflict to a political conflict(2017) YT: FH - 30y war
1631Mumtaz Mahal, first wife of Emperor Khurram, and favorite of his 3 queens, uninstalls.History.com: RomanticsHer last wish was for him to build the most beautiful mausoleum for her. He built the Taj Mahal. (Was it named after her - is "Taj" short for "Mumtaz"?) "Set across the Jamuna River from the royal palace in Agra, the white marble fade of the Taj Mahal reflects differing hues of light throughout the day, glowing pink at sunrise and pearly white in the moonlight. At its center, surrounded by delicate screens filtering light, lies the cenotaph, or coffin, containing the remains of the Shah’s beloved queen.
15Apr1632Battle of Rain: Swedes under Gustavus Adolphus defeat the HRE (during 30-years war)Imgur: 4/15 in history
6Nov1632Swedish general uninstalls, ending Swedish phase of 30-years war(2017) YT: FH - 30y warWas the general Gustavus Adolphus?
1634Japan is closed(2016) YT: BW - history of japan
1634Tokugawa government closes Japan.(2016) YT: BW - history of japan"Sakoku" the sign outside said. Dutch still allowed to trade - at one port, Dejima, on the western coast of Kyushu.
1635Sweden swaps (tag-team tag-out) with France to fight HRE(2017) YT: FH - 30y war
1635Robert Hooke installs(2019) YT: PN - Story of Comets 1
30Sep1636Chinese Emperor 努爾哈赤 [Nurhaci] reign ends the Later Jin (後金) period, and Qing dynasty (清朝) begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs皇太極 [Hong Taiji] of Ming remains in power through this transition.
22Dec1636Ferdinand3 HRE reign begins.Wiki: HREFerdinand3, son of Ferdinand2. King of Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Archduke of Austria
1637Christians and farmers revolted in Japan, Dutch used to crush revolt. In return Dutch allowed to trade(2017) YT: FH - Meiji Restoration
1637Warriors had no war, but Merchants found prosperity and started to live better than Samurai(2017) YT: FH - Meiji Restoration
15Feb1637Ferdinand3 was crowned HREmperor. and Ferdinand2 HRE reign ends.Wiki: HRE
163830-years war ends.(2017) YT: FH - 30y war
9Feb1640Sultan Murad4 SAHİB-Î KIRAN The Conqueror of Baghdad ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior) غازى [ghaza, "gaseous"] reign ends and Ibrahim DELİ (The Mad) The Conqueror of Crete ŞEHÎD reign begins.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultansSon of Ahmed1 and Kösem Sultan; Deposed on 8 August 1648 in a coup led by the Sheikh ul-Islam; Strangled in Istanbul on 18 August 1648 at the behest of the Grand Vizier Mevlevî Mehmed Paşa (Sofu Mehmed Pasha).
1641Johannes Hevelius builds 150 foot telescope in Danzig, Poland(2018) YT: IA - Megatelescopes
1642Missionary Paul Raguneneau (France) supposedly witnesses the Niagra falls.Wiki: Niagara Falls
1643Japanese Empress Meishō (明正天皇) [Okiko) reign ends and Go-Kōmyō (後光明天皇) [Tsuguhito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1643皇太極 [Hong Taiji] of Ming reign ends and 福臨 [Fúlín] of Ming reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
29Jul1644Pope Urban8 (VRBANVS Octavus) (Maffeo Barberini) papacy ends and Pope Innocent10 (INNOCENTIVS Decimus) (Giovanni Battista Pamphilj) (Italian) papacy begins 48 days later.Wiki: List of PopesMotto: Alleviatæ sunt aquæ super terram (Water on earth) The great-great-great-grandson of Alexander6. Erected the Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi in Piazza Navona. Promulgated the apostolic constitution Cum occasione (1653) which condemned five doctrines of Jansenism as heresy.
1644闖王 [King Chuǎng] (The Dashing King) reign begins the 順朝 (Shun dynasty), and Chóngzhēn reign ends the 明朝 (Ming dynasty) and 朱由崧 [Zhū Yóusōng] of Ming reign begins the 南明 (Southern Ming) dynasty.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1645Maunder Minimum begins.NASA: The Inconstant SunSun has no sunspots for about 70 years. Thames river in London freezes. Glaciers advance in the Alps.
1645闖王 [King Chuǎng] (The Dashing King) reign ends the 順朝 (Shun dynasty), and 朱由崧 [Zhū Yóusōng] of Ming reign ends and 朱聿鍵 [Zhū Yùjiàn] and 朱常淓 [Zhū Chángfāng] and 朱以海 [Zhū Yǐhǎi] of Ming reigns beginWiki: Chinese monarchs
1645Cretan War begins.Wiki: Ottoman GreeceThe Maniots would aid Francesco Morosini and the Venetians in the Peloponnese. Greek irregulars also aided the Venetians through the Morean War in their operations on the Ionian Sea and Peloponnese.
1646Emperor 朱聿鍵 [Zhū Yùjiàn] of Ming reign ends and 朱聿𨮁 [Zhū Yùyuè] and 朱由榔 [Zhū Yóuláng] of Ming reigns begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsDoes Ming currently have 5 leaders?
26Mar1646English Parliament issues An Ordinance enabling Saltpeter-men to make Gun-Powder.British History - Saltpeter

"This Ordinance of Parliament to continue for three yeers, from the six and twentieth day of March, 1646." (thus)

What:
  • Power for specified individuals to dig for Saltpeter in likely places.
  • Penalties for not allowing digging were going in front of one of many legal authorities, and being judged.
  • Saltpeter-men had quotas to fill, and had to work from 30 minutes after sunrise, until 60 minutes before sunset.
    • But pigeon houses had different hours: 9am-3pm. (Why?)
  • So they could come by and disrupt your morning routine to dig a big hole in your outhouse, then fill it in.
  • They could take your cart and use it to carry the bottles and buckets of what they dig up, but they had to pay you 8 pence (2021 equivalent $5.85) per 1 mile (0.6 km).
  • They could take your bottles and jugs, and return them without paying you. (Did they have to clean them out?)
  • They were exempt from taxes and tolls.
Why:
  • Gunpowder was expensive because the King starts a lot of wars, and they'd used up their national stash.
  • Having this stuff on hand means repelling potential invaders, and keeping the country running.
    • Without more, they couldn't supply all of their navies, forts, and armies.
  • Foreign saltpeter sucks.
    • Other countries had banned selling saltpeter to them. (Because they don't want to be shot with their own saltpeter?)
  • Gunpowder will be way cheaper.
1647Jacobite government overthrown.(2015) YT: EH - South Sea 1
8Aug1648Sultan Ibrahim DELİ (The Mad) The Conqueror of Crete ŞEHÎD reign ends and Mehmed4 AVCI (The Hunter) ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior) غازى [ghaza, "gaseous"] reign begins.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultansSon of Ibrahim and Turhan Sultan; Deposed on 8 November 1687 following the Ottoman defeat at the Second Battle of Mohács; Uninstalled in Edirne on 6 January 1693.
1648Peace of Westphalia weakens HRE, makes Netherlands & Swizerland free, Prussia and France get territory(Reference Missing)
6Jan1649Charles1 (England, Scotland, Ireland) appears before English High Court of Justice, after being accused of tyranny, treason, and uninstalling others.(2020) YT: HC - Trial Charles1Oliver Cromwell watched, turning "white as a wall" when Charles1 showed up. Cromwell knew the King would ask "under what Authority and Commission do you try me?" And their authority came from the House of Commons, which had - without support of the House of Lords (and probably illegally) - declared its own supremacy, superceding the King, which was thin at best. Eventually someone named Marten broke the silence "In the name of the Commons and Parliament assembled, and all the good people of England."
30Jan1649Rex Anglie (King of the English) Charles1 reign ends and Commonwealth of England and English Interregnum begins.Wiki: English monarchsCharles1 forcefully uninstalled in Whitehall Palace. Married to Henrietta Maria of France St Augustine's Abbey 13 June 1625 9 children. Son of James1 Royalists recognize Charles2 as king.
1653Emperor 朱以海 [Zhū Yǐhǎi] of Ming reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
16Dec1653Oliver Cromwell reign begins.Wiki: English monarchsOliver married to Elizabeth Bourchier St Giles 22 August 1620 9 children
1654Japanese Emperor Go-Kōmyō (後光明天皇) [Tsuguhito) reign ends.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1655Japanese Emperor Go-Sai ((Go-Junna) (後西天皇) [Nagahito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
7Jan1655Pope Innocent10 (INNOCENTIVS Decimus) (Giovanni Battista Pamphilj) papacy ends and Pope Alexander7 (ALEXANDER Septimus) (Fabio Chigi) (Italian) papacy begins 90 days later.Wiki: List of PopesGreat-nephew of Paul5. Commissioned St Peter's Square. Issued the constitution Sollicitudo Omnium Ecclesiarum that set the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception almost identical to that of Pius9 centuries later.
1655Hugyens discovers a moon orbiting Saturn(2018) YT: PN - Titan
1655The British Royal Navy began doling out rum rations.Uncommon - GrogThis was shortly after their momentous victory over the Spanish in Jamaica. Lower decks quickly became useslessly drunk. But the admirals believed in the medicinal value of the lime juice in a pint of rum and water. (Much like the medicinal value of the quinine in a gin and tonic.)
1656Huygens invents and patents the pendulum clock(2018) YT: PN - Titan
2Apr1657Ferdinand3 HRE reign ends.Wiki: HRE
18Jul1658Leopold1 HRE reign begins.Wiki: HRELeopold1, son of Ferdinand3. King of Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Archduke of Austria
3Sep1658Rex Anglie (King of the English) Oliver Cromwell reign ends and Richard Cromwell (Tumbledown Dick) reign beginsWiki: English monarchsMarried to Dorothy Maijor May 1649 9 children
7May1659Rex Anglie (King of the English) Richard Cromwell (Tumbledown Dick) reign endsWiki: English monarchsUninstalled 7/12/1712
29May1660Rex Anglie (King of the English) Commonwealth of England and English Interregnum ends and Charles2 reign beginsWiki: English monarchsHouse of Stuart (restored). Married to Catherine of Braganza Portsmouth 21 May 1662. Son of Charles1 English Restoration
1661Robert Boyle described the qualities of acids and bases.ThoughtCo: Acids & bases
1661Emperor 福臨 [Fúlín] of Ming reign ends and 玄燁 [Xuányè] of Ming reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1662朱由榔 [Zhū Yóuláng] of Ming reign ends the 南明 (Southern Ming) dynasty.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
1663Cranberries first recorded in recipes.(2018) YT: AP - Fruit GeographyThe Narragansett (and other North American micropowers and nations which predate the USA) had been using them for generations as both food and dyes, and now were sharing these overwhelmingly sour fruits with their new European immigrant neighbors.
1663Japanese Emperor Go-Sai ((Go-Junna) (後西天皇) [Nagahito) reign ends and Reigen (霊元天皇) [Satohito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1664England claims the area that would become NYC from the Dutch.(2018) YT: MZ - NYC EvolutionJust the tip of Manhattan had been settled - a rough grid of only 4x3 streets.
1665Giovanni Cassini sees the Great Red Storm on Jupiter.(2020) YT: Primal Space - Red SpotHe was also called Gian Domenico or Jean-Dominique.
1665Japan sees great peace and prosperity from being not in civil war, and has a massive population boom - almost double, from about 17 million to about 30 million.(2016) YT: BW - history of japanThis led to an explosion of civilization on the islands - businesses, schools, roads, literacy, books, haiku poetry, kabuki plays, ukiyo entertainment, bunraku puppets, and "Dutch Studies" of everything else.
22May1667Pope Alexander7 (ALEXANDER Septimus) (Fabio Chigi) papacy ends and Pope Clement9 (CLEMENS Nonus) (Giulio Rospigliosi) (Italian) papacy begins 29 days later.Wiki: List of PopesMotto: Aliis non sibi Clemens (Clement to others, not to himself) Mediated in the peace of Aachen (1668).
1669Phosphorus discovered.(Reference Missing)
9Dec1669Pope Clement9 (CLEMENS Nonus) (Giulio Rospigliosi) papacy ends and Pope Clement10 (CLEMENS Decimus) (Emilio Bonaventura Altieri) (Italian) papacy begins 141 day later.Wiki: List of PopesMotto: Bonum auget malum minuit (He increases good and diminishes evil) Canonized the first saint from the Americas: St Rose of Lima (1671). Decorated the bridge of St Angelo with the ten statues of angels and added one of the two fountains that adorn the piazza of St Peter's. Established regulations for the removal of relics of saints from cemeteries.
1669Cretan War ends.Wiki: Ottoman Greece
1670Pocahontas guides colonists.(Reference Missing)
1671Johannes Hevelius' telescope is burned down, and the kings of both France and Poland gave him money to rebuild(2018) YT: IA - Megatelescopes
1671Giovanni Cassini discovers Iapetus around Saturn.(2018) YT: PN - Mini-moonsCassini saw Iapetus showing irregular brightness, and correctly deduced it's got a bright (high albedo) side and a dark (low albedo) side.
1675Patomskiy Crater formed in Siberia.(2015) YT: LEMMiNO - Unsolved Top10
20Oct1675Ferdinand von Hohenhems becomes Count of Vaduz(2020) YT: RE - LiechtensteinFerdinand was a spoiled brat, and had racked up incredible debt by now. He starts witch hunts to steal money/inheritence/land from his constituency.
22Jul1676Pope Clement10 (CLEMENS Decimus) (Emilio Bonaventura Altieri) papacy ends and Pope Bl. Innocent11 (INNOCENTIVS Undecimus) (Benedetto Odescalchi) (Italian) papacy begins 61 day later.Wiki: List of PopesMotto: Avarus non Implebitur (The covetous man is not satisfied) Condemned the doctrine of mental reservation (1679) and initiated the Holy League. Extended the Holy Name of Mary as a universal feast (1684). Admired for positive contributions to catechesis.
1677Missionary Louis Hennepin (Belgium) witnesses the Niagra falls and tells other Europeans.Wiki: Niagara FallsThis honoree has concensus as first to see the falls.
1682Edwin Hubble and Giovanni Cassini observe "The Great Comet of 1682"(2019) YT: PN - Story of Comets 1
6Feb1685Rex Anglie (King of the English) Charles2 reign ends and James2 reign beginsWiki: English monarchsMarried to (1) Anne Hyde The Strand 3 September 1660 8 children(2) Mary of Modena Dover 21 November 1673 7 children. Son of Charles1
1685Texas becomes part of France.(Reference Missing)
5Jul1686Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica published by Issac Newton at Edward Halley's press(2019) YT: PN - Story of Comets 1Unifies mathematics, covers topics from planetary motions to double-entry bookkeeping. Showed that comet tails lead away from the sun, so could not be refracted sunlight, and were probably comet head cloud from heated matter. Formalizes many ideas, from the inverse square law, to the limits in calculus.
1687Japanese Emperor Reigen (霊元天皇) [Satohito) reign ends and Higashiyama (東山天皇) [Asahito/Tomohito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
8Nov1687Sultan Mehmed4 AVCI (The Hunter) ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior) غازى [ghaza, "gaseous"] reign ends and Suleiman2 ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior) reign begins.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultansSon of Ibrahim and Aşub Sultan.
23Dec1688Rex Anglie (King of the English) James2 reign endsWiki: English monarchsOverthrown. Uninstalled on 9/16/1701
1689Treaty of NerchinskWiki: Boxer RebellionThis treaty created peace between the Russian and Qing empires.
13Feb1689Rex & Regina Anglie (Queen of the English) Mary2 & William3 of Orange marry.Wiki: English monarchsOffered the Crown by Parliament. Mary2 Daughter of James2. William3 Grandson of Charles1.
12Aug1689Pope Bl. Innocent11 (INNOCENTIVS Undecimus) (Benedetto Odescalchi) papacy ends and Pope Alexander8 (ALEXANDER Octavus) (Pietro Vito Ottoboni) (Italian) papacy begins 55 days later.Wiki: List of PopesCondemned the so-called philosophical sin (1690).
1690Texas becomes part of Spain again.(Reference Missing)
23Jan1690Joseph1 HRE reign begins.Wiki: HREJoseph1, son of Leopold1. King of Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Archduke of Austria
1690s9 Years War has France5 Rest of Continent & British Isles(2018) YT: Zepherus - Eddystone
1Feb1691Pope Alexander8 (ALEXANDER Octavus) (Pietro Vito Ottoboni) papacy ends and Pope Innocent12 (INNOCENTIVS Duodecimus) (Antonio Pignatelli, O.F.S) (Italian) papacy begins 161 day later.Wiki: List of PopesIssued the bull Romanum decet Pontificem to stop nepotism (1692). Erected various charitable and educational institutions.
22Jun1691Sultan Suleiman2 ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior) reign ends and Ahmed2 ḪĀN ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior Prince) reign begins.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultansSon of Ibrahim and Muazzez Sultan.
Dec1694Regina Anglie (Queen of the English) Mary2 reign endsWiki: English monarchsMarried to George of Denmark St James's Palace 28 July 1683 3 children. Daughter of James2 Bill of Rights 1689
6Feb1695Sultan Ahmed2 ḪĀN ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior Prince) reign ends and Mustafa2 ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior) reign begins.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultansSon of Mehmed4 and Gülnuş Sultan; Deposed on 22 August 1703 by a Janissary uprising known as the Edirne Event; Uninstalled in Istanbul on 8 January 1704.
1695Halley and Newton revise comet data for Principia 2nd edition, including the notion of periodic comets.(2019) YT: PN - Story of Comets 1Halley creates table to precisely identify comet locations, and combs historical records to try and identify patterns - realizes the comet he'd seen in 1682 had been seen numerous times in history.
1695Snowdrop and Constant sink on the Eddystone Reef.(2018) YT: Zepherus - EddystoneThis causes Henry Winstanley (inventor, painter, engraver, and owner of both ships) to design and build the 1st Eddystone Lighthouse, the first lighthouse to face the open sea.
16981st Eddystone Lighthouse completed(2018) YT: Zepherus - Eddystone24 meters (78 feet) tall (shorter than the 28 meter (92 foot) waves)
1699France gains control of Louisiana PurchaseWiki: Louisiana Purchase
16992nd Eddystone Lighthouse completed(2018) YT: Zepherus - Eddystone36.5 meters (119 ft) tall, with a gallery
1700Transformation of the Ottoman Empire ends and Stagnation and reform of the Ottoman Empire begins.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultans
27Sep1700Pope Innocent12 (INNOCENTIVS Duodecimus) (Antonio Pignatelli, O.F.S) papacy ends and Pope Clement11 (CLEMENS Undecimus) (Giovanni Francesco Albani) (Italian) papacy begins 57 days later.Wiki: List of PopesThe Chinese Rites controversy. Patronized the first archaeological excavations in the Roman catacombs and made the feast of the Immaculate Conception universal.
1700sThe Lakota Sioux micropower move permanently into the Great Plains.130 (2019) YT: HP - Wounded KneeThe habit of following bison around only happened after horses were introduced into North America by Europeans, where horses were a milder invasive species than most.
1700Germany & Swizerland adopt Gregorian CalendarWiki: Gregorain calendar
1701Frederick1 of Prussia commissions Amber Room in Charlottesburg Castle in Berlin(2017) YT: Zepherus - Amber Room
8March1702Queen Anne's reign began over the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Scotland, and the Kingdom of Ireland.Wiki; British MonarchsQueen Anne and King George1 were second cousins as both were great-grandchildren of James1 and James6.
8Mar1702Regina Anglie (Queen of the English) William3 of Orange reign ends and Anne reign beginsWiki: English monarchs
1703Great Storm hits England. They had a week-long cyclone(2018) YT: Zepherus - EddystoneThousands of chimneys knocked over, 400 windmills, possibly 4000 trees
1703Robert Hooke uninstalls at 68(2019) YT: PN - Story of Comets 1Did he uninstall in the Great Storm of 1703?
17032nd Eddystone Lighthouse destroyed. 2 days later, a ship crashed because the lighthouse wasn't there to mark its course(2018) YT: Zepherus - EddystoneWas it destroyed in the Great Storm of 1703?
1703John Lovett got a 99 year lease on the Eddystone rocks.(2018) YT: Zepherus - EddystoneNumerous ships had crashed in the weeks since the 2nd lighthouse's destruction. He probably charged the shipping companies some kind of maintenance fee, since they're using it.) He hired John Rudyard to design and construct a 3rd, the Rudyard lighthouse.
22Aug1703Sultan Mustafa2 ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior) reign ends and Ahmed3 ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior) reign begins.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultansSon of Mehmed4 and Gülnuş Sultan; Deposed in consequence of the Janissary rebellion led by Patrona Halil; Uninstalled on 1 July 1736.
1703Mr C (England?) writes the Royal Society of London about square and oblong shapes seen in his simple microscope.(2019) YT: JttM - DiatomsOne of the earliest descriptions of diatoms, microsocopic photosynthetic unicellular algae, which can be seen from space. Their cell shells, "frustules", are made from glass, and dirt made from their shells have uses from beer filtering to ant control.
1705Halley publishes A Synopsis of the History of Comets(2019) YT: PN - Story of Comets 1He charts numerous times in history where this same comet shows up every 76 years or so - varying slightly based on the gravity of Jupiter and Saturn, and predicts it will return in 1758.
5May1705Leopold1 HRE reign ends and Joseph1 was crowned HREmperor.Wiki: HRE
1May1707Regina Anglie (Queen of the English) Anne becomes Queen of Great Britain.Wiki: English monarchs
1May1707English Queen Anne (Anne Stuart) reign begins the Kingdom of Great Britain.Wiki; British MonarchsPolitical union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland. Queen Anne became monarch. House Stuart. Married George of Denmark on 28 July 1683, had 5 children
1707Act of Union joins England and Scotland into the United Kingdom (UK) of England and Scotland.(2019) YT: OSP - ScotlandScottish parliament adjourns for 292 years.
1707Act of Union forms the United Kingdom.(2015) YT: EH - South Sea 1
1709Japanese Emperor Higashiyama (東山天皇) [Asahito/Tomohito) reign ends and Nakamikado (中御門天皇) [Yasuhito/Yoshihito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1710Robert Harley gets himself appointed Chancellor of Exchecquor.(2015) YT: EH - South Sea 1

Discovers UK is massively in debt - has 5000 pounds Sterling (2018 equivalent $1.027 million) of assets, and 9000 (2018 equivalent $1.85 million) of debts.Before his investigation, it was known that UK was in debt, but nobody knew how deeply. UK was at war with every foreign lender, at war with Spain (blocking trade), taxation was politically impossible, and the Bank of England were controlled by the Whigs - Harley's political (Torey) enemy.

Harley partnered with James Blunt of the Hollow Sword Blade Company to form the South Seas Company. Their plan was to exchange ownership shares for Army Debentures, a promissory note the army would issue when they couldn't pay. They would charge 6% interest, which was lower than the army was paying individuals, and use the profits to buy land in Ireland. In the lead-up, they bought all the debentures they could to increase demand.

They got the 200k pounds (2018 equivalent $41 million) to buy land in Ireland, and 20k (2018 equivalent $4.1 million) to loan to the government. They also got exclusive rights from the UK government to operate in the South Seas (aka all ports in Central and South America). They advertised this heavily, even hiring the author of Gulliver's Travels to advertise, giving buyers confidence.

House of Lords members don't need election - until recently, any "Peer of the Realm" could be made a lord - so Harley jailed Whig party members Sir Robert Wapole, and John Churchill Duke of Marlborough, in the Tower of London. Then they got the Queen of England to add 12 new Peers, and now Parliament also wanted to end the war with Spain. But they left the war early, and so didn't get loot drops at the end, such as access to the ports. They ended up with slave trade, and 1 ship per year per port. This revealed the South Sea Company to merely be a bank.

1710Robert Harley gets the UK lottery's administration rights (run the thing) given to Blunt.(2015) YT: EH - South Sea 1 He modified the lottery so every ticket would pay at least 10% of its price, across the next decade. Tickets sold quickly and turned present debt into long-term debt.
1711"Dutch Studies" get popular in Japan.(2016) YT: BW - history of japanThe Dutch, still allowed to trade for their help in crushing revolt, become the knowlege gateway from Europe to Japan. Geography, anatomy (skeletons), physics, chemistry, astronomy, maybe electricity.
17Apr1711Joseph1 HRE reign ends and Charles6 reign begins, 178 days later.Wiki: HRECharles6, brother of Joseph1.
1713Weston family buys Eddystone Reef lease from Lovett family(2018) YT: Zepherus - Eddystone
1714Britain ends period of Civil War and Revolution, start period of sea power(20??) YT: A Great British Timeline (link 404s)
1714Elizabeth1 (UK) uninstalls without an heir, and Parliament eventually chooses George1 (UK) to succeed.(2015) YT: EH - South Sea 1Blunt swaps South Seas Company leadership to politically follow. He got the king's son, George2, as the ceremonial Governor of the company. Also got George1 to invest personally. They also forgave 2 years of interest, to placate Wapole and Churchill, in exchange for more stock. They had 10 million pounds Sterling (2018 equivalent $2.355 billion) at this point. (Other entries say Anne uninstalls here, not Elizabeth1.)
1Aug1714Queen of Great Britain Anne reign ends.Wiki: English monarchs
1August1714British Queen Anne (Anne Stuart) reign ends and British King George1 (George Louis) reign beginsWiki; British MonarchsHouse Hanover. Married Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Celle on 21 November 1682, had 2 children
1714South Seas Company takes over UK lottery debt.(2015) YT: EH - South Sea 1
1715First Jacobite Rebellion in Scotland (fails).(2019) YT: OSP - ScotlandThey were tired of England treating them like a colony.
1715Maunder Minimum ends.NASA: The Inconstant SunSun has sunspots again.
1716Tsar of Russia (Peter the Great) visits Amber Room, which was installed in another palace(2017) YT: Zepherus - Amber Room
1716Frederick William1 of Prussia gave Amber Room to Peter of Russia, installed in Winter Palace in St Petersburg(2017) YT: Zepherus - Amber Room
1717George1 and son George2 (UK) get in a fight, after which George1 takes role of Governor of South Seas Company.(2015) YT: EH - South Sea 1This gave unprecedented trust in the company, and tied trust in the crown to the fate of the company.
1717During a UK Lottery debt payment, Jacobites tried to overthrow George1.(2015) YT: EH - South Sea 1After this the South Sea Company ran favorable submarine articles, which drove up their share price from 100 pounds (2018 equivalent $25,288) to 114 (2018 equivalent $28,829), giving massive profit.
1717Sir Isaac Newton, as master of the UK Mint, set the gold price at £3 17s 10d per troy ounce.NMA - Historic Gold Prices
1719England (UK?) has a lot of debt, so a group of humans form essentially a private bank called the South Sea Company, which would exchange government debt for stock in the company.(2019) YT: OSP - Blue's History 1Stock quickly rose in price, and the Company basically bribed all of Parliament. The company was valued at more than there were Pounds Sterling in circulation, and was worth 1/5 of the entire empire GDP. South Sea company didn't have any rights in South America, where they were supposed to operate, but humans kept investing because they liked the idea.
1719Ferdinand von Hohenhems loses Countship of Vaduz to his brother.(2020) YT: RE - LiechtensteinThe brother is sued for Ferdinand's witch hunts, and has to sell Vaduz to the wealthy Leichtenstein family (Austria). Their connections kept the land free while Napoleon and the HRE cut up Europe into Swiss, Austrian, and German states.
1719UK had racked up 31 million pounds (2018 equivalent $8.43 billion) of unconsolidated debt.(2016) YT: EH - South Sea CoTaking this on would make the South Sea Company the largest financial institution in the world. They bribed members of UK Parliament on the order of 4000 pounds (2018 equivalent $1.1 million). By March, the share price was 330 pounds (2018 equivalent $89,712), but in April it slipped to 310 pounds. So they offered a layaway system, which means everyone leveraged and reinvested, pushing the price higher. They used some of the profits to loan up to 3000 pounds (9 shares worth) to buyers, which raised share prices over 600 pounds. The UK government was afraid that South Sea might monopolize the pound, leaving no money for commerce. By June, Blunt was knighted, company valued at 300 million pounds, and would be owed 60 million pounds - more than the total amount of money in the UK economy at the time. (2018 equivalent $85 trillion)
1720Mt Fuji erupts(2018) YT: Geography Now! Japan
1720sGreat Plague of Marseille.Imgur: gIY2hKH (link 404s)
1720Japanese humans start buying books from the Dutch(2016) YT: BW - history of japan
1720UK's 1st Astronomer Royal John Clampsteed uninstalls.(2019) YT: PN - Story of Comets 1
19Mar1721Pope Clement11 (CLEMENS Undecimus) (Giovanni Francesco Albani) papacy ends and Pope Innocent13 (INNOCENTIVS Tertius Decimus (Michelangelo dei Conti) (Italian) papacy begins 50 days later.Wiki: List of PopesProhibited the Jesuits from prosecuting their mission in China ordering that no new members should be received into the order. Issued the papal bull Apostolici Ministerii (1724) to revive ecclesiastical discipline in Spain.
1722Iroquois nation allows 6th member, Tuscorara, to join.(2017) YT: OSP - IroquoisThey called themselves the Haudenosaunee (Hoden-o-show-ne) or "longhousers", and occupied upstate New York state. They got their name from the huge hostels they lived in, and treated their land like a giant hostel. The other 5 micropowers were the Mohawk (Kainen'keha), Onondaga (Onyondaga), Onieda (Onyota'a), Cayuga (Gayogoho') and Seneca (Onondowaga)
1722South Sea Company shuts down.(2019) YT: OSP - Blue's History 1
1722Emperor 胤禛 [Yìnzhēn] of Ming reign begins and 玄燁 [Xuányè] of Ming reign ends.Wiki: Chinese monarchs
7Mar1724Pope Innocent13 (INNOCENTIVS Tertius Decimus (Michelangelo dei Conti) papacy ends and Pope S.D. Benedict13 (BENEDICTVS Tertius Decimus) (Pietro Francesco Orsini, O.P) (Italian) papacy begins 83 days later.Wiki: List of PopesMember of the Dominican Order; third and last member of the Orsini family to be pope. Originally called Benedict14 due to the antipope but reverted to 13. Repealed the worldwide tobacco smoking ban set by Urban7 and Urban8.
1725John Clampsteed's posthumous telescopic catalog is published with 3000 stars.(2019) YT: PN - Barnards Star
1725Giacomo Casanova installs to actor parents.History.com: RomanticsHe was expelled from seminary after a scandal, then worked all kinds of jobs. At one point, he changed his name to Chevalier de Seingalt, to evade debts, and wrote a number of works under this name. He believed conversation with a woman to be at least as captivating as her body.
1727Oliver Swift publishes Gulliver's Travels(2018) YT: PN - Top10 coinc Solar SysKepler speculated that Earth's 1 moon meant Mars has 2 moons, which they couldn't test but Swift included in the novel.
11June1727British King George1 (George Louis) reign ends and British King George2 (George Augustus) reign beginsWiki; British MonarchsHouse Hanover. Married Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach on 22 August 1705, had 8 children
1728Manhattan settlement roughly doubles in 64 years, to a 6x13 street grid.(2018) YT: MZ - NYC Evolution
1729James Cook installs.(2020) YT: VOTP - Captain CookExplorer and Captain of UK Royal Navy
1730Lanzarote has its first eruption.ScienceMag: Violent SunThis is one of the Canary Islands and a volcano hot spot.
21Feb1730Pope S.D. Benedict13 (BENEDICTVS Tertius Decimus) (Pietro Francesco Orsini, O.P) papacy ends and Pope Clement12 (CLEMENS Duodecimus) (Lorenzo Corsini, O.F.S) (Italian) papacy begins 141 day later.Wiki: List of PopesMotto: Dabis discernere inter malum et bonum (You shall deign to distinguish between good and evil) Completed the new façade of the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran (1735). Commissioned the Trevi Fountain in Rome (1732). Condemned Freemasonry in In eminenti apostolatus (1738).
2Oct1730Sultan Ahmed3 ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior) reign ends and Mahmud1 ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior) KAMBUR (The Hunchback) reign begins.Wiki: List of Ottoman sultansSon of Mustafa2 and Saliha Sultan.
22Feb1732George Washington (USA) installs.(2020) YT: FOL - PresidentUS had not adopted Gregorian calendar yet.
1732Cobolt discovered.(Reference Missing)
15Apr1732Kingdom of Corsica founded.Imgur: 4/15 in history
30Oct1735John Adams (USA) installs.(2020) YT: FOL - President
1735Platinum discovered.(Reference Missing)
1735Japanese Emperor Nakamikado (中御門天皇) [Yasuhito/Yoshihito) reign ends and Sakuramachi (桜町天皇) [Teruhito) reign begins.Wiki: List of emperors of Japan
1735Emperor 胤禛 [Yìnzhēn] of Ming reign ends and 弘曆 [Hónglì] of Ming reign begins.Wiki: Chinese monarchsThe Qianlong emperor officially retired in 1796, taking the title Emperor Emeritus (太上皇帝). This was an act of filial piety to ensure that he would not reign longer than his illustrious grandfather, the Kangxi emperor. However, he remained the ultimate authority until his death in 1799, at which point his son, the Jiaqing emperor, began to exercise the power that had been his in name only from 1796.
1736James Watt installs.(Reference Missing)
1736Lanzarote has its last eruption for a while.ScienceMag: Violent Sun
1738Frederick Wilhelm Herschel installs.(2017) YT: PN - Planet X 1
1739the Oxford English Dictionary provides a citation to write with Chalk on a black-Board.Wiki: Blackboard
1740War of Austrian Succession begins.(2017) YT:FH - 7-years war
6Feb1740Pope Clement12 (CLEMENS Duodecimus) (Lorenzo Corsini, O.F.S) papacy ends and Pope Benedict14 (BENEDICTVS Quartus Decimus) (Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini) (Italian) papacy begins 193 days later.Wiki: List of PopesMotto: Curabuntur omnes (All will be healed) Reformed the education of priests and the calendar of feasts. Completed the Trevi Fountain and affirmed the teachings of Thomas Aquinas; founded academies of art, religion and science.
20Oct1740Charles6 HRE reign ends and House of Habsburg ends.Wiki: HRE
1740sBenjamin Huntsman invents crucible steel.Wiki: SteelCrucible steel is steel that has been melted in a crucible rather than having been forged, with the result that it is more homogeneous. Most previous furnaces could not reach high enough temperatures to melt the steel.
1741Elizabeth (Russia) becomes EmpressWiki: Elizabeth of Russia
1742UK's 2nd Astronomer Royal Edwin Halley uninstalls.(2019) YT: PN - Story of Comets 1He had developed modern meterological symbols, used Arabic records to find the moon was receeding, and reviewed Greek records to find that Aldebaran, Sirius, and Arcturus had drifted in the night sky.
24Jan1742Charles7 HRE reign begins and House of Wittelsbach begins.Wiki: HRECharles7, great-great grandson of Ferdinand2; son-in-law of Joseph1. King of Bohemia, Elector of Bavaria
13Apr1743Thomas Jefferson (USA) installs.(2020) YT: FOL - President
1745Second Jacobite Rebellion in Scotland.(2019) YT: OSP - ScotlandThis also fails, but gets the English to treat them better.
20Jan1745Charles7 HRE reign ends and Francis1 reign begins, 236 days later. and Charles7 reign ends and Fr